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Encyclopedia > Unidentified flying object
A picture taken by J.S. Henrardi on June 15, 1990 during the Belgian UFO wave.[1]

The most generic definition of an Unidentified Flying Object, or UFO, is any flying object or phenomenon that cannot be identified by the observer. Various studies show that after investigation, the majority of UFOs are usually identified, and are relabeled IFOs or Identified Flying Objects. Therefore, some stricter definitions reserve the label "UFO" for only those instances where the objects remain unexplained after a proper investigation. [2] The percentages of IFOs vs. UFOs varies with the researchers, study, and case sample, ranging from only 5% to 10% being UFOs, according to The J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies [8], to 20% to 30% being UFOs according to earlier U.S. Air Force statistics or the later Condon Committee [3] UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object UFO:UFOs in fiction United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO (band), the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO (TV series), the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... Charles Fort, 1920 Charles Hoy Fort (August 6, 1874 - May 3, 1932), writer and researcher into anomalous phenomena, was the son of an Albany grocer of Dutch ancestry. ... Cryptozoology (from Greek: κρυπτός, kryptós, hidden; ζῷον, zôon, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge or study – zoology) is the search for animals hypothesized to exist, but for which conclusive proof is missing. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... This article is about the paranormal. ... Parapsychology is the study of the evidence involving phenomena where a person seems to affect or gain information about something through a means not currently explainable within the framework of mainstream, conventional science. ... Remote viewing (RV) is a broad term for a variety of techniques or protocols employed to produce and control extra-sensory perception (ESP). ... Clairvoyance, from 17th century French Clair meaning clear and voyant meaning seeing, is a term used to describe the transference of information about an object, location or physical event through means other than the 5 traditional senses (See Psi). ... Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) is defined as ability to acquire information by paranormal means independent of any known physical senses or deduction from previous experience. ... NDE redirects here. ... Precognition (from the Latin præ-, “prior to,” + cognitio, “a getting to know”) denotes a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person is able to perceive information about places or events before they happen through paranormal means. ... The term psychokinesis (from the Greek ψυχή, psyche, meaning mind, soul, or breath; and κίνησις, kinesis, meaning motion; literally movement from the mind)[1][2] or PK, also known as telekinesis[3] (Greek + , literally distant-movement referring to telekinesis) or TK, denotes the paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter, time... For the psychology discipline see psychometrics. ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... Haunted locations or haunted places are sites of reported ghost activity. ... Wikinews has a related section: UFO This is a list of UFO sightings including cases of alleged alien sightings and abductions. ... There has been a fair amount of crossover between paranormal events and Unidentified Flying Objects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ghost hunting is the process of investigating locations said to be haunted. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) is a U.S. nonprofit organization whose stated purpose is to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and... A debunker is a skeptic who pursues dispelling false and unscientific claims. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... This article is about the communication technique. ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ... The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) is a Fort Lauderdale, Florida non-profit organization founded in 1996 by magician and skeptic James Randi. ... There are many individuals and groups past and present that offer money for proof of the paranormal in an observable setting. ... Anomalous phenomena are phenomena which are observed and for which there are no suitable explanations in the context of a specific body of scientific knowledge, e. ... Fringe science is a phrase used to describe scientific inquiry in an established field that departs significantly from mainstream or orthodox theories. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Falsifiability (or refutability or testability) is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... An Identified Flying Object, or IFO, is any unusual or puzzling object or optical phenomenon observed in the sky which can be identified as a known or conventional phenomenon after being investigated by qualified persons. ... Mass-market paperback edition of the Condon Report, published by New York Times/Bantam Books (January, 1969), 965 pages. ...


UFOs have been spotted in many different places around the world. Reports of unusual aerial phenomena date back to ancient times[4][5][6][7], but modern reports and first official investigations began during World War II with sightings of so-called foo fighters by Allied airplane crews and in 1946 with widespread sightings of European "ghost rockets." UFO reports became even more common after the first widely publicized United States UFO sighting, by private pilot Kenneth Arnold in the summer of 1947. Many tens of thousands of UFO reports have since been made worldwide. [8] Paintings from Val Camonica, Italy, c. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the aerial phenomenon. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Ghost Rockets (also called Scandinavian ghost rockets) is the name given to mysterious rocket or missile shaped objects which were sighted on many different occasions between May and December 1946, with peaks on the 9th and 11th August of 1946. ... Kenneth A. Arnold (born March 29, 1915 in Sebeka, Minnesota; died January 16, 1984 in Bellevue, Washington) was an American businessman and pilot. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

On April 14, 1561 the skies over Nuremberg, Germany were reportedly filled with a multitude of objects. 1566 woodcut by Hans Glaser of 1561 Nuremberg event.
On April 14, 1561 the skies over Nuremberg, Germany were reportedly filled with a multitude of objects.[9] 1566 woodcut by Hans Glaser of 1561 Nuremberg event.

Unusual aerial phenomena have been reported throughout history.[10] Some of these phenomena were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets which can be seen with the naked eye, planetary conjunctions, or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds.[11] An example is the Comet Halley, which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 B.C. and possibly as early as 467 B.C.[12] Image File history File links Nuremberg_Apr_14_1561. ... Image File history File links Nuremberg_Apr_14_1561. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... This is a list of UFO sighting flaps and well-known individual sightings. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Photo of a burst of meteors with extended exposure time A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ... An optical phenomenon is any observable event which results from the interaction of light and matter. ... Pronounced sun dogs on both sides of a setting sun in New Ulm, Minnesota. ... Lenticular clouds, technically known as altocumulus standing lenticularis, are stationary lens-shaped clouds that form at high altitudes, normally aligned at right-angles to the wind direction. ... Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, more generally known as Halleys Comet after Edmond Halley, is a comet that can be seen every 75-76 years. ...

"The Baptism of Christ", 1710, by Aert de Gelder. UFO proponents have drawn comparisons between modern UFO reports and aerial objects depicted in historical art, such as this religious painting.
"The Baptism of Christ", 1710, by Aert de Gelder. UFO proponents have drawn comparisons between modern UFO reports and aerial objects depicted in historical art, such as this religious painting.

Other historical reports seem to defy prosaic explanation, but assessing such accounts is difficult, because the information in a historical document may be insufficient, inaccurate, or embellished enough to make an informed evaluation difficult. Aert de Gelder (Oct. ... ...


For example, in the Old Testament of the Bible, Ezekiel apparently had a first-hand encounter with something that might now be described as an Unidentified Flying Object, but which the Bible describes as a fiery chariot. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Whatever their actual cause, such sightings throughout history were often treated as supernatural portents, angels, or other religious omens.[13][14] Art historian Daniela Giordano cites many Medieval-era paintings, frescoes, tapestries and other items that depict unusual aerial objects; she acknowledges many of these paintings are difficult to interpret, but cites some that depict airborne saucers and domed-saucer shapes that are often strikingly similar to UFO reports from later centuries.[15] (See List of UFO sightings) For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... Examples of omens from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493): natural phenomena and strange births. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... This article is about tapestry the textile. ... Wikinews has a related section: UFO This is a list of UFO sightings including cases of alleged alien sightings and abductions. ...


Shen Kuo (1031–1095), a Song Chinese government scholar-official and prolific polymathic inventor and scholar, wrote a vivid passage in his Dream Pool Essays (1088) about an unidentified flying object. He recorded the testimony of eyewitnesses in 11th century Anhui and Jiangsu (especially in the city of Yangzhou), who stated that a flying object with opening doors would emit a blinding light from its interior (from an object shaped like a pearl) that would cast shadows from trees for ten miles in radius, and was able to take off at tremendous speeds.[16] This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ... Shen Kuo (沈括) (1031-1095 AD) The Dream Pool Essays (Pinyin: Meng Xi Bi Tan; Wade-Giles: Meng Chi Pi Tan Chinese: 梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the polymath Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) of China. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Yangzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; former spellings: Yang-chou, Yangchow; literally Rising Prefecture) is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The li (里 lǐ) is a Chinese unit of distance, until recently usually considered to be about 576 metres, but is now standardised at a half a kilometre or 500 metres (547 yards). ...


Modern reports

Main article: List of UFO sightings
Photo of a purported UFO over New Hampshire in 1870; known as the mystery airship.

Before the terms “flying saucer” and “UFO” were coined in the late 1940s, there were a number of reports of unidentified aerial phenomena in the West. These reports date from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century. They include: Wikinews has a related section: UFO This is a list of UFO sightings including cases of alleged alien sightings and abductions. ... Image File history File links 1871UFO.gif Summary Source URL: http://www. ... Image File history File links 1871UFO.gif Summary Source URL: http://www. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alleged UFO photo taken in New Hampshire in 1870 The Mystery Airships were a class of unidentified flying objects, the best-known series of which were reported in newspapers in western states of the U.S., starting in 1896 and continuing into 1897. ...

Drawing of E. W. Maunder's Nov. 17, 1882, "auroral beam" by astronomer Rand Capron, Guildown Observatory, Surrey, UK, who also observed it.

is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: A jewel at the crossing of a great river! Location of Denison, Texas Coordinates: , Country State County Grayson Founded 1872 Government  - Mayor Robert Brady Area  - Total 22. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... Edward Walter Maunder (April 12, 1851 – March 21, 1928) was an English astronomer best remembered for his study of sunspots and the solar magnetic cycle that led to his identification of the period from 1645 to 1715 that is now known as the Maunder Minimum. ... Royal Observatory, Greenwich Royal Observatory, Greenwich Former Royal Greenwich Observatory, Herstmonceux East Sussex one of the hyper-accurate chronometers at the observatory. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Observatory is a publication, variously described as a journal, a magazine and a review, devoted to astronomy. ... The term celestial refers to the sky and/or Heaven. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Zeppelins are types of rigid airships pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century, based in part on an earlier design by aviation pioneer David Schwarz. ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, November 2, 1931 An airship or dirigible is a buoyant lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Four ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Supply. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Frank Herman Schofield, born on 4 January 1869 at Jerusalem, New York, graduated from the US Naval Academy on 6 June 1890 and was commissioned Ensign in 1892. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The United States Battle Fleet or Battle Force was part of the organization of the United States Navy from 1922 to 1941. ... Four OS2U Kingfisher airplanes flying in right echelon formation. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Guildown is an old name for a long hill to the west of Guildford in Surrey now known locally as the Hogs Back because of its visual appearance. ... This article is about the English county. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Humboldt Mountains () is a group of mountains immediately west of the Petermann Ranges, forming the westernmost portion of the Wohlthat Mountains in Queen Maud Land. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Kokonor Is an alternative name of Qinghai province in China. ... Guests from Overseas, 1899 (Varangians in Russia) Longships Are Built in the Land of the Slavs (1903) Nicholas Roerich, (October 9, 1874 - December 13, 1947) also known as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Russian: Николай Константинович Рёрих), was a Russian painter and spiritual teacher. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the aerial phenomenon. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Battle of Los Angeles is the third studio album by Rage Against the Machine. ... The image on the front page of the Los Angeles Times after the Air Raid; the caption read SEEKING OUT OBJECT - Scores of searchlights built a wigwam of light beams over Los Angeles early yesterday morning during the alarm. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Ghost Rockets (also called Scandinavian ghost rockets) is the name given to mysterious rocket or missile shaped objects which were sighted on many different occasions between May and December 1946, with peaks on the 9th and 11th August of 1946. ... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... For other uses, see V2. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...

Kenneth Arnold's sighting and the 1947 U.S. UFO wave

This shows the report Kenneth Arnold filed in 1947 about his UFO sighting.
This shows the report Kenneth Arnold filed in 1947 about his UFO sighting.

The post World War II UFO phase in the United States began with a reported sighting by American businessman Kenneth Arnold on June 24, 1947 while flying his private plane near Mount Rainier, Washington. He reported seeing nine brilliantly bright objects flying across the face of Rainier towards nearby Mount Adams at “an incredible speed”, which he "calculated" as at least 1200 miles per hour by timing their travel between Rainier and Adams.[24] Drawing of flying saucers or flying disks submitted by pilot Kenneth Arnold to Army Air Force intelligence on July 12, 1947. ... Drawing of flying saucers or flying disks submitted by pilot Kenneth Arnold to Army Air Force intelligence on July 12, 1947. ... Kenneth A. Arnold (born March 29, 1915 in Sebeka, Minnesota; died January 16, 1984 in Bellevue, Washington) was an American businessman and pilot. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Mount Rainier (disambiguation). ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Mt. ...

This shows Kenneth Arnold holding a picture of a drawing of the crescent shaped UFO he saw in 1947.
This shows Kenneth Arnold holding a picture of a drawing of the crescent shaped UFO he saw in 1947.

His sighting subsequently received significant media and public attention. Arnold would later say they “flew like a saucer would if you skipped it across the water” (it would ricochet) and also said they were “flat like a pie pan”, “shaped like saucers,” and “half-moon shaped, oval in front and convex in the rear. ...they looked like a big flat disk.” (One, however, he would describe later as being almost crescent-shaped.) Arnold’s reported descriptions caught the media’s and the public’s fancy and gave rise to the terms flying saucer and flying disk. Arnold’s sighting was followed in the next few weeks by hundreds of other reported sightings, mostly in the U.S., but in other countries as well. Crescent-shaped UFO, one of objects pilot Kenneth Arnold said he saw on June 24, 1947. ... Crescent-shaped UFO, one of objects pilot Kenneth Arnold said he saw on June 24, 1947. ... Kenneth A. Arnold (born March 29, 1915 in Sebeka, Minnesota; died January 16, 1984 in Bellevue, Washington) was an American businessman and pilot. ... UFO can mean: Unidentified flying object United Future Organization, a Japanese-Brazilian electronic jazz band UFO, the rock band that previously featured Michael Schenker UFO, the Gerry Anderson TV series United Farmers of Ontario, a political party that formed the government in Ontario from 1919 to 1923 U.F.O... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Another case was a United Airlines crew sighting of nine more disc-like objects over Idaho on the evening of July 4.[25] At the time, this sighting was even more widely reported than Arnold’s and lent considerable credence to Arnold’s report. In fact, American UFO researcher Ted Bloecher, in his comprehensive review of newspaper reports, found a sudden surge upwards in sightings on July 4, peaking on July 6-8. Bloecher noted that for the next few days most American newspapers were filled with front-page stories of the new “flying saucers” or “flying discs.” Starting with official debunkery that began the night of July 8 with the Roswell UFO incident, reports rapidly tapered off, ending the first big U.S. UFO wave. United Airlines is a major airline of the United States. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, announcing the capture of a flying saucer. ...


Over several years in the 1960s, Bloecher (aided by physicist James E. McDonald) discovered 853 flying disc sightings that year from 140 newspapers from Canada, Washington D.C, and every U.S. state save Montana. [26] Dr. James E. McDonald (May 7, 1920 – June 13, 1971) was an American physicist. ...


U.S. government and UFOs

Starting July 9, Army Air Force (AAF) intelligence, in cooperation with the FBI, began a formal investigation into selected sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized, which included Arnold’s and the United crew’s. The AAF used “all of its scientists” to determine whether or not “such a phenomenon could, in fact, occur.” The research was “being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon,” or that “they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled.”[27] Three weeks later they concluded that, “This ‘flying saucer’ situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. Something is really flying around.”[28] is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion, that “the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious,” that there were objects in the shape of a disc, metallic in appearance, and as big as man-made aircraft. They were characterized by “extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability,” general lack of noise, absence of trail, occasional formation flying, and “evasive” behavior “when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar,” suggesting a controlled craft. It was thus recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon.[29] Shield of the Air Force Materiel Command. ... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Fairborn and Dayton, Ohio. ...


This led to the creation of the Air Force’s Project Sign at the end of 1947, which became Project Grudge at the end of 1948, and then Project Blue Book in 1952. Blue Book closed down in 1970, ending the official Air Force UFO investigations. However, a 1969 USAF document, known as the Bolender memo [30], plus later government documents [31] make it clear that nonpublic U.S. government UFO investigations continued after 1970. The Bollender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects which could affect national security... are not part of the Blue Book system," indicating that more serious UFO incidents were already handled outside of the public Blue Book investigation. The memo then added, "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose." [32] Project Sign was an official U.S. government study of unidentified flying objects undertaken by the United States Air Force in late 1947 and dissolved in late 1948. ... Project Grudge was a short-lived project by the U.S. Air Force to investigate Unidentified flying objects. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ...


Use of UFO instead of flying saucer was first suggested in 1952 by Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, the first director of Project Blue Book, who felt that flying saucer did not reflect the diversity of the sightings. Ruppelt suggested that UFO should be pronounced as a word — you-foe. However it is generally pronounced by forming each letter: U.F.O. His term was quickly adopted by the Air Force, which also briefly used “UFOB” circa 1954, for Unidentified Flying Object. Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book in his memoir, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (1956), also the first book to use the term.[33] Edward J. Ruppelt (1922 - 1960) was a United States Air Force officer probably best-known for his involvement in Project Blue Book, a formal governmental study of unidentified flying objects. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ...


Air Force Regulation 200-2, issued in 1954, defined an Unidentified Flying Object (UFOB) as “any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object.” The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a “possible threat to the security of the United States” and “to determine technical aspects involved.” As with any then-ongoing investigation, Air Force personnel did not discuss the investigation with the press.[34][35][36]

The Falcon Lake incident report filed by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on Stephen Michalak claimed incident with a UFO.
The Falcon Lake incident report filed by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on Stephen Michalak claimed incident with a UFO.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 462 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (726 × 941 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Falcon Lake Incident... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 462 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (726 × 941 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Falcon Lake Incident... The Falcon Lake Incident occurred on May 20, 1967, when Stephen Michalak claimed that he encountered a UFO near Falcon Lake, Manitoba, Canada. ... RCMP redirects here. ...

Other governments and UFOs

In Canada, the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports, sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel, Alberta, it still identifies the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour incident in Nova Scotia as "unsolved".[37] The Department of National Defence, frequently referred to by its acronym DND, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for Canadas military, the Canadian Armed Forces. ... This article is about the band, Crop Circles, for information about the controversial phenomenon, see crop circle. ... Duhamel is a small rural community located in the central prairies of Alberta, Canada. ... The Falcon Lake Incident occurred on May 20, 1967, when Stephen Michalak claimed that he encountered a UFO near Falcon Lake, Manitoba, Canada. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... The Shag Harbour Incident was the purported crash of an Unidentified Flying Object in Shag Harbour, Nova Scotia in October 1967. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867...


Research

Main article: Ufology

Ufology is a neologism coined to describe the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence. Not all ufologists believe that UFOs are necessarily extraterrestrial spacecraft, or even that they are objective physical phenomena. Even UFO cases that are exposed as hoaxes, delusions or misidentifications may still be worthy of serious study from a psychosocial point of view. While Ufology does not represent an academic research program, UFOs have been subject to various investigations over the years, varying widely in scope and scientific rigor. Governments or independent academics in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Sweden, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. No national government has ever publicly admitted that UFOs represent any form of alien intelligence. Perhaps the best known study was Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969. Other notable investigations include the Robertson Panel (1953), the Brookings Report (1960), the Condon Committee (1966-1968), the Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948-1951), the Sturrock Panel (1998), and the French GEIPAN (1977-) and COMETA[38][39] (1996-1999) study groups. Artistic representation of UFOs Ufology is the study of unidentified flying object (UFO) reports, sightings, alleged physical evidence, and other related phenomena. ... Artistic representation of UFOs Ufology is the study of unidentified flying object (UFO) reports, sightings, alleged physical evidence, and other related phenomena. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... In ufology, the psychocultural hypothesis, colloquially abbreviated PSH, argues that at least some UFO reports are best explained by psychological or social means. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Project Sign was an official U.S. government study of unidentified flying objects undertaken by the United States Air Force in late 1947 and dissolved in late 1948. ... Project Grudge was a short-lived project by the U.S. Air Force to investigate Unidentified flying objects. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The Robertson Panel was a committee commissioned by the Central Intelligence Agency in 1952 in response to widespread Unidentified Flying Object reports, especially in the Washington DC area. ... The Brookings Report is the informal name for a study commisioned from the Brookings Institute by NASA officials in 1960. ... see Condon Committee ... A number of so-called Green Fireballs were reported in the skies of the southwestern United States, particularly New Mexico, beginning in late 1948. ... Peter Andrew Sturrock (born 1924) is an British scientist. ... GEIPAN[1] (sept. ... COMETA were a French group of high ranking officers and officials, some having held commanding posts in the armed forces and aerospace industry, responsible for the high-level COMETA Report (1999) on UFOs and their possible implications for defense in France. ...


Notable UFO-related sightings and events

This is a list of UFO sighting flaps and well-known individual sightings. ...

CNES releases UFO files

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  • French Space Agency CNES releases UFO files
  • Pilots spot 'UFOs' near the Channel Islands

In March 2007, the French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... CNES can also refer to Comhairle nan Eilean Siar in Scotland. ...


National Press Club press conference on November 12, 2007

On November 12, 2007, Former Arizona Governor Fife Symington moderated a panel of former high-ranking government, aviation and military officials from seven countries at the National Press Club[40]; discussing the UFO topic and governmental investigations. The press conference was open for credentialed media and congressional staff only.[41][42][43][44][45][46] is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Merge with Fife Symington III. John Fife Symington III (born August 12, 1945 in New York City) was the Republican governor of the U.S. state of Arizona from 1991 until his resignation in 1997. ... The National Press Club is an association of journalists based in Washington, D.C. It is well-known for its gatherings with invited speakers, including many presidential candidates and other influential public figuress. ...


A picture of the Press conference members can be found here.


Astronomers and other scientists

Although it is sometimes contended that astronomers never report UFOs, the Air Force's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1% of all their reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). In the 1970s, astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock conducted two surveys of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and American Astronomical Society. About 5% of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings. [47][48] In 1980, a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and astronomer J. Allen Hynek of the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) found that 24% responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?"[49] Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Peter Andrew Sturrock (born 1924) is an British scientist. ... The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is the scholarly society for the field of aerospace engineering. ... The American Astronomical Society (AAS) is a US society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC. The main aim of the AAS is provide a political voice for its members and organise their lobbying. ... Josef Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 - April 27, 1986) was a U.S. astronomer, professor, and ufologist. ... The Center for UFO Studies is an unidentified flying object research group. ...


Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, who admitted to 6 UFO sightings[50], including 3 green fireballs supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific."[51] Another astronomer was Dr. Lincoln LaPaz, who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico. LaPaz reported 2 personal sightings, one of a green fireball, the other of an anomalous disc-like object. Even later UFO debunker Dr. Donald Menzel filed a UFO report in 1949 [52]. An image of Clyde Tombaugh Clyde William Tombaugh (February 4, 1906 – January 17, 1997) was an American astronomer who discovered the dwarf planet Pluto in 1930. ... A number of so-called Green Fireballs were reported in the skies of the southwestern United States, particularly New Mexico, beginning in late 1948. ... Donald Howard Menzel (April 11, 1901 – December 14, 1976) was an American astronomer. ... Donald Howard Menzel (April 11, 1901 – December 14, 1976) was an American astronomer. ...


Various public scientific studies over the past half century have examined UFO reports in detail. None of these studies have officially concluded that any reports are caused by extraterrestrial spacecraft (e.g., Seeds 1995:A4). Some studies were neutral in their conclusions, but argued the inexplicable core cases called for continued scientific study. Examples are the Sturrock Panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report. Other private or governmental studies, some secret, have concluded in favor of the ETH, or have had members who disagreed with the official conclusions. The following are examples of such studies and individuals: The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is the scholarly society for the field of aerospace engineering. ... see Condon Committee ...

  • One of the earliest government studies to come to a secret ETH conclusion was Project Sign, the first official Air Force UFO investigation. In 1948, they wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect. The Air Force Chief of Staff ordered it destroyed. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it, such as astronomer and USAF consultant Dr. J. Allen Hynek and Edward J. Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book. (Ruppelt, Chapt. 3)
  • An early U.S. Army study, of which little is known, was called the Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU). In 1987, British UFO researcher Timothy Good received a letter confirming the existence of the IPU from the Army Director of Counter-intelligence, in which it was stated, "...the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished during the late 1950s and never reactivated. All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK." The IPU records have never been released. [53]
November 1948 USAF Top Secret document citing extraterrestrial opinion
  • In 1967, Greek physicist Paul Santorini, a Manhattan Project scientist, publicly stated that a 1947 Greek government investigation that he headed into the European Ghost rockets of 1946 quickly concluded that they were not missiles. Santorini claimed the investigation was then quashed by military officials from the U.S., who knew them to be extraterrestrial, because there was no defense against the advanced technology and they feared widespread panic should the results become public. [54]
  • A 1948 Top Secret USAF Europe document (at right) states that Swedish air intelligence informed them that at least some of their investigators into the ghost rockets and flying saucers concluded they had extraterrestrial origins: "...Flying saucers have been reported by so many sources and from such a variety of places that we are convinced that they cannot be disregarded and must be explained on some basis which is perhaps slightly beyond the scope of our present intelligence thinking. When officers of this Directorate recently visited the Swedish Air Intelligence Service... their answer was that some reliable and fully technically qualified people have reached the conclusion that 'these phenomena are obviously the result of a high technical skill which cannot be credited to any presently known culture on earth.' They are therefore assuming that these objects originate from some previously unknown or unidentified technology, possibly outside the earth." [55]
  • Various European countries conducted a secret joint study in 1954, also concluding that UFOs were extraterrestrial. This study was revealed by German rocketry pioneer Hermann Oberth, a member of the study, who also made many public statements supporting the ETH.
  • In 1958, Brazil's main UFO investigator, Dr. Olavo T. Fuentes wrote a letter to the American UFO group APRO summarizing a briefing he had received from two Brazilian Naval intelligence officers. Fuentes said he was told that every government and military on Earth was aware that UFOs were extraterrestrial craft and there was absolute proof of this in the form of several crashed craft. The subject was classified Top Secret by the world's militaries. The objects were deemed dangerous and hostile when attacked, many planes had been lost, and it was generally believed that Earth was undergoing an invasion of some type, perhaps a police action to keep us confined to the planet. This information had to be withheld from the public by any means necessary because of the likelihood of widespread panic and social breakdown. [56]
  • An FBI field office letter to the FBI Director, dated January 31, 1949, stated "...the matter of 'Unidentified Aircraft' or 'Unidentified Aerial Phenomena,' otherwise known as 'Flying Discs,' 'Flying Saucers,' and 'Balls of Fire' ...is considered Top Secret by Intelligence Officers of both the Army and Air Forces." (emphasis included in original) [57]
  • During the height of the flying saucer epidemic of July 1952, including highly publicized radar/visual and jet intercepts over Washington, D.C., the FBI was informed by the Air Force Directorate of Intelligence that they thought the "flying saucers" were either "optical illusions or atmospheric phenomena" but then added that, "some Military officials are seriously considering the possibility of interplanetary ships." FBI document
  • The CIA started their own internal scientific review the following day. Some CIA scientists were also seriously considering the ETH. An early memo from August was very skeptical, but also added, "...as long as a series of reports remains 'unexplainable' (interplanetary aspects and alien origin not being thoroughly excluded from consideration) caution requires that intelligence continue coverage of the subject." A report from later that month was similarly skeptical but nevertheless concluded "...sightings of UFOs reported at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge, at a time when the background radiation count had risen inexplicably. Here we run out of even 'blue yonder' explanations that might be tenable, and we still are left with numbers of incredible reports from credible observers." A December 1952 memo from the Assistant CIA Director of Scientific Intelligence (O/SI) was much more urgent: "...the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention. Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at highs speeds in the vicinity of U.S. defense installation are of such nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or known types of aerial vehicles." Some of the memos also made it clear that CIA interest in the subject was not to be made public, partly in fear of possible public panic. (Good,331-335)
  • The CIA organized the January 1953 Robertson Panel of scientists to debunk the data collected by the Air Force's Project Blue Book. This included an engineering analysis of UFO maneuvers by Blue Book (including a motion picture film analysis by Naval scientists) that had concluded UFOs were under intelligent control and likely extraterrestrial. [58]
  • Extraterrestrial "believers" within Project Blue Book including Major Dewey Fournet, in charge of the engineering analysis of UFO motion. Director Edward J. Ruppelt is also thought to have held these views, though expressed in private, not public. Another defector from the official Air Force party line was consultant Dr. J. Allen Hynek, who started out as a staunch skeptic. After 20 years of investigation, he changed positions and generally supported the ETH. He became the most publicly known UFO advocate scientist in the 1970s and 1980s.
  • The first CIA Director, Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, stated in a signed statement to Congress, also reported in the New York Times, February 28, 1960, "It is time for the truth to be brought out... Behind the scenes high-ranking Air Force officers are soberly concerned about the UFOs. However, through official secrecy and ridicule, many citizens are led to believe the unknown flying objects are nonsense... I urge immediate Congressional action to reduce the dangers from secrecy about unidentified flying objects." In 1962, in his letter of resignation from NICAP, he told director Donald Keyhoe, "I know the UFOs are not U.S. or Soviet devices. All we can do now is wait for some actions by the UFOs." [59]
  • Although the 1968 Condon Report came to a negative conclusion (written by Condon), it is known that many members of the study strongly disagreed with Condon's methods and biases. Most quit the project in disgust or were fired for insubordination. A few became ETH supporters. Perhaps the best known example is Dr. David Saunders, who in his 1968 book UFOs? Yes lambasted Condon for extreme bias and ignoring or misrepresenting critical evidence. Saunders wrote, "It is clear... that the sightings have been going on for too long to explain in terms of straightforward terrestrial intelligence. It is in this sense that ETI (Extra Terrestrial Intelligence) stands as the `least implausible' explanation of `real UFOs'." [60]
  • Nick Pope, the head of the UK government UFO desk for a number of years, is an advocate of the ETH based on the inexplicable cases he reviewed, such as the Rendlesham UFO incident, although the British government has never made such claims.
  • Jean-Jacques Velasco, the head of the official French UFO investigation SEPRA, wrote a book in 2005 saying that 14% of the 5800 cases studied by SEPRA were utterly inexplicable and extraterrestrial in origin. [61] Yves Sillard, the head of the new official French UFO investigation GEIPAN and former head of the French space agency CNES, echoes Velasco's comments and adds the U.S. is guilty of covering up this information. [62] Again, this isn't the official public posture of SEPRA, CNES, or the French government. (CNES recently announced that their 5800 case files will be placed on the Internet starting March 2007.)
  • The 1999 French COMETA committee of high-level military analysts/generals and aerospace engineers/scientists declared the ETH was the best hypothesis for the unexplained cases. [63]

Project Sign was an official U.S. government study of unidentified flying objects undertaken by the United States Air Force in late 1947 and dissolved in late 1948. ... The so-called Estimate of the Situation was a document reportedly written in 1948 by personnel of the United States Air Force’s Project Sign -- including the project’s director, Captain Robert R. Sneider -- which explained their reasons for supporting the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) as the best explanation for unidentified... The Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force serves as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training and equipage of more than 700,000 active-duty, National Guard, Reserve and civilian forces serving in the United States and overseas. ... Josef Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 - April 27, 1986) was a U.S. astronomer, professor, and ufologist. ... Edward J. Ruppelt (1922 - 1960) was a United States Air Force officer probably best-known for his involvement in Project Blue Book, a formal governmental study of unidentified flying objects. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... The Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (or IPU) was a United States Military unit established by at least 1947 and dissolved by the late 1950s. ... Timothy Good is a leading British researcher and writer on UFOs, and a former professional violinist. ... The Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) is a Field Operating Agency (FOA) of the United States Air Force that provides professional investigative services to commanders throughout the Air Force. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Ghost Rockets (also called Scandinavian ghost rockets) is the name given to mysterious rocket or missile shaped objects which were sighted on many different occasions between May and December 1946, with peaks on the 9th and 11th August of 1946. ... UFO redirects here. ... Oberth (in front) with fellow ABMA employees. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... A number of so-called Green Fireballs were reported in the skies of the southwestern United States, particularly New Mexico, beginning in late 1948. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... The Robertson Panel was a committee commissioned by the Central Intelligence Agency in 1952 in response to widespread Unidentified Flying Object reports, especially in the Washington DC area. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Edward J. Ruppelt (1922 - 1960) was a United States Air Force officer probably best-known for his involvement in Project Blue Book, a formal governmental study of unidentified flying objects. ... Josef Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 - April 27, 1986) was a U.S. astronomer, professor, and ufologist. ... Roscoe Henry Hillenkoetter (May 8, 1897 - June 18, 1982), born in St. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... see National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena ... Donald Edward Keyhoe (June 20, 1897 - November 29, 1988) was an anus rimmer and a penis sucker in the Marine Corps officer with some flight experience, writer of many aviation articles and stories in a variety of leading publications, and manager of the promotional tours of aviation pioneers, especially of... see Condon Committee ... Edward Uhler Condon (March 2, 1902 – March 26, 1974) was a distinguished nuclear physicist, a pioneer in quantum mechanics, a participant in the development of radar and nuclear weapons in World War II, research director of Corning Glass, director of the National Bureau of Standards, and president of the American... Nick Pope is a British government official who has worked at the Ministry of Defence since joining in 1985. ... ... This article is about the space agency. ...

Physical evidence

Besides visual sightings, cases sometimes have an indirect physical evidence, including many cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries. Indirect physical evidence would be data obtained from afar, such as radar contact and photographs. More direct physical evidence involves physical interactions with the environment at close range—Hynek's "close encounter" or Vallee's "Type-I" cases—which include "landing traces," electromagnetic interference, and physiological/biological effects. Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI) is a (usually undesirable) disturbance caused in a radio receiver or other electrical circuit by electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. ...

  • Radar contact and tracking, sometimes from multiple sites. These are often considered among the best cases since they usually involve trained military personnel and control tower operators, simultaneous visual sightings, and aircraft intercepts. One such recent example were the mass sightings of large, silent, low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium, tracked by multiple NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence).[64] Another famous case from 1986 was the JAL 1628 case over Alaska investigated by the FAA.[65]
  • Photographic evidence, including still photos, movie film, and video, including some in the infrared spectrum (rare).
  • Recorded visual spectrograms (extremely rare) — (see Spectrometer)
  • Recorded gravimetric and magnetic disturbances (extremely rare)
  • Landing physical trace evidence, including ground impressions, burned and/or desiccated soil, burned and broken foliage, magnetic anomalies, increased radiation levels, and metallic traces. See, e.g. Height 611 UFO Incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro, New Mexico encounter, considered one of the most inexplicable of the USAF Project Blue Book cases). A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest Incident in England. Another less than 2 weeks later, in January 1981, occurred in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN, then France's official government UFO-investigation agency.[66] Project Blue Book head Edward J. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots.[67] Catalogs of several thousand such cases have been compiled, particularly by researcher Ted Phillips.[68][69]
  • Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis, skin burns and rashes, corneal burns, and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning, such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980. One such case dates back to 1886, a Venezuelan incident reported in Scientific American magazine.[70]
  • So-called animal/cattle mutilation cases, that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon. Such cases can and have been analyzed using forensic science techniques.
  • Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth, germination effects on seeds, and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles)
  • Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects, including stalled cars, power black-outs, radio/TV interference, magnetic compass deflections, and aircraft navigation, communication, and engine disruption.[71] A list of over 30 such aircraft EM incidents was compiled by NASA scientist Dr. Richard F. Haines.[72] A famous 1976 military case over Tehran, recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents, resulted in communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs. This was also a radar/visual case. (Fawcett & Greenwood, 81-89; Good, 318-322, 497-502)[73][74]
  • Remote radiation detection, some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, also reported by Project Blue Book director Ed Ruppelt in his book.[75]
  • Actual hard physical evidence cases, such as 1957, Ubatuba, Brazil, magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. The 1964 Socorro/Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces, analyzed by NASA.
  • Misc: Recorded electromagnetic emissions, such as microwaves detected in the well-known 1957 RB-47 surveillance aircraft case, which was also a visual and radar case;[76] polarization rings observed around a UFO by a scientist, explained by Dr. James Harder as intense magnetic fields from the UFO causing the Faraday effect.[77]

These various reported physical evidence cases have been studied by various scientist and engineers, both privately and in official governmental studies (such as Project Blue Book, the Condon Committee, and the French GEPAN/SEPRA). A comprehensive scientific review of physical evidence cases was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock UFO panel.[78] For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This article is about UFOs: for other uses see the disambiguation page Black triangle. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... FAA may refer to: Federal Aviation Administration in the United States Fleet Air Arm in the UK Royal Navy Fuerza Aérea Argentina in Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Spectrometer A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. ... Gravimetry is the measurement of gravitational force, weight, or density. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... Height 611 UFO incident refers to a UFO crash claimed to happen in Dalnegorsk, Primorsky Krai, USSR, on January 29, 1986. ... Lonnie Zamora (born? - died?) was a New Mexico police officer who reported a close encounter of the first, second and third kinds on Friday, April 24, 1964, near Socorro, New Mexico. ... Socorro is a city located in Socorro County, New Mexico in the Rio Grande Valley, at an elevation of 4579 feet. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The Rendlesham Forest Incident is the name given to a series of reported sightings of unexplained lights and objects in the sky, and the alleged landing of an extraterrestrial spacecraft, in December 1980, in the vicinity of Rendlesham Forest, Suffolk, England. ... GEIPAN[1] (sept. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Edward J. Ruppelt (1922 - 1960) was a United States Air Force officer probably best-known for his involvement in Project Blue Book, a formal governmental study of unidentified flying objects. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness or a creeping dose, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... The Cash-Landrum Incident was a reported Unidentified Flying Object sighting from the United States in 1980, which the witnesses insist was responsible for damage to their health. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Cattle mutilation (also known as bovine excision[1]) is the killing and then mutilation of cattle, under unusual or anomalous circumstances. ... Forensics redirects here. ... This article is about the band, Crop Circles, for information about the controversial phenomenon, see crop circle. ... Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI) is a (usually undesirable) disturbance caused in a radio receiver or other electrical circuit by electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The 1976 Tehran UFO Incident was a radar and visual sighting of an unidentified flying object (UFO) over Tehran, the capital of Iran, during the early morning hours of September 19, 1976. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... “F-4” redirects here. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Ubatuba is a Brazilian city, located on the southeast coast of this country, in the state of São Paulo. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... see Condon Committee ... Lonnie Zamora (born? - died?) was a New Mexico police officer who reported a close encounter of the first, second and third kinds on Friday, April 24, 1964, near Socorro, New Mexico. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Dr. James A. Harder, Ph. ... In physics, the Faraday effect or Faraday rotation is a magneto-optical phenomenon, or an interaction between light and a magnetic field. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Mass-market paperback edition of the Condon Report, published by New York Times/Bantam Books (January, 1969), 965 pages. ... GEIPAN[1] (sept. ...


Attempts have been made to reverse engineer the possible physics behind UFOs through analysis of both eyewitness reports and the physical evidence. Examples are former NASA and nuclear engineer James McCampbell in his book Ufology online, NACA/NASA engineer Paul R. Hill in his book Unconventional Flying Objects, and German rocketry pioneer Hermann Oberth. Among subjects tackled by McCampbell, Hill, and Oberth was the question of how UFOs can fly at supersonic speeds without creating a sonic boom. McCampbell's proposed solution of a microwave plasma parting the air in front of the craft is currently being researched by Dr. Leik Myrabo, Professor of Engineering Physics at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute as a possible advance in hypersonic flight.[79]1995 Aviation Week article Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... NACA official seal The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Paul R. Hill (1909-1990) was a pioneering aeronautical research engineer who spent a lifetime on the cutting edge of research and development for NACA and NASA. He is also well-known in the field of Ufology for his scientific research into the subject of UFOs, detailed in Unconventional Flying... Oberth (in front) with fellow ABMA employees. ... A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ... For other uses, see Sonic boom (disambiguation). ... Microwaves, being high frequency electromagnetic radiation in the GHz range, are capable of exciting electrode-less gas discharges. ... Leik Myrabo is an aerospace engineering professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute who has demonstrated the feasibility of using ground-based lasers to propel objects into orbit; possibly reducing orbit-flight costs by a factor of 1000. ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a nonsectarian, coeducational private research university in Troy, New York, a city lying just outside the state capital of Albany. ... Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ...


Explanations and opinions

An Air Force study by Battelle Memorial Institute scientists from 1952-1955 of 3200 USAF cases found 22% were unknowns, and with the best cases, 33% remained unsolved. Similarly about 30% of the UFO cases studied by the 1969 USAF Condon Committee were deemed unsolved when reviewed by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The official French government UFO scientific study (GEIPAN) from 1976 to 2004 listed about 13% of 5800 cases as very detailed yet still inexplicable (with 46% deemed to have definite or probable explanations and 41% having inadequate information).[80] An Identified Flying Object, or IFO, is any unusual or puzzling object or optical phenomenon observed in the sky which can be identified as a known or conventional phenomenon after being investigated by qualified persons. ... Mass-market paperback edition of the Condon Report, published by New York Times/Bantam Books (January, 1969), 965 pages. ... The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is the scholarly society for the field of aerospace engineering. ... GEIPAN[1] (sept. ...


Despite the remaining unexplained cases in the cited scientific studies above, many skeptics still argue that the general opinion of the mainstream scientific community is that all UFO sightings could ultimately be explained by prosaic explanations such as misidentification of natural and man-made phenomena (either known or still unknown), hoaxes, and psychological phenomena such as optical illusions or dreaming/sleep paralysis (often given as an explanation for purported alien abductions). Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An optical illusion. ... Dreaming is a common term among Indigenous Australians for a personal, or group, creation story and for the mythological time of creation, as well as for the places where the creation spirits now lie dormant in the land. ... The Nightmare, by Henry Fuseli (1781) is thought to be one of the classic depictions of sleep paralysis perceived as a demonic visitation. ...


Other skeptical arguments against UFOs include:

  • Most UFO sightings are transitory events and there is usually no opportunity for the repeat testing called for by the scientific method.
    [81] Center for UFO Studies FAQ on UFO sightings.
  • Occam's razor of hypothesis testing, since it is considered less incredible for the explanations to be the result of known scientifically verified phenomena rather than resulting from novel mechanisms (e.g. the extraterrestrial hypothesis).

What appears interesting is that UFO sightings depend on the technological environment of their times. In the late 1800s, UFOs were described as airships larger, sturdier and more maneuverable than those commonly used. As planes were developed UFO descriptions involved those of planes with speed and maneuverability greater than in any known design. Nowadays UFOs are described as having many shapes, but are still described as performing maneuvers that no known contemporary aircraft is capable of doing; these include complete or near-complete silence when spotted, hovering, flight at very great speeds with very small turn radii, as well as the ability to make unusually rapid changes in altitude. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... For the House television show episode, see Occams Razor (House episode). ... A photograph taken in Passoria, New Jersey, on July 31 1952 The Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) is the hypothesis that UFOs are best explained as being creatures from other planets occupying physical spacecraft visiting Earth. ...


Popular UFO Hypotheses

There are different opinions about the UFO phenomenon.


To account for unsolved UFO cases, several hypotheses have been proposed by both proponents and skeptics. A few examples are given below:


Among proponents, some of the more common explanations for UFOs are:

Similarly, skeptics usually propose one of the following explanations: A photograph taken in Passoria, New Jersey, on July 31 1952 The Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) is the hypothesis that UFOs are best explained as being creatures from other planets occupying physical spacecraft visiting Earth. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... There has been a fair amount of crossover between paranormal events and Unidentified Flying Objects. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Atmospheric beasts (also sky beasts or sky critters) are organisms which could hypothetically exist off of the surface of Earth or other planets with an atmosphere. ...

In ufology, the psychocultural hypothesis, colloquially abbreviated PSH, argues that at least some UFO reports are best explained by psychological or social means. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ball lightning (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Earthquake lights are lights in the sky that are associated with a severe earthquake. ... Dr. Michael Persinger Dr. Michael Persinger (born June 26, 1945) is a cognitive neuroscience researcher employed at Laurentian University, Canada since 1971. ... The autokinetic effect is a phenomenon of human visual perception in which a stationary, small point of light in an otherwise dark or featureless environment appears to move. ...

Hoaxes

Among the many people who have reported UFO sightings, some have been exposed as hoaxers. Not all alleged hoax exposures are certain, however, and many claimants have stuck by their stories, leaving the determination of specific cases as hoaxes contentious. Some of the controversial subjects include these: A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ...

  • Perhaps most notably, Ed Walters' 1987 hoax, perpetrated in Gulf Breeze, Florida. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home, and then in a second incident seeing the same UFO and a small alien being standing by his back door after being alerted by his dog. Several photographs were taken of the craft, but none of the being. Three years later in 1990, after the Walters family had moved, the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters' photographs. Various witnesses and detractors came forward after the local Pensacola newspaper printed a story about the discovered model, and some investigators now consider the sightings to be a hoax. In addition, a six-figure television miniseries and book deal were nearly struck with Walters.[86]
  • Contactees such as George Adamski, who claimed he went on flights in UFOs. (Even some believers contend he had real experiences and later fictionalized others, leaving the subject murky.)
  • Bob White (UFO hunter) claims to have an alleged UFO artifact.
  • Billy Meier, some of whose controversial photographs have been discredited and have been proven hoaxes.
  • The Maury Island Incident
  • The Ummo affair, a decades-long series of detailed letters and documents allegedly from extraterrestrials. The total length of the documents is at least 1000 pages, and some estimate that further undiscovered documents may total nearly 4000 pages. A Jose Luis Jordan Pena came forward in the early nineties claiming responsibility for the phenomenon, and most consider there to be little reason to challenge his claims.[87]
  • A video was posted as genuine footage to Youtube.com by a "barzolff814". It depicts two large UFOs flying over an observer on a tropical island, said to be Haiti in the title "Haiti Ufo". The video was quickly debunked. The video was done entirely with CGI 3D Animation programs, (using such techniques as Match moving ), by French animator David Nicolas. [88] [89] It managed to fool many people; many still thoroughly believe that the video is real. The hoax was discerned by the identical palm trees in the video, which were originally in a 3D program called Vue Infinite.

Country United States State Florida County Santa Rosa County Government  - Mayor Lane Gilchrist (R) Area    - City 23. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Pensacola is the name of several cities as well as other things: Pensacola (tribe), a group of Native Americans A number of places in the U.S. state of Florida: Pensacola, Florida An area airport, see Pensacola Regional Airport. ... Contactees are persons who claim to be in regular contact with extraterrestrials. ... George Adamski (April 17, 1891 – April 23, 1965) was a Polish-born American who claimed to have seen and photographed ships from other planets, met people from other planets (whom he called Space Brothers), and to have gone on flights with them. ... It has been suggested that Talmud Jmmanuel be merged into this article or section. ... The Maury Island incident is said to be an early modern UFO encounter incident, which allegedly took place shortly after the sighting of the original flying saucers by Kenneth Arnold. ... Ummo or Ummoism describes a series of decades-long claims that aliens from the planet Ummo were communicating with persons on the earth. ... Match moving is a special effects technology related to motion capture. ...

UFO researchers

Main article: List of Ufologists

This is a list of UFO researchers from around the world. ...

UFO organizations

Main article: UFO organizations

These are a list of UFO organizations located around the world. ...

Physicists and UFOs

Certain physicists, some working for the US Military, others said to be associated with the US Intelligence Community are seriously interested in UFOs as extraterrestrial flying machines. Dr. Jack Sarfatti, in his book "Super Cosmos" (2005), has an extremely detailed "theory" based on the recent discovery of the repulsive anti-gravity field "dark energy" that is accelerating the expansion of the 3D space of our universe. Sarfatti also cites Alcubierre's weightless warp drive without time dilation as essential conditions for "propellantless propulsion" in what Puthoff has called "metric engineering." In his book "The Physics of Star Trek," Lawrence M. Krauss argues that it would be physically impossible to concentrate enough energy in one place to "warp" the fabric of space. Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... Jack Sarfatti (born September 14, 1939) is an American theoretical physicist and the author of a number of popular works on quantum physics and consciousness. ... Look up repulsion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anti-gravity is the hypothetical idea, often considered pseudoscientific, of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. ... The magnitude of an electric field surrounding two equally charged (repelling) particles. ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ... The space we live in is three-dimensional space. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness. ... For other uses, see Warp drive (disambiguation). ... Time dilation is the phenomenon whereby an observer finds that anothers clock which is physically identical to their own is ticking at a slower rate as measured by their own clock. ... Lawrence M. Krauss Lawrence M. Krauss (born May 27, 1954) is Professor of Physics, Professor of Astronomy, and former Chair of the Physics Department at Case Western Reserve University. ...


According to other physicists, taking advantage of certain experimentally verified quantum phenomena, such as the Casimir effect, may make the construction of Alcubierre type warp drives theoretically possible.[90][91] However, if certain quantum inequalities conjectured by Ford and Roman (1996) hold, then the energy requirements for some warp drives may be absurdly gigantic, e.g. the energy -1067g might be required to transport a small spaceship across the Milky Way galaxy. Counterarguments to these apparent problems have been offered (Krasnikov, 2003), but not all physicists are convinced they can be overcome. (For a detailed discussion, see: Alcubierre drive.) In physics, the Casimir effect is a physical force exerted between separate objects, which is due to neither charge, gravity, nor the exchange of particles, but instead is due to resonance of all-pervasive energy fields in the intervening space between the objects. ... This article is about the Alcubierre metric. ... For other uses, see Warp drive (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible, this article needs a better explanation of technical details or more context regarding applications or importance to make it more accessible to a general audience, or at least to technical readers outside this specialty. ... This article is about the Alcubierre metric. ...


Psychology

The study of UFO claims over the years has led to valuable discoveries about atmospheric phenomena and psychology. In psychology, the study of UFO sightings has revealed information on misinterpretation, perceptual illusions, hallucination and fantasy-prone personality.[citation needed]. Many have questioned the reliability of hypnosis in UFO abduction cases. // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... For other uses, see Hypnotized (song). ... The Abduction Phenomenon is as umbrella term used to describe a number of hypotheses, claims or assertions stating that extraterrestrial creatures kidnap individuals--sometimes called abductees--usually for medical testing or for sexual reproduction procedures. ...


Psychologists point out that almost all UFO-related claims are based solely on eyewitness and anecdotal evidence, which is extremely unreliable.[92] It has further been shown that memory of an event can be unconsciously altered to suit a desired interpretation of what was remembered.[93] For example, a person who has a supposed UFO sighting may simply be reinterpreting an older memory to fit a desired explanation. Many skeptics believe this to be the case with the Roswell incident and many other UFO claims. An anecdote is a short tale told about an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident. ... Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947 The Roswell UFO incident is a purported crash of an unidentified flying object (UFO) in Roswell, New Mexico, USA. Many books and a number of TV movies have been made concerning the incident, some fictionalized and some more reality-based. ...


UFO categorization

Some researchers recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. Typical categories include:

  • Saucer, toy-top, or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion. (day and night)
  • Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern
  • Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (Meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way, but are very different phenomena).
  • Other: chevrons, (equilateral) triangles, crescent, boomerangs, spheres (usually reported to be shining, glowing at night), domes, diamonds, shapeless black masses, eggs, and cylinders.

UFO redirects here. ... This article is about UFOs: for other uses see the disambiguation page Black triangle. ...

Hynek system

[94][95] Dr. J. Allen Hynek developed another commonly used system of description, dividing sightings into six categories. It first separates sightings based on proximity, arbitrarily using 500 feet as the cutoff point. It then subdivides these into divisions based on viewing conditions or special features. The three distant sighting categories are: Josef Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 - April 27, 1986) was a U.S. astronomer, professor, and ufologist. ...

  • Nocturnal Lights (NL): Anomalous lights seen in the night sky.
  • Daylight Discs (DD): Any anomalous object, generally but not necessarily "discoidal", seen in the distant daytime sky.
  • Radar/Visual cases (RV). Objects seen simultaneously by eye and on radar.

The distant classification is useful in terms of evidentiary value, with RV cases usually considered to be the highest because of radar corroboration and NL cases the lowest because of the ease in which lights seen at night are often confused with prosaic phenomena such as meteors, bright stars, or airplanes. RV reports are also fewest in number, while NL are largest.


In addition were three "close encounter" (CE) subcategories, again thought to be higher in evidentiary value, because it includes measurable physical effects and the objects seen up close are less likely to be the result of misperception. As in RV cases, these tend to be relatively rare: Close encounter in ufology is an event where a person witnesses an unidentified flying object. ...


Hynek's CE classification system has since been expanded to include such things as alleged alien abductions (CE4s) and cattle mutilation phenomena. Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI) is a (usually undesirable) disturbance caused in a radio receiver or other electrical circuit by electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ... This article is about the film; for the definition of the UFO related phenomenon, see Close encounter. ... Cattle mutilation (also known as bovine excision[1]) is the killing and then mutilation of cattle, under unusual or anomalous circumstances. ...


Vallee system

[96]Jacques Vallee has devised a UFO classification system which is preferred by many UFO investigators over Hynek's system as it is considerably more descriptive than Hynek's, especially in terms of the reported behavior of UFOs. Dr. Allen Hynek (back), and Dr. Jacques Vallee (far right, front) at U.N. General Assembly, 1978. ...


Type I (a, b, c, d): Observation of an unusual object, spherical discoidal, or of another geometry, on or situated close to the ground (tree height, or lower), which may be associated with traces - thermal, luminous, or mechanical effects. For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ...

  1. On or near ground.
  2. Near or over body of water.
  3. Occupants appear to display interest in witnesses by gestures or luminous signals.
  4. Object appears to be "scouting" a terrestrial vehicle.

Type II (a, b, c): Observation of an unusual object with vertical cylindrical formation in the sky, associated with a diffuse cloud. This phenomenon has been given various names such as "cloud-cigar" or "cloud-sphere."

  1. Moving erratically through the sky.
  2. Object is stationary and gives rise to secondary objects (sometimes referred to as "satellite objects").
  3. Object is surrounded by secondary objects.

Type III (a, b, c, d, e): Observation of an unusual object of spherical, discoidal or elliptical shape, stationary in the sky.

  1. Hovering between two periods of motion with "falling-leaf" descent, up and down, or pendulum motion.
  2. Interruption of continuous flight to hover and then continue motion.
  3. Alters appearance while hovering - e.g., change of luminosity, generation of secondary object, etc.
  4. "Dogfights" or swarming among several objects.
  5. Trajectory abruptly altered during continuous flight to fly slowly above a certain area, circle, or suddenly change course.

Type IV (a, b, c, d): Observation of an unusual object in continuous flight. For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation). ...

  1. Continuous flight.
  2. Trajectory affected by nearby conventional aircraft.
  3. Formation flight.
  4. Wavy or zig-zag trajectory.

Type V (a, b, c): Observation of an unusual object of indistinct appearance, i.e., appearing to be not fully material or solid in structure.

  1. Extended apparent diameter, non-point source luminous objects ("fuzzy").
  2. Starlike objects (point source), motionless for extended periods.
  3. Starlike objects rapidly crossing the sky, possibly with peculiar trajectories.

Source: 1. Jacques and Janine Vallee: Challenge To Science: The UFO Enigma, LC# 66-25843


Conspiracy theories

Main article: UFO conspiracy theory

UFOs are sometimes an element of elaborate conspiracy theories in which the government is said to be intentionally covering up the existence of aliens, or sometimes collaborating with them. There are many versions of this story; some are exclusive, while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories. A UFO conspiracy theory is any one of many often overlapping conspiracy theories which argue that evidence of the reality of unidentified flying objects is being suppressed. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ...


In the U.S., opinion polls again indicate that a strong majority of people believe the U.S. government is withholding such information. Various notables have also expressed such views. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell, Senator Barry Goldwater, Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director), Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head), the 1999 high-level French COMETA report by various French generals and aerospace experts, and Yves Sillard (former director of the French space agency CNES, new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN [97]). Leroy Gordon Gordo Cooper, Jr. ... Edgar Mitchell (right) poses with Stuart Roosa (left) and Alan Shepard (center) Edgar D. Mitchell, Sc. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Roscoe Henry Hillenkoetter (May 8, 1897 - June 18, 1982), born in St. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Peter John Hill-Norton, Baron Hill-Norton (8 February 1915-16 May 2004) was an Admiral of the Fleet and the former Chief of the Defence Staff of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the space agency. ... GEIPAN[1] (sept. ...


There is also speculation that UFO phenomena are tests of experimental aircraft or advanced weapons. In this case UFOs are viewed as failures to retain secrecy, or deliberate attempts at misinformation: to deride the phenomenon so that it can be pursued unhindered. This explanation may or may not feed back into the previous one, where current advanced military technology is considered to be adapted alien technology. (See also: skunk works and Area 51) A modern Skunk Works project leverages an older: LASRE atop the SR-71 Blackbird. ... This article is about the U.S. Air Force installation in Nevada. ...


It has also been suggested by a few fringe authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact. See also ancient astronauts. ...


Allegations of evidence suppression

Some also contend regarding physical evidence that it exists abundantly but is swiftly and sometimes clumsily suppressed by governments, aiming to insulate a population they regard as unprepared for the social, theological, and security implications of such evidence. See the Brookings Report. The Brookings Report is the informal name for a study commisioned from the Brookings Institute by NASA officials in 1960. ...


There have been allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence for many decades. There are also conspiracy theories which claim that physical evidence might have been removed and/or destroyed/suppressed by some governments. (See also Men in Black) Some examples are: This article is about alleged secretive government departments. ...

  • On July 7, 1947, William Rhodes took photos of an unusual object over Phoenix, Arizona.[98] The photos appeared in a Phoenix newspaper and a few other papers. According to documents from Project Bluebook, an Army counter-intelligence (CIC) agent and an FBI agent interviewed Rhodes on August 29 and convinced him to surrender the negatives. The CIC agent deliberately concealed his true identity, leaving Rhodes to believe both men were from the FBI. Rhodes said he wanted the negatives back, but when he turned them into the FBI the next day, he was informed he wouldn't be getting them back, though Rhodes later tried unsuccessfully.[99][100] The photos were extensively analyzed and would eventually show up in some classified Air Force UFO intelligence reports. (Randle, 34-45, full account)
  • A June 27, 1950, movie of a "flying disk" over Louisville, Kentucky, taken by a Louisville Courier-Journal photographer, had the USAF Directors of counterintelligence (AFOSI) and intelligence discussing in memos how to best obtain the movie and interview the photographer without revealing Air Force interest. One memo suggested the FBI be used, then precluded the FBI getting involved. Another memo said "it would be nice if OSI could arrange to secure a copy of the film in some covert manner," but if that wasn't feasible, one of the Air Force scientists might have to negotiate directly with the newspaper.[101][102] In a recent interview, the photographer confirmed meeting with military intelligence and still having the film in his possession until then, but refused to say what happened to the film after that.[103]
  • In another 1950 movie incident from Montana, Nicholas Mariana filmed some unusual aerial objects and eventually turned the film over to the U.S. Air Force, but insisted that the first part of the film, clearly showing the objects as spinning discs, had been removed when it was returned to him. (Clark, 398)
  • During the military investigation of green fireballs in New Mexico, UFOs were photographed by a tracking camera over White Sands Proving Grounds on April 27, 1949. The final report in 1951 on the green fireball investigation claimed there was insufficient data to determine anything. However, documents later uncovered by Dr. Bruce Maccabee indicate that triangulation was accomplished. The data reduction and photographs showed four objects about 30 feet in diameter flying in formation at high speed at an altitude of about 30 miles. Maccabee says this result was apparently suppressed from the final report.[104]
  • Project Blue Book director Edward J. Ruppelt reported that, in 1952, a U.S. Air Force pilot fired his jet's machine guns at a UFO, and that the official report which should have been sent to Blue Book was quashed. 1952 newspaper articles of USAF jets being ordered to shoot down saucers
  • Astronaut Gordon Cooper reported suppression of a flying saucer movie filmed in high clarity by two Edwards AFB range photographers on May 3, 1957. Cooper said he viewed developed negatives of the object, clearly showing a dish-like object with a dome on top and something like holes or ports in the dome. The photographers and another witness, when later interviewed by Dr. James McDonald, confirmed the story. Cooper said military authorities then picked up the film and neither he nor the photographers ever heard what happened to it. The incident was also reported in a few newspapers, such as the Los Angeles Times. The official explanation, however, was that the photographers had filmed a weather balloon distorted by hot desert air. McDonald, 1968 Congressional testimony, Case 41
  • On January 22, 1958, when NICAP director Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television, his statements on UFOs were pre-censored by the Air Force. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to "reveal something that has never been disclosed before," CBS cut the sound, later stating Keyhoe was about to violate "predetermined security standards" and about to say something he wasn't "authorized to release." What Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary (including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and Blue Book's 1952 engineering analysis of UFO motion). (Good, 286-287; Dolan 293-295)
  • Astronomer Jacques Vallee reported that in 1961 he witnessed the destruction of the tracking tapes of unknown objects orbiting the Earth. (However, Vallee indicated that this didn't happen because of government pressure but because the senior astronomers involved didn't want to deal with the implications.)
  • In 1965, Rex Heflin took four Polaroid photos of a hat-shaped object. Two years later (1967), two men posing as NORAD agents confiscated three prints. Just as mysteriously, the photos were returned to his mailbox in 1993. detailed article and photos
  • A March 1, 1967 memo directed to all USAF divisions, from USAF Lt. General Hewitt Wheless, Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, stated that unverified information indicated that unknown individuals, impersonating USAF officers and other military personnel, had been harassing civilian UFO witnesses, warning them not to talk, and also confiscating film, referring specifically to the Heflin incident. AFOSI was to be notified if any personnel were to become aware of any other incidents. (Document in Fawcett & Greenwood, 236).
  • John Callahan, former Division Chief of the Accidents and Investigations Branch of the FAA, Washington D.C., also a Disclosure Project witness, said that following a 1986 encounter of a Japanese airlines 747 with a giant UFO over Alaska, recorded by air and ground radar, the FAA conducted an investigation. Callahan held a briefing a few days later for President Reagan's Scientific Study Group, the FBI, and CIA. After the briefing, one of the CIA agents told everybody they "were never there and this never happened," adding they were fearful of public panic. [105]
  • In 1996, the CIA revealed an instance from 1964 where two CIA agents posed as USAF representatives in order to recover a film canister from a Corona spy satellite that had accidentally come down in Venezuela. The event was then publicly dismissed as an unsuccessful NASA space experiment.

is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... The Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) is a Field Operating Agency (FOA) of the United States Air Force that provides professional investigative services to commanders throughout the Air Force. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... A number of so-called Green Fireballs were reported in the skies of the southwestern United States, particularly New Mexico, beginning in late 1948. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds, is located in a valley between the Organ Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Bruce Maccabee, Ph. ... Triangulation can be used to find the distance from the shore to the ship. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ... Edward J. Ruppelt (1922 - 1960) was a United States Air Force officer probably best-known for his involvement in Project Blue Book, a formal governmental study of unidentified flying objects. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Leroy Gordon Gordo Cooper, Jr. ... Edwards Air Force Base is a base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, northeast of Lancaster. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Dr. James E. McDonald (May 7, 1920 – June 13, 1971) was an American physicist. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... see National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena ... Donald Edward Keyhoe (June 20, 1897 - November 29, 1988) was an anus rimmer and a penis sucker in the Marine Corps officer with some flight experience, writer of many aviation articles and stories in a variety of leading publications, and manager of the promotional tours of aviation pioneers, especially of... Project Sign was an official U.S. government study of unidentified flying objects undertaken by the United States Air Force in late 1947 and dissolved in late 1948. ... The so-called Estimate of the Situation was a document reportedly written in 1948 by personnel of the United States Air Force’s Project Sign -- including the project’s director, Captain Robert R. Sneider -- which explained their reasons for supporting the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) as the best explanation for unidentified... Dr. Allen Hynek (back), and Dr. Jacques Vallee (far right, front) at U.N. General Assembly, 1978. ... An instant camera is a type of camera with self-developing film. ... NORAD is short for: North American Aerospace Defense Command Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... FAA may refer to: Federal Aviation Administration in the United States Fleet Air Arm in the UK Royal Navy Fuerza Aérea Argentina in Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Disclosure Project is a not for profit orginization dedicated to disclosing, unclassifying, and conducting hearings related to Shadow Governments, U.F.O.s, extraterrestrial life, advanced technologies. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Recovery of Discoverer 14 return capsule (typical for the Corona series Diagram of J-1 type stereo / panoramic reciprocating Corona reconnaissance satellite camera system used on KH-4A missions from 1963 to 1969. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...

UFOs in popular culture

Main article: UFOs in Fiction

UFOs constitute a widespread international cultural phenomenon of the last half-century.Gallup polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition. In 1973, a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs, whereas only 92 percent had heard of US President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House. (Bullard, 141) A 1996 Gallup poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed that the government was covering up information regarding UFOs. A 2002 Roper poll for the Sci Fi channel found similar results, but with more people believing UFOs were extraterrestrial craft. In that latest poll, 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth. Again, about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life.[106][107][108] Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction, for example the Earth-made craft Starship C-57D in Forbidden Planet, and the saucer part of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek. Many works of fiction have featured UFOs. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... ... SCI FI (originally The Sci-Fi Channel, sometimes rendered SCI FI Channel) is an American cable television channel, launched in early 1992,[1] that specializes in science fiction, fantasy, horror, and paranormal programming. ... This article is about the 1956 film. ... USS Enterprise may refer to: United States Navy Eight ships in the United States Navy carried the name USS Enterprise. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ...


Use in film and television

(in chronological order) The Man from Planet X - 1951 The Day the Earth Stood Still - 1951 The Thing from Another World - 1951 The War of the Worlds - 1953 Forbidden Planet -1956 Earth vs. ...

See also

The 1996 New Hampshire Learjet crash refers to the crash of a Learjet 35A registration N388LS operated by Aircraft Charter Group Inc. ... For other uses of related terms, see abduction. ... // Paintings from Val Camonica, Italy, c. ... An anomalous phenomenon is an observed event which deviates from what is expected (an anomaly) according to existing rules or scientific theory. ... The concept of a “Disclosure Project”, is one where people of a given country, through, direct appeals to politicians or Government bodies, or by the assembly of citizens that can add testimony to the fact and or by a intense record search of government archives, open a dialog with the... Australian Ufology refers to a historical series of Australian events and or activities pertaining to Government departments, civilian groups or individual Australians, which centre on or around the study of Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) reports, sightings, encounters and other related phenomena, known as Ufology within the Australian context before 1982. ... For other uses, see Ball lightning (disambiguation). ... This article is about UFOs: for other uses see the disambiguation page Black triangle. ... Robert Scott Lazar (January 26, 1959), or Bob Lazar, claims to have worked from 1988 until 1989 as a physicist at an area called S-4 (Sector Four), located near Groom Lake, Nevada, next to Area 51. ... A diagram of the craft, taken from the patent application. ... The Brookings Report is the informal name for a study commisioned from the Brookings Institute by NASA officials in 1960. ... Cattle mutilation (also known as bovine excision[1]) is the killing and then mutilation of cattle, under unusual or anomalous circumstances. ... Coast to Coast AM is a late-night syndicated radio talk show in the United States which deals with a variety of topics, but most frequently ones that relate either to the paranormal, or to alleged conspiracies. ... see Condon Committee ... Contactees are persons who claim to be in regular contact with extraterrestrials. ... A crop circle consisting of multiple circles. ... Green people redirects here. ... Rods, a rather new entry in the field of Cryptozoology, are creatures said to flit about in the air at such a high speed as to not be seen by the naked eye. ... This article is about the aerial phenomenon. ... Charles Fort, 1920 Charles Hoy Fort (August 6, 1874 - May 3, 1932), writer and researcher into anomalous phenomena, was the son of an Albany grocer of Dutch ancestry. ... George Knapp is an American investigative journalist. ... Jacques F. Vallée, Ph. ... Jeff Rense is an American conspiracy theorist and radio talk-show host of the Jeff Rense Program, broadcast on US satellite radio via Genesis Communications Network (GCN) and Internet radio. ... John A. Keel. ... Kenneth A. Arnold (born March 29, 1915 in Sebeka, Minnesota; died January 16, 1984 in Bellevue, Washington) was an American businessman and pilot. ... This is a list of conspiracy theories; it contains alleged conspiracies that are not accepted by mainstream academics. ... This is a list of magazines (some now exclusively web-based) on anomalous and Fortean phenomena. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Morris K. Jessup (1900 - 1959) was an American astronomerand writer; he is probably best remembered from his ufological writings. ... The Mutual UFO Network, or MUFON for short, is headquartered in Morisson, Colorado. ... // The idea that Nazi Germany developed highly advanced aircraft or spacecraft appears in fiction as early as 1947. ... Paranormal vanishing is the expression for the unexplainable disappearance of things, animals or human beings without a trace. ... Horton and the flying saucer The Ralph Horton flying saucer crash was a flying saucer that crashed on the farm of Ralph Horton in Fulton County, Georgia, in July 1952. ... The Robertson Panel was a committee commissioned by the Central Intelligence Agency in 1952 in response to widespread Unidentified Flying Object reports, especially in the Washington DC area. ... Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947 The Roswell UFO incident is a purported crash of an unidentified flying object (UFO) in Roswell, New Mexico, USA. Many books and a number of TV movies have been made concerning the incident, some fictionalized and some more reality-based. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. ... The Disclosure Project is a not for profit orginization dedicated to disclosing, unclassifying, and conducting hearings related to Shadow Governments, U.F.O.s, extraterrestrial life, advanced technologies. ... Many works of fiction have featured UFOs. ... An Unidentified Submerged Object, or USO, is defined as any object or optical or mechanical detection phenomenon of unknown origin observed within water that remains unidentified even after thorough investigation. ... Unusual Ground Markings or UGMs are named ground features that appear to be hard to explain. ... The Valentich Disappearance occurred on October 21, 1978, when 20 year old Frederick Valentich disappeared while piloting a small Cessna 182 aircraft over the Bass Strait to King Island, Australia, after reporting a strange craft flying increasingly close in proximity. ...

References

  1. ^ UFO Evidence : Belgium UFO Sightings
  2. ^ This, e.g., was the official definition adopted by the USAF in 1954 in Air Force Regulation 200-2, and also by their astronomical consultant Dr. J. Allen Hynek, who defined a UFO as “any aerial or surface sighting, or instrumental recording (e.g., radar, photography, etc.) which remains unexplained by conventional methods even after competent examination by qualified persons." [1]
  3. ^ See, e.g., Identified flying object for statistics of Project Blue Book Special Report #14, in which 22% of USAF cases remained unexplained after a scientific study.
  4. ^ UFO Pianello
  5. ^ Historical Ufo's
  6. ^ List of ancient paintings. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  7. ^ short list of historic reports. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  8. ^ Perhaps the largest database of sightings is UFOCAT with 109,000 [2]
  9. ^ Warring Globes at Nuremberg, Germany 1561
  10. ^ List of historic reports. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  11. ^ Lenticular Clouds
  12. ^ Comet Halley
  13. ^ The Bible UFO Connection
  14. ^ UFOs in Ancient Times
  15. ^ Giordano, Daniela, "Do UFOs Exist in the History of Arts?" from American Chronicle, 2006-11-13; retirieved 2007-07-27
  16. ^ Dong, Paul. (2000). China's Major Mysteries: Paranormal Phenomena and the Unexplained in the People's Republic. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals, Inc. ISBN 0835126765. Pages 69–71.
  17. ^ American Chronicle | Before the Wright Brothers...There Were UFOs
  18. ^ Cashman, Mark. 2/28/1904 - U.S.S. Supply, 400 mi W of San Francisco, 6:10AM. The Temporal Doorway. Retrieved on 2006-08-19.
  19. ^ Maccabee, Bruce. EVEN MORE REMARKABLE. Retrieved on 2006-08-19.
  20. ^ Ground Zero Siberia, A possible connection between the Tunguska explosion and UFOs Page2
  21. ^ Foo-Fighter - TIME
  22. ^ The Battle Of Los Angeles
  23. ^ Swedish Ghost Rockets in 1946
  24. ^ Description of Arnold's case with more links inside.. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  25. ^ PROJECT 1947: UAL Flight 105, July 4, 1947 - Capt E. J. Smith
  26. ^ The UFO Wave of 1947 by Ted Bloecher, 1967; URL accessed March 07, 2007
  27. ^ http://www.cufon.org/cufon/foia_001.htm
  28. ^ http://www.ufoscience.org/history/swords.pdf Maccabee, 15; Dolan, 69; Good, 253; Fawcett & Greenwood, 213-14
  29. ^ http://209.132.68.98/pdf/twiningopinionamc_23sept47.pdf Maccabee, 20; Good, 261, 476-8
  30. ^ Background on Bolender memo
  31. ^ See, e.g., 1976 Tehran UFO incident
  32. ^ Original of Boldender memo; Text page 2 of Bollender memo
  33. ^ Ridge, Francis L.. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects. National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. Retrieved on 2006-08-19.
  34. ^ AIR FORCE REGULATION 200-2. The Computer UFO Network (1954-08-12). Retrieved on 2006-08-19.
  35. ^ Official US Air Force document in pdf format. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  36. ^ Wikisource article about Air Force Regulation 200-2. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  37. ^ Canada's Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada
  38. ^ http://www.ufoevidence.org/newsite/files/COMETA_part1.pdf
  39. ^ http://www.ufoevidence.org/newsite/files/COMETA_part2.pdf
  40. ^ National Press Club description of the press conference. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  41. ^ Reuters news article concerning the press conference. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  42. ^ ABC News West Palm Beach video file on the press conference. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  43. ^ CNN article about the press conference. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  44. ^ BBC article concerning the press conference. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  45. ^ Full video taken during the press conference. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  46. ^ PDF document announcing the press conference and giving details.. Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  47. ^ [3]
  48. ^ [4]
  49. ^ Herb/Hynek amateur astronomer poll results reprinted in International UFO Reporter (CUFOS), May 2006, pp. 14-16
  50. ^ Pdf document on UFOs and Clyde Tombaugh. Retrieved on 2008-01-12.
  51. ^ Full quote in Clyde Tombaugh article; originally [5] and [6]
  52. ^ Menzel's sighting. Retrieved on 2008-01-12.
  53. ^ Good (1988), 484
  54. ^ Good (1988), 23
  55. ^ Document quoted and published in Timothy Good (2007), 106-107, 115; USAFE Item 14, TT 1524, (Top Secret), 4 November 1948, declassified in 1997, National Archives, Washington D.C.
  56. ^ Good (1988), 426-427; excerpt from Fontes letter
  57. ^ Good, 267; Maccabee, 75-76
  58. ^ Dolan, 189; Good, 287, 337; Ruppelt, Chapt. 16
  59. ^ Good, 347
  60. ^ 1960s Condon Report A Whitewash
  61. ^ 'Yes, UFOs exist': Position statement by SEPRA head, Jean-Jacques Velasco - UFO Evidence
  62. ^ Official French Gov't UFO study project to resume with new director - UFO Evidence
  63. ^ USA: UFOs and National Security - UFO Evidence
  64. ^ Best UFO Cases III: Belgium, 1989-1990 - UFO Evidence
  65. ^ UFO Evidence : JAL Flight 1628 Over Alaska
  66. ^ Trans-en-Provence Physical Trace Case - Trans-en-Provence, France - January 8, 1981 - UFO Evidence
  67. ^ Chapter Thirteen:The Report On Unidentified Flying Objects
  68. ^ UFO Evidence : Physical Trace Cases
  69. ^ Top Physical Trace Cases - Cases of High Strangeness - A Preliminary List - UFO Evidence
  70. ^ Letter to Scientific American, Dec 18, 1886
  71. ^ UFO Evidence : Electromagnetic Effects
  72. ^ http://www.narcap.org/reports/emcarm.htm
  73. ^ Tehran, Iran/ F-4 Incident
  74. ^ Iranian Jet Case
  75. ^ ufo - UFOS at close sight: Blue Book's Captain Ruppelt's book, chapter 15, the radiation story
  76. ^ ufo - UFOS at close sight: RB-47 radar visual multiple witnesses cases, July 17, 1957
  77. ^ UFO Symposium 1968: Harder Statement
  78. ^ Table of Contents for "Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports"
  79. ^ Myrabo, Leik N
  80. ^ Salut, earthlings, The Times, February 5, 2003
  81. ^ [7]
  82. ^ Great balls of Fire a unified theory of ball lightning,UFOs,Tunguska and other anomalous lights, Fireshine Press
  83. ^ Weather,p 31 1993
  84. ^ J.Sci.Expl.,2006,Vol. 20, No.2, 215-238.
  85. ^ UFO Sightings Outside the Project Blue Book by sjackman - Footnote, Original Documents Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  86. ^ The Gulf Breeze, Florida UFOs (Ed Walters), UFO Casebook files
  87. ^ PARANOIA - People Are Strange: Unusual UFO Cults
  88. ^ Bio and Video portfolio. partizan.com.
  89. ^ Partizan's Nicolas is UFO hoax architect. creativity-online.com (August 31, 2007).
  90. ^ Cramer, John G.. NASA Goes FTL Part 1: Wormhole Physics. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  91. ^ Visser, Matt; Sayan Kar, Naresh Dadhich (2003). "Traversable wormholes with arbitrarily small energy condition violations". Physical Review Letters 90: 201102.1—201102.4.  arXiv:gr-qc/0301003
  92. ^ Eyewitness memory in context: toward a systematic understanding
  93. ^ Today@UCI: Press Releases:
  94. ^ The Hynek Classification System, UFO Casebook Files
  95. ^ SCIFI.COM | UFOLOGY Resource Center
  96. ^ Vallee Classification System - UFO Evidence
  97. ^ Groupe d'Etudes et d'Informations sur les Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non identifiés
  98. ^ Rhodes_Phoenix
  99. ^ http://projectbluebook.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-913
  100. ^ http://projectbluebook.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-920
  101. ^ http://projectbluebook.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB90-218
  102. ^ http://projectbluebook.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB90-219
  103. ^ Strange rocket-like UFO over California/Nevada, June 24, 1950
  104. ^ NCP-12: The White Sands Proof - Maccabee
  105. ^ http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc1324.htm; Video testimony for Disclosure Project
  106. ^ The Roper Poll. Ufology Resource Center. SciFi.com (September 2002). Retrieved on 2006-08-19.
  107. ^ http://www.freedomofinfo.org/national_poll.html
  108. ^ http://www.mufon.com/fastfacts.htm

Josef Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 - April 27, 1986) was a U.S. astronomer, professor, and ufologist. ... An Identified Flying Object, or IFO, is any unusual or puzzling object or optical phenomenon observed in the sky which can be identified as a known or conventional phenomenon after being investigated by qualified persons. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1976 Tehran UFO Incident was a radar and visual sighting of an unidentified flying object (UFO) over Tehran, the capital of Iran, during the early morning hours of September 19, 1976. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... see Center for UFO Studies ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... An image of Clyde Tombaugh Clyde William Tombaugh (February 4, 1906 – January 17, 1997) was an American astronomer who discovered the dwarf planet Pluto in 1930. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John G. Cramer (born 1934) is a Professor of Physics at the University of Washington in Seattle, USA. When not teaching, he works with the STAR detector at the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and the particle accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor Matt Visser is a Mathematics Professor at Victoria University of Wellington. ... Physical Review Letters is one of the most prestigious journals in physics. ... arXiv (pronounced archive, as if the X were the Greek letter χ) is an archive for electronic preprints of scientific papers in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science and quantitative biology which can be accessed via the Internet. ... Sci Fi is an American cable television channel, launched in 1992 and currently owned by corporate conglomerate NBC Universal, specializing in science fiction, fantasy, horror, and paranormal programming. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

General

  • Thomas E. Bullard, “UFOs: Lost in the Myths”, pages 141-191 in “UFOs, the Military, and the Early Cold War Era”, pages 82-121 in “UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge” David M. Jacobs, editor; 2000, University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-1032-4
  • Jerome Clark, The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial, 1998, Visible Ink Press, ISBN 1-57859-029-9. Many classic cases and UFO history provided in great detail; highly documented.
  • J. Deardorff, B. Haisch, B. Maccabee, Harold E. Puthoff (2005). "Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation". Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 58: 43–50. 
  • Curran, Douglas. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space. (revised edition), Abbeville Press, 2001. ISBN 0-7892-0708-7. Non-sensational but fair treatment of contemporary UFO legend and lore in N. America, including the so-called “contactee cults.” The author traveled the United States with his camera and tape recorder and directly interviewed many individuals.
  • Hall, Richard H., editor. The UFO Evidence: Volume 1. 1964, NICAP, reissued 1997, Barnes & Noble Books, ISBN 0-7607-0627-1. Well-organized, exhaustive summary and analysis of 746 unexplained NICAP cases out of 5000 total cases — a classic.
  • Hall, Richard H. The UFO Evidence: A Thirty-Year Report. Scarecrow Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8108-3881-8. Another exhaustive case study, more recent UFO reports.
  • Hendry, Alan. The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating, Evaluating, and Reporting UFO Sightings. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1979. ISBN 0-385-14348-6. Skeptical but balanced analysis of 1300 CUFOS UFO cases.
  • Hynek, J. Allen. The UFO Experience: A scientific inquiry. Henry Regnery Co., 1972.
  • Hynek, J. Allen. The Hynek UFO Report. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0429-5. Analysis of 640 high-quality cases through 1969 by UFO legend Hynek.
  • Rose, Bill and Buttler, Tony. Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects). Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-85780-233-0.
  • Sagan, Carl & Page. Thornton, editors. UFOs: A Scientific Debate. Cornell University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7607-0192-2. Pro and con articles by scientists, mostly to the skeptical side.
  • Sturrock, Peter A. (1999). The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-52565-0
  • Canada's Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada

Thomas Eddie Bullard (born 1949) is an American folklorist best known for his research into UFOs and the abduction phenomenon. ... Jerome Clark (1946 - ) is an American researcher and writer, specializing in unidentified flying objects and other anomalous phenomena; he is also a songwriter of some note. ... Harold E. Puthoff, Ph. ... The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (JBIS) is a technical scientific journal, first published in 1934. ... Richard Hall is a Jamaican saxophone musician who has worked with many reggae artists including Burning Spear. ... see National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena ... see Center for UFO Studies ... Josef Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 - April 27, 1986) was a U.S. astronomer, professor, and ufologist. ... Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Peter Andrew Sturrock (born 1924) is an British scientist. ...

Skepticism

  • Philip Plait (2002). Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing “Hoax”. John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-40976-6. (Chapter 20: Misidentified Flying Objects: UFOs and Illusions of the Mind and Eye.)
  • Ian Ridpath "Astronomical Causes of UFOs"[9]
  • Michael A. Seeds. (1995). Horizons: Exploring the Universe, Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 0-534-24889-6 and ISBN 0-534-24890-X. (Appendix A)

Philip Plait, physicist and astronomer Philip Plait (a. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Ian Ridpath, Born 1947 May 1, Ilford, Essex is a journalist made famous for his breaking article on the Rendlesham Forest Incident of January 5, 1985. ...

Psychology

  • Carl G. Jung, “Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies” (translated by R.F.C. Hull); 1979, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01822-7

Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) (IPA:) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of Analytical Psychology. ...

Histories

  • Richard M. Dolan, UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941-1973, 2000, Keyhole Publishing, ISBN 0-9666885-0-3. Dolan is a professional historian.
  • Downes, Jonathan Rising of the Moon. 2nd ed. Bangor: Xiphos, 2005.
  • Lawrence Fawcett & Barry J. Greenwood, The UFO Cover-Up (Originally Clear Intent), 1992, Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), ISBN 0-671-76555-8. Many UFO documents.
  • Timothy Good, Above Top Secret, 1988, William Morrow & Co., ISBN 0-688-09202-0. Many UFO documents.
  • Timothy Good, Need to Know: UFOs, the Military, and Intelligence, 2007, Pegasus Books, ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5. Update of Above Top Secret with new cases and documents
  • Bruce Maccabee, UFO FBI Connection, 2000, Llewellyn Publications, ISBN 1-56718-493-6
  • Kevin Randle, Project Blue Book Exposed, 1997, Marlowe & Company, ISBN 1-56924-746-3
  • Edward J. Ruppelt, The Report On Unidentified Flying Objects, 1956, Doubleday & Co. online. A UFO classic by insider Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF Project Blue Book
  • LeRoy F. Pea, Government Involvement in the UFO Coverup, or earlier title History of UFO Crash/Retrievals", 1988, PEA RESEARCH.[1]

Timothy Good is a leading British researcher and writer on UFOs, and a former professional violinist. ... Timothy Good is a leading British researcher and writer on UFOs, and a former professional violinist. ... Dr. Bruce Maccabee, Ph. ... Edward J. Ruppelt (1922 - 1960) was a United States Air Force officer probably best-known for his involvement in Project Blue Book, a formal governmental study of unidentified flying objects. ... Project Blue Book was one of a series of systematic studies of Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) conducted by the United States Air Force. ...

Technology

  • Paul R. Hill, Unconventional Flying Objects: a scientific analysis, 1995, Hampton Roads Publishing Co., ISBN 1-57174-027-9. Analysis of UFO technology by pioneering NACA/NASA aerospace engineer.
  • James M. McCampbell, Ufology: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1973, 1976, Celestial Arts, ISBN 0-89087-144-2 full-text online. Another analysis by former NASA and nuclear engineer.
  • James M. McCampbell, Physical effects of UFOs upon people, 1986, paper.
  • Antonio F. Rullán, Odors from UFOs: Deducing Odorant Chemistry and Causation from Available Data, 2000, preliminary paper.
  • Jack Sarfatti, "Super Cosmos", 2005 (Authorhouse)
  • S. Krasnikov (2003). "The quantum inequalities do not forbid spacetime shortcuts". Physical Review D 67: 104013.  See also the eprint version. arXiv.
  • L. H. Ford and T. A. Roman (1996). "Quantum field theory constrains traversable wormhole geometries". Physical Review D: 5496.  See also the eprint. arXiv.

Paul R. Hill (1909-1990) was a pioneering aeronautical research engineer who spent a lifetime on the cutting edge of research and development for NACA and NASA. He is also well-known in the field of Ufology for his scientific research into the subject of UFOs, detailed in Unconventional Flying... NACA may mean: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics National Association for Campus Activities [1] Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific, an industry association of shrimp farmers and other aquaculture industries. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...

External links

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  • Huge UFO video & news archive
  • The British Earth & Aerial Mysteries Society UK Database of UFO Sightings & Reports
  • National Aviation Reporting Center on anomalous phenomena
  • The National UFO Reporting Center
  • The Mutual UFO Network
  • The PRUFOS (POLICE REPORTING UFO SIGHTINGS) database
  • CNES (french space agency) UFO reports and investigations
  • Exopolitics
  • "The latest UFO sightings and News" Database with latest reported UFO sightings
  • The University of Colorado UFO study 1969 a/k/a Condon Report
  • UFO sightings at ICBM sites and nuclear weapons storage areas by R. Hastings, NICAP
  • Call to reopen UFO investigation
  • Project Blue Book Archive Online archives of USAF Project Blue Book files
  • CIA educational summary on UFO
  • NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts
  • BBC article on Mexican Air-force videotape
  • Popular Mechanics article - When UFOs Arrive: February 2004 Cover Story
  • British Ministry of Defence (MoD) -- Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) in the UK Air Defence Region
  • The J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies

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  Results from FactBites:
 
unidentified flying objects (UFOs) (936 words)
The notion that unidentified objects or lights in the sky might be craft from other worlds appears to have been first suggested following the earliest wave of such sightings – that of the "mystery airships" –; in 1896-97.
Explanations for the saucers, or "flying disks" as they were also known at the time, included natural phenomena, such as Venus or unusual clouds, illusions, hoaxes, balloons, prototype aircraft and secret weapons (friendly or hostile), and the extraterrestrial hypothesis.
Although military and CIA interest in UFOs declined steeply after the "Washington Invasion" of 1952, public interest was maintained by the increasingly sensational claims of amateur investigators such as Donald Keyhoe and "contactees" such as George Adamski.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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