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Encyclopedia > Typeface
A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.
A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.

In typography, a typeface is a coordinated set of glyphs designed with stylistic unity. A typeface usually comprises an alphabet of letters, numerals, and punctuation marks; it may also include ideograms and symbols, or consist entirely of them, for example, mathematical or map-making symbols. The term typeface is typically conflated with font, which had distinct meanings before the advent of desktop publishing. These terms are now effectively synonymous when discussing digital typography. One still valid distinction between font and typeface is that a font may designate a specific member of a type family such as Roman, bold or italic type, possibly in a particular size, while typeface designates a visual appearance or style, possibly of a related set of fonts. For example, a given typeface such as Arial may include Roman, bold, and italic fonts. Font may mean: Typeface, a coordinated set of designs for characters, or a computer file that stores these designs (also spelt fount) Computer font Unicode typefaces (also known as, Unicode fonts) The name of a HTML element, see font family (HTML) Baptismal font, a container for holy water An older... A piece of cast metal type, Garamond style long s / i ligature. ... Typeface is a Marvel Comics character. ... Image File history File links Information. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2898x3807, 1794 KB) This description text was copied from the original place of the image (see below) from: http://images. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2898x3807, 1794 KB) This description text was copied from the original place of the image (see below) from: http://images. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... A Chinese character. ... Mathematics is commonly defined as the study of patterns of structure, change, and space; more informally, one might say it is the study of figures and numbers. Mathematical knowledge is constantly growing, through research and application, but mathematics itself is not usually considered a natural science. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arial, sometimes marketed as Arial MT, is a typeface and a computer font packaged with Microsoft Windows, other Microsoft software applications, and many PostScript computer printers. ...


The art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. Designers of typefaces are called type designers, and often typographers. In digital typography, type designers are also known as font developers or font designers. Type design is the art of designing typefaces. ... A type designer is a person who designs typefaces. ... A typographer (from the Greek words typos = form and grapho = write) practices typography (the art and technique of selecting and arranging type styles, point sizes, line lengths, line leading, character spacing, and word spacing for typeset applications). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The size of typefaces and fonts is traditionally measured in points; point has been defined differently at different times, but now the most popular is the Desktop Publishing Point. Font size is also commonly measured in millimeters (mm) and qs (a quarter of a millimeter, kyu in romanized Japanese) and inches. A point is a unit of measure in typography. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Contents

Etymology

The term font, a cognate of the word fondue, derives from Middle French fonte, meaning "(something that has been) melt(ed)", referring to type produced by casting molten metal at a type foundry. English-speaking printers have used the term fount for centuries to refer to the multi-part metal type used to assemble and print in a particular size and typeface. Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fondue refers to several French Swiss communal dishes shared at the table in an earthenware pot (caquelon) over a small burner (rechaud). The term fondue comes from the French fondre (to melt), referring to the fact that the contents of the pot are kept in a liquid state so that... A type foundry is a company that designs and/or distributes typefaces. ...


Font, typeface and type family

A font is a set of glyphs (images) representing the characters from a particular character set in a particular typeface. In professional typography the term typeface is not interchangeable with the word font, which is defined as a given alphabet and its associated characters in a single size. For example, 8-point Caslon is one font, and 10-point Caslon is another. Historically, fonts came in specific sizes determining the size of characters, and in quantities of sorts or number of each letter provided. The design of characters in a font took into account all these factors. In typography, a font is traditionally defined as a complete character set of a single size of a particular typeface. ... A character encoding is a code that pairs a set of characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. ...


As the range of typeface designs increased and requirements of publishers broadened over the centuries, fonts of specific weight (blackness or lightness) and stylistic variants—most commonly regular or roman as distinct to italic, as well as condensed — have led to font families, collections of closely-related typeface designs that can include hundreds of styles. A font family is typically a group of related fonts which vary only in weight, orientation, width, etc, but not design. For example, Times is a font family, whereas Times Roman, Times Italic and Times Bold are individual fonts making up the Times family. Font families typically include several fonts, though some, such as Helvetica, may consist of dozens of fonts. Helvetica, Century Schoolbook, and Courier are examples of three widely distributed typefaces. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the typeface Helvetica. ... Century Schoolbook is an American serif typeface. ... Courier is a monospace font that resembles the output from a typewriter. ...


History

For the origin and evolution of fonts, see History of western typography. A piece of cast metal type, Garamond style long s / i ligature. ...


Type foundries have cast fonts in lead alloys from the 1450s until the present, although wood served as the material for some large fonts called wood type during the 19th century, particularly in the United States of America. In the 1890s the mechanization of typesetting allowed automated casting of fonts on the fly as lines of type in the size and length needed. This was known as continuous casting, and remained profitable and widespread until its demise in the 1970s. The first machine of this type was the Linotype, invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler. For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Linotype machine. ... Ottmar Mergenthaler Ottmar Mergenthaler (May 11, 1854 – October 28, 1899) was a German inventor, who has been called a second Gutenberg because his invention of a machine that could easily and quickly set movable type revolutionized the art of printing. ...


During a brief transitional period (circa 1950s – 1990s), photographic technology, known as phototypesetting, utilized tiny high-resolution images of individual glyphs on a film strip (in the form of a film negative, with the letters as clear areas on an opaque black background). A high-intensity light source behind the film strip projected the image of each glyph through an optical system, which focused the desired letter onto the light-sensitive phototypesetting paper at a specific size and position. This photographic typesetting process permitted optical scaling, allowing designers to produce multiple sizes from a single font, although physical constraints on the reproduction system used still required design changes at different sizes—for example, ink traps and spikes to allow for spread of ink encountered in the printing stage. Manually-operated photocomposition systems using fonts on filmstrips allowed fine kerning between letters without the physical effort of manual typesetting, and spawned an enlarged type-design industry in the 1960s and 1970s. Phototypesetting is a method of setting type with light (photo). ... In Euclidean geometry, uniform scaling is a linear transformation that enlarges or diminishes objects; the scale factor is the same in all directions; it is also called a homothety. ... Look up spike in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The mid-1970s saw all of the major typeface technologies and all their fonts in use: letterpress, continuous casting machines, phototypositors, computer-controlled phototypesetters, and the earliest digital typesetters—hulking machines with tiny processors and CRT outputs. From the mid-1980s, as digital typography has grown, users have almost universally adopted the American spelling font, which nowadays nearly always means a computer file containing scalable outline letterforms ("digital font"), in one of several common formats. Some fonts, such as Verdana, are designed primarily for use on computer screens. A computer file is a collection of information that is stored in a computer system and can be identified by its full path name. ... Verdana is a sans-serif typeface designed by Matthew Carter for Microsoft Corporation, with hand-hinting done by Agfa Monotype’s Tom Rickner. ... Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ...


Digital type

Digital fonts store the image of each character either as a bitmap in a bitmap font, or by mathematical description of lines and curves in an outline font, also called a vector font. When an outline font is used a rasterizing routine (in the application software, operating system or printer) renders the character outlines, interpreting the vector instructions to decide which pixels should be black and which ones white. Rasterization is straightforward at high resolutions such as those used by laser printers and in high-end publishing systems. For computer screens, where each individual pixel can mean the difference between legible and illegible characters, some digital fonts use hinting algorithms to make readable bitmaps at small sizes. For the use of the term raster in radio regulation, see frequency raster. ... An assortment of bitmap fonts from the first version of the Macintosh operating system A bitmap font is one that stores each glyph as an array of pixels (that is, a bitmap). ... An outline font (or vector font) is one defined as vector graphics, i. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ... A font test with (lower rows) and without hinting (upper rows) at 100% (above) and 400% (below). ...


Digital fonts may also contain data representing the metrics used for composition, including kerning pairs, component-creation data for accented characters, glyph-substitution rules for Arabic typography and for connecting script faces, and for simple everyday ligatures like . Common font formats include METAFONT, PostScript Type 1, TrueType and OpenType. Applications using these font formats, including the rasterizers, appear in Microsoft and Apple Computer operating systems, Adobe Systems products and those of several other companies. Digital fonts are created with font editors such as Fontlab's TypeTool, FontLab Studio, Fontographer, or AsiaFont Studio. In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... METAFONT is a programming language used to define vector fonts. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... PostScript (PS) is a page description language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas. ... TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... FontLab is both the name of a company, FontLab Ltd, and the former name of their flagship font editor product, now called FontLab Studio. ...


Typeface anatomy

Typographers have developed a comprehensive vocabulary for describing the many aspects of typefaces and typography. Some vocabulary applies only to a subset of all scripts. Serifs, for example, are a purely decorative characteristic of typefaces used for European scripts, whereas the glyphs used in Arabic or East Asian scripts have characteristics (such as stroke width) that may be similar in some respects but cannot reasonably be called serifs and may not be purely decorative. Writing systems of the world today. ...


Serifs

Image:Serif and sans-serif 01.svg Sans Serif font
Image:Serif and sans-serif 02.svg Serif font
Image:Serif and sans-serif 03.svg Serif font with serifs
highlighted in red

Typefaces can be divided into two main categories: serif and sans serif. Serifs comprise the small features at the end of strokes within letters. The printing industry refers to typeface without serifs as sans serif (from French sans: "without"), or as grotesque (or, in German, grotesk). Image File history File links Serif_and_sans-serif_01. ... Image File history File links Serif_and_sans-serif_02. ... Image File history File links Serif_and_sans-serif_03. ... In typography, serifs are non-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In typography, serifs are non-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. ...


Great variety exists among both serif and sans serif typefaces. Both groups contain faces designed for setting large amounts of body text, and others intended primarily as decorative. The presence or absence of serifs forms is only one of many factors to consider when choosing a typeface.


Typefaces with serifs are often considered easier to read in long passages than those without. Studies on the matter are ambiguous, suggesting that most of this effect is due to the greater familiarity of serif typefaces. As a general rule, printed works such as newspapers and books almost always use serif typefaces, at least for the text body. Web sites do not have to specify a font and can simply respect the browser settings of the user. But of those web sites that do specify a font, most use modern sans serif fonts, because it is commonly believed that, in contrast to the case for printed material, sans serif fonts are easier than serif fonts to read on the low-resolution computer screen.


Proportion

A proportional typeface displays glyphs using varying widths, while a non-proportional or fixed-width or monospaced typeface uses fixed glyph widths. Image File history File links Visual illustration of the difference between proportional and monospace typesetting. ... “Font” redirects here. ...


Most people generally find proportional typefaces nicer-looking and easier to read, and thus they appear more commonly in professionally published printed material. For the same reason, GUI computer applications (such as word processors and web browsers) typically use proportional fonts. However, many proportional fonts contain fixed-width figures so that columns of numbers stay aligned. GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... An example of a Web browser (Konqueror) A Web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ...


Monospaced typefaces function better for some purposes because their glyphs line up in neat, regular columns. Most manually-operated typewriters and text-only computer displays use monospaced fonts. Most computer programs which have a text-based interface (terminal emulators, for example) use only monospace fonts in their configuration. Most computer programmers prefer to use monospace fonts while editing source code. Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... Apple Terminal. ... In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


ASCII art usually requires a monospace font for proper viewing. In a web page, the <tt> </tt> or <pre> </pre> HTML tag most commonly specifies non-proportional fonts. In LaTeX, the verbatim environment uses non-proportional fonts. ASCII art, an artistic medium relying primarily on computers for presentation, consists of pictures pieced together from characters (preferably from the 95 printable characters defined by ASCII). ... A screenshot of a web page. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Any two lines of text with the same number of characters in each line in a monospace typeface should display as equal in width, while the same two lines in a proportional typeface may have radically different widths. This occurs because wide glyphs (like those for the letters W, Q, Z, M, D, O, H, and U) use more space, and narrow glyphs (like those for the letters i, t, l, and 1) use less space than the average-width glyph when using a proportional font.


In the publishing industry, editors read manuscripts in fixed-width fonts for ease of editing, and it is considered discourteous to submit a manuscript in a proportional font. A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ...


Font metrics

The word Sphinx, set in Adobe Caslon Pro to illustrate the concepts of baseline, x-height, body size, descent and ascent.
The word Sphinx, set in Adobe Caslon Pro to illustrate the concepts of baseline, x-height, body size, descent and ascent.

Most scripts share the notion of a baseline: an imaginary horizontal line on which characters rest. In some scripts, parts of glyphs lie below the baseline. The descent spans the distance between the baseline and the lowest descending glyph in a typeface, and the part of a glyph that descends below the baseline has the name "descender". Conversely, the ascent spans the distance between the baseline and the top of the glyph that reaches farthest from the baseline. The ascent and descent may or may not include distance added by accents or diacritical marks. Image File history File links Typography_Line_Terms. ... Image File history File links Typography_Line_Terms. ... The typeface known as Caslon, (Englsih roman) designed by William Caslon I in 1734. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In typography, the x-height or corpus size refers to the height of the lowercase letter x in any font, which is usually the same for a, c, e, m, n, o, r, s, u, v, w, and z. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The descenders are the parts of the characters that lie below the baseline, highlighted in red. ...


In the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic (sometimes collectively referred to as LGC) scripts, one can refer to the distance from the baseline to the top of regular lowercase glyphs (mean line) as the x-height, and the part of a glyph rising above the x-height as the "ascender". The distance from the baseline to the top of the ascent or a regular uppercase glyphs (cap line) is also known as the cap height.[1] The height of the ascender can have a dramatic effect on the readability and appearance of a font. The ratio between the x-height and the ascent or cap height often serves to characterise typefaces. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In typography, the x-height or corpus size refers to the height of the lowercase letter x in any font, which is usually the same for a, c, e, m, n, o, r, s, u, v, w, and z. ... The ascenders are the parts of the characters that lie above the midline, highlighted in red. ...


Types of typefaces

Illustration of different font types
Illustration of different font types

Because a plethora of typefaces have been created over the centuries, they are commonly categorized according to their appearance. At the highest level, one can differentiate between serif, sans-serif, script, blackletter, ornamental, monospace, and symbol typefaces. Historically, the first European fonts were blackletter, followed by serif, then sans-serif and then the other types. Image File history File links Font_types. ... Image File history File links Font_types. ...


Serif typefaces

Main article: Serif

Serif, or "roman", typefaces are named for the features at the ends of their strokes. Times Roman and Garamond are common examples of serif typefaces. Serif fonts are probably the most used class in printed materials, including most books, newspapers and magazines. In typography, serifs are non-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. ... Times New Roman is a serif typeface commissioned by The Times (London) newspaper in 1931 and designed by Stanley Morison together with Starling Burgess and Victor Lardent. ... Various examples of Garamond There are several typefaces called Garamond. ...


"Roman" and "oblique" are also terms used to differentiate between upright and italic variations of a typeface.


Sans serif typefaces

Main article: Sans serif

Sans serif designs appeared relatively recently in the history of type design. The two-line English so-called "Egyptian" font, released in 1816 by the William Caslon foundry in England apparently produced the first specimen. Sans serif fonts are commonly but not exclusively used for display typography such as signage, headings, and other situations demanding visual clarity rather than high readability. The text on web pages offers an exception: it appears mostly in sans serif font because serifs often detract from readability at the low resolution of displays. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ...


The best-known sans serif font is Max Miedinger's Helvetica[citation needed], with others such as Futura, Gill Sans, Univers and Frutiger remaining popular over many decades. Arial is a widely-used sans serif font based on Helvetica, with minor simplifications in the glyphs for improved rendering on computer displays. Max Miedinger (December 24th, 1910-March 8th, 1980) was a Swiss typeface designer. ... This article is about the typeface Helvetica. ... Promotional poster which uses the first edition of typeface Futura-late 1927. ... Gill Sans is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill in 1927-30. ... This article is about a typeface; for information about similarly spelled topics, see Universe (disambiguation). ... New Swiss road signs use the typeface Frutiger. ... Arial, sometimes marketed as Arial MT, is a typeface and a computer font packaged with Microsoft Windows, other Microsoft software applications, and many PostScript computer printers. ... This article is about the typeface Helvetica. ...


Script typefaces

Script typefaces simulate handwriting or calligraphy. They do not lend themselves to quantities of body text, as people find them harder to read than many serif and sans-serif typefaces; they are typically used for logos or invitations. Examples include Coronet and Zapfino. Contemporary Calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek kallos beauty + graphẽ writing) is the art of beautiful writing (Mediavilla 1996: 17). ... Body text is the text on an web page which appears between the opening <body> and closing </body> tags that delimit the body section of the document. ... Coronet is an American typeface designed in 1937 by Robert Hunter Middleton. ... Demonstration of the full-word ligature for the name of the Zapfino typeface. ...


Blackletter typefaces

Main article: Blackletter

Blackletter fonts, the earliest typefaces used with the invention of the printing press, resemble the blackletter calligraphy of that time. Many people refer to them as gothic script. Various forms exist including textualis, rotunda, schwabacher, and fraktur. Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Blackletter in a Latin Bible of 1407 AD, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The Rotunda is a specific medieval blackletter script. ... The German word Schwabacher (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ...


Ornamental typefaces

Ornamental (also known as "novelty" or sometimes "display") typefaces are used exclusively for decorative purposes, and are not suitable for body text. They have the most distinctive designs of all fonts, and may even incorporate pictures of objects, animals, etc. into the character designs. They usually have very specific characteristics (e.g. evoking the Wild West, Christmas, horror films, etc.) and hence very limited uses.


Monospaced typefaces

Monospaced fonts are typefaces in which every glyph is the same width (as opposed to variable-width fonts, where the "w" and "m" are wider than most letters, and the "i" is narrower). The first monospaced typefaces were designed for typewriters, which could only move the same distance forward with each letter typed. Their use continued with early computers, which could only display a single font. Although modern computers can display any desired typeface, monospaced fonts are still important for computer programming, terminal emulation, and for laying out tabulated data in plain text documents. Examples of monospaced typefaces are Courier, Prestige Elite, and Monaco. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of writing, testing, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. ... Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... Courier is a monospace slab serif font that resembles the output from a typewriter. ... Prestige Elite, also known simply as Prestige, is a monospaced typeface. ...


Symbol typefaces

Main article: Dingbat

Symbol, or Dingbat, typefaces consist of symbols (such as decorative bullets, clock faces, railroad timetable symbols, CD-index, or TV-channel enclosed numbers) rather than normal text characters. Examples include Zapf Dingbats, Sonata, and Wingdings. A dingbat is an ornament or spacer used in typesetting, sometimes more formally known as a printers ornament. The term supposedly originated as onomatopoeia in old style metal-type print shops, where extra space around text or illustrations would be filled by dinging an ornament into the space... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wingdings is a TrueType dingbat font included in all versions of Microsoft Windows starting with version 3. ...


Typefaces based upon non-Roman alphabet writing systems

A group of decorative typefaces have been designed that take the form of the Roman alphabet but evoke another writing system. This group includes typefaces designed to appear as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit, and Inuit. Application of these humorous, stereotypical types, can be seen in the use of a Chinese inspired face "Rickshaw" in a Chinese restaurant menu, the typeface "Faux Hebrew" used on the side of trucks for the New York City mover Nice Jewish Boy with Warehouse, or "Faux Arabic" used for Sami's Falafel Truck in Boston, Massachusetts. Writing systems of the world today. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Inuktitut syllabary (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒃ ᓄᑖᕐᒃ titirausiq nutaaq) is a writing system used by Inuit people in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. ...


Display faces

In the days of letterpress and phototypesetting, many of the most-commonly used typefaces were available in a "display face" variation. Display faces were created for best appearance at large "display" sizes (typically 36 points or larger) as might be used for a major headline in a newspaper or on the cover of a book. The main distinction of a display face was the lack of "ink traps," small indentations at the junctions of letter strokes. In smaller point sizes, these ink traps were intended to fill up when the letterpress was over-inked, providing some latitude in press operation while maintaining the intended appearance of the type design. At larger sizes these ink traps are not necessary, so display faces do not have them. Today's digital typefaces are most often used for offset lithography, electrophotographic printing or other processes that are not subject to the ink supply variations of letterpress, so ink traps have largely disappeared from use. This is why display cases are rarely found in the world of digital typography, whereas they were once common in letterpress printing. When digital fonts feature a "display" variation, it is to accommodate stylistic differences that may benefit type used at larger point sizes. Unfortunately, some twenty years plus into the desktop publishing revolution, few typographers with metal foundry type experience are still working (and fewer still peruse Wikipedia) so the misuse of the term "display typeface" as a synonym for "ornamental type" has become widespread.


Texts used to demonstrate typefaces

A sentence that uses all of the alphabet (a pangram), such as "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog", is often used as a design aesthetic tool to demonstrate the personality of a typeface's characters in a setting. For extended settings of typefaces graphic designers often use nonsense text (commonly referred to as "greeking"), such as lorem ipsum or Latin text such as the beginning of Cicero's in Catilinam. Greeking is used in typography to determine a typeface's "colour", or weight and style, and to demonstrate an overall typographic aesthetic prior to actual type setting. Look up pangram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pangram. ... Using lorem ipsum to focus attention on graphic elements in a website design proposal. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... In 63 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC), orator, statesman and patriot, attained the rank of consul and in that capacity exposed to the Roman Senate the plot of Lucius Sergius Catilina (approx. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Type color. ...


Legal aspects

Under United States law, typeface designs are not subject to copyright; however novel and nonobvious typeface designs are subject to protection by design patents. Digital fonts that embody a particular design are often subject to copyright as computer programs. The names of the typefaces can become trademarked. As a result of these various means of legal protection, sometimes the same typeface exists in multiple names and implementations. Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ... weener ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ...


Some elements of the software engines used to display fonts on computers have software patents associated with them. In particular, Apple Inc. has patented some of the hinting algorithms for TrueType, requiring open source alternatives such as FreeType to use different algorithms. Software patent does not have a universally accepted definition. ... Apple Inc. ... A font test with (lower rows) and without hinting (upper rows) at 100% (above) and 400% (below). ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... FreeType is a software library that implements a font engine. ...


Although typeface design is not subject to copyright in the United States under the 1976 Copyright Act, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California in Adobe Systems, Inc. and Emigre, Inc. v. Southern Software, Inc. and King (No. C95-20710 RMW, N.D. Cal. Jan. 30, 1998[1]) found that there was copyright in the placement of points on a computer font's outline, i.e., because a given outline can be expressed in myriad ways, a particular selection and placement of points has sufficient originality to qualify for copyright. The United States District Court for the Northern District of California is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is comprised of the following counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma. ...


Many western countries extend copyright protection to typeface designs. However, this has no impact on protection in the United States, because all of the major copyright treaties and agreements to which the U.S. is a party (such as the Berne Convention, the WIPO Copyright Treaty, and TRIPS) operate under the principle of "national treatment", under which a country is obligated to provide no greater or lesser protection to works from other countries than it provides to domestically produced works. Below is a list of countries which have signed and ratified one or more multilateral international copyright treaties. ... The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, sometimes called the Berne Union or Berne Convention, adopted at Berne in 1986, first established the recognition of copyrights between sovereign nations. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty, abbreviated as the WIPO Copyright Treaty, was an international treaty on copyright law adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996. ... The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is a treaty administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) which sets down minimum standards for forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. ... National treatment is a debated (and perhaps abandoned) principle in customary international law, but a vital one to many treaty regimes. ...


See also

Look up typeface in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Contemporary Calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek kallos beauty + graphẽ writing) is the art of beautiful writing (Mediavilla 1996: 17). ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... A dingbat is an ornament or spacer used in typesetting, sometimes more formally known as a printers ornament. The term supposedly originated as onomatopoeia in old style metal-type print shops, where extra space around text or illustrations would be filled by dinging an ornament into the space... An expert font, also known as an expert set, is a digital font, accompanying another font, that provides additional characters that are not in the accompanied font, such as small caps, old style figures, ligatures, fractions, subscript and superscript figures. ... In HTML and XHTML, a font face or font family is the typeface that is applied to some text. ... FontLab is both the name of a company, FontLab Ltd, and the former name of their flagship font editor product, now called FontLab Studio. ... Font-management programs are a class of computer utility software that allows the user to activate or deactive fonts on a computer. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... This is a list of typefaces. ... OpenType Typographic Features All Alternates [aalt] Alternate Annotation [nalt] Alternative Fractions [afrc] Capitals to Petite Caps [c2pc] Capitals to Small Caps [c2sc] Case Sensive Forms [case+cpsp] Contextual Alternates [calt] Contextual Ligatures [clig] Contextual Swash [cswh] Denominator [dnom] Discretionary Ligatures [dlig] Expert Forms (Asian) [expt] Fractions [frac] Full Widths (Asian... A type designer is a person who designs typefaces. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In typography, serifs are non-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. ... Type design is the art of designing typefaces. ... A type foundry is a company that designs and/or distributes typefaces. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Typographic units are the units of measurement used in typography or typesetting. ... Unicode typefaces (also known as UCS fonts and Unicode fonts) are typefaces containing a wide range of characters, letters, digits, glyphs, symbols, ideograms, logograms, etc. ... The Type Directors Club (TDC) is an international organization for all people who are devoted to excellence in typography of all forms. ... ATypI is the Association Typographique Internationale, or the international typography association. ... The Society of Typographic Aficionados (SOTA) is an international not-for-profit organization dedicated to the promotion, study, and support of type, its history and development, its use in the world of print and digital imagery, its designers, and its admirers. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
TheStar.com - sciencetech - The official typeface of the 20th century (1982 words)
Typefaces generally rely on subtle alterations to make their impact.
Ad agencies, and anyone else seeking to imbue their posters or products with 1960s cosmopolitanism, used the typeface, and by the 1980s it was everywhere, thanks in part to the fact that Helvetica came bundled with the first Macintosh computers.
In Muller's Helvetica, Wolfgang Weingart describes the typeface as "the epitome of ugliness," while Keith Godard suggests, "like a beautiful person, it often lacks personality." Rick Poyner, meanwhile, complains of its "bloodless neutrality," a rather fitting comment to be making about a Swiss typeface.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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