FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Toluene" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Toluene
Toluene
Toluene
General
Systematic name toluene
Other names methylbenzene
phenylmethane
toluol
Molecular formula C7H8
SMILES Cc1ccccc1
Molar mass 92.14 g/mol
Appearance Clear, colourless liquid
CAS number [108-88-3]
Properties
Density and phase 0.8669 g/cm³, liquid
Solubility in water 0.053 g/100 mL (20-25°C)
In ethanol,
acetone, hexane,
dichloromethane
Fully miscible
Melting point −93 °C (180 K)/(-135.4°F)
Boiling point 110.6°C (383.8 K)/ 231.08°F
Critical temperature 320 °C (593 K)/ 608°F
Viscosity 0.590 cP at 20°C/ 68°F
Dipole moment 0.36 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards highly flammable
NFPA 704

Chemical structure of Toluene Selfmade by cacycle File links The following pages link to this file: Toluene Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (882x1100, 413 KB) other version File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Toluene ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... In physics, density is defined as mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Dichloromethane or Methylene chloride is a chemical compound widely used as a solvent for organic materials. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The critical temperature, Tc, of a material is the temperature above which distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. ... The related Category:Units of viscosity has been nominated for deletion, merging, or renaming. ... The poise (P; IPA: ) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... Please find below supplementary chemical data about toluene Thermodynamic properties Spectral data Structure and properties data References NIST website Except where noted otherwise, data relate to standard ambient temperature and pressure. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

4
2
0
 
Flash point 4 °C/ 39.2 °F
R-phrases R11, R38, R48/20, R63, R65, R67
S-phrases S2, S36/37, S29, S46, S62
RTECS number XS5250000
Supplementary data page
Structure & properties n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic data Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Related aromatic
hydrocarbons
benzene
xylene
naphthalene
Related compounds methylcyclohexane
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25°C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. It is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely used as an industrial feedstock and as a solvent. The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture with air. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... Please find below supplementary chemical data about toluene. ... Please find below supplementary chemical data about toluene Thermodynamic properties Spectral data Structure and properties data References NIST website Except where noted otherwise, data relate to standard ambient temperature and pressure. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Please find below supplementary chemical data about toluene Thermodynamic properties Spectral data Structure and properties data References NIST website Except where noted otherwise, data relate to standard ambient temperature and pressure. ... Please find below supplementary chemical data about toluene Thermodynamic properties Spectral data Structure and properties data References NIST website Except where noted otherwise, data relate to standard ambient temperature and pressure. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... It has been suggested that NMR Data Processing be merged into this article or section. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or in common speech mass-spec) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... The term xylenes refers to a group of 3 benzene derivatives which encompasses ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers of dimethyl benzene. ... Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar, albocarbon, or naphthene), is a crystalline, aromatic, white, solid hydrocarbon, best known as the primary ingredient of mothballs. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... Turpentine substitute is a mineral based replacement for the vegetable based organic solvent turpentine. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ...

Contents

History

The name toluene was derived from the older name toluol that refers to tolu balsam, an aromatic extract from the tropical American tree Myroxylon balsamum, from which it was first isolated. It was originally named by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Tolu balsam is the resinous secretion of Myroxylon toluifera. ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius Statue of Berzelius in the centre of Berzelii Park, Stockholm Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ...


Chemical properties

Toluene reacts as a normal aromatic hydrocarbon towards electrophilic aromatic substitution.[1][2][3] The methyl group makes it around 25 times more reactive than benzene in such reactions. It undergoes smooth sulfonation to give p-toluenesulfonic acid, and chlorination by Cl2 in the presence of FeCl3 to give ortho and para isomers of chlorotoluene. It undergoes nitration to give ortho and para nitrotoluene isomers, but if heated it can give dinitrotoluene and ultimately the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT). An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Electrophilic aromatic substitution or EAS is an organic reaction in which an atom, usually hydrogen, in an aromatic system is replaced by an electrophile. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Chemical structure of sulfonic acid. ... Tosyl Group with a generic R Group attached (where R can be anything, typically a carbon). ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , Related Compounds Other anions Iron(III) fluoride Iron(III) bromide Other cations Iron(II) chloride Manganese(II) chloride Cobalt(II) chloride Ruthenium(III) chloride Related coagulants Iron(II) sulfate Polyaluminium chloride Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring substituted with a chloromethyl group. ... Nitration is a general chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group in a chemical compound by means of a chemical reaction. ... Dinitrotoluene or Dinitro C6H3(CH3)(NO2)2. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ...


With other reagents the methyl side chain in toluene may react, undergoing oxidation. Reaction with potassium permanganate leads to benzoic acid, whereas reaction with chromyl chloride leads to benzaldehyde (Étard reaction). Halogenation can be performed under free radical conditions. For example, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) heated with toluene in the presence of AIBN leads to benzyl bromide. A reagent is any substance used in a chemical reaction. ... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. ... Chromyl chloride is a chemical compound with the formula CrO2Cl2. ... The chemical compound benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) consists of a benzene ring with an aldehyde group attached to one carbon. ... The Étard reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the direct oxidation of an aromatic or heterocyclic bound methyl group to an aldehyde using chromyl chloride. ... Halogenation is a chemical reaction that replaces a hydrogen atom with a halogen atom. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Flash point None R/S statement R: ? S: ? RTECS number  ? Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Azobisisobutyronitrile, also azobisisobutylonitrile, is a toxic white crystalline compound often used as a foamer in plastics and rubber. ... Benzyl bromide, or α-bromotoluene, is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring substituted with a bromomethyl group. ...


Catalytic hydrogenation of toluene to methylcyclohexane requires a high pressure of hydrogen to go to completion, because of the stability of the aromatic system. Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions in which the net result is an addition of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


Preparation

Toluene occurs naturally at low levels in crude oil and is usually produced in the processes of making gasoline via a catalytic reformer, in an ethylene cracker or making coke from coal. Final separation (either via distillation or solvent extraction) takes place in a BTX plant. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas, typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products called reformates which are components of high-octane gasoline (also known as petrol). ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules (e. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Laboratory distillation set-up using, without a fractionating column 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... BTX can mean: Bildschirmtext Balanced Technology Extended, a computer motherboard form factor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Uses

Toluene is a common solvent, able to dissolve: paints, paint thinners, many chemical reactants, rubber, printing ink, adhesives (glues), lacquers, leather tanners, and disinfectants. It can also be used as a fullerene indicator, and is a raw material for toluene diisocyanate (used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam), phenol and TNT. Toluene can be used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels used in internal combustion engines. Toluene at 84% by volume, fueled all the turbo Formula 1 teams in the 1980s. Small 1.5L turbo engines were known to operate at 5 bar (73 psi) boost in qualifying and 4 bars (59 psi) while racing. More than 1500bhp from 1.5L engines was possible. For proper atomization, the Toluene fuel blend was preheated. Industrial uses of toluene include dealkylation to benzene and disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. Toluene can be used to break open red blood cells in order to extract haemoglobin in biochemistry experiments. A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chemical reactions are also known as chemical changes. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... For other articles which might have the same name, see Print (disambiguation). ... An adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... This page is about making leather. ... Disinfection of a floor using a mop Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. ... The fullerenes, discovered in 1985 by researchers at Rice University, are a family of carbon allotropes named after Richard Buckminster Fuller and are sometimes called buckyballs. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term xylenes refers to a group of 3 benzene derivatives which encompasses ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers of dimethyl benzene. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin Hemoglobin or haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red cells of the blood in mammals and other animals. ...


Toxicology and metabolism

Main article: Toluene (toxicology)

Inhalation of toluene fumes can be intoxicating, but in larger doses nausea-inducing. Chronic or frequent inhalation of toluene over long time periods leads to irreversible brain damage.[citation needed] Toluene may enter the human system not only through vapour inhalation from the liquid evaporation, but also following soil contamination events, where human contact with soil, ingestion of contaminated groundwater or soil vapour off-gassing can occur. // Metabolism in Humans While a significant amount of toluene, 25%-40%, is exhaled unchanged via the lungs, a greater proportion is metabolised and excreted via other pathways. ... Volatile substance abuse or solvent abuse (called huffing) is the practice of inhaling volatile substances for their psychoactive effects. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ...


The toxicity of toluene can be explained mostly by its metabolism. As toluene has very low water solubility, it cannot exit the body via the normal routes (urine, feces, or sweat).[citation needed] It must be metabolized in order to be excreted. The methyl group of toluene is more easily oxidized by cytochrome P450 than the benzene ring. Therefore, in the metabolism of toluene, 95% is oxidized to become benzyl alcohol.[4] The toxic metabolites are created by the remaining 5% that are oxidized to benzaldehyde and cresols.[5][6] Most of the reactive products are detoxified by conjugation to glutathione but the remainder may severely damage cells.[7] Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... Benzyl alcohol, also known as phenylmethanol, is a clear, colorless liquid with a mild pleasant aromatic odor. ... The chemical compound benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) consists of a benzene ring with an aldehyde group attached to one carbon. ... Cresols are organic chemical compounds which are methylphenols. ... Detox, short for detoxification, in general is the removal of toxic substances from the body. ... Skeletal formula of glutathione 3D model of glutathione Glutathione (GSH), whose IUPAC name is 2-amino-5-{[2-[(carboxymethyl)amino]- 1-(mercaptomethyl)-2-oxoethyl]amino}-5-oxopentanoic acid, is γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, a tripeptide. ...

Toluene is mainly excreted as benzoic acid and hippuric acid, both formed by further metabolic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1692x612, 10 KB) Summary Description: The metabolism of toluene. ... Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. ... Hippuric acid (Gr. ...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1734x1021, 12 KB) Summary Description: Metabolism of benzyl alcohol. ...

See also

Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... The Isotoluenes in organic chemistry are the non-aromatic toluene isomers with an exocyclic double bond. ...

References

  1. ^ B. S. Furnell et al., Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th edition, Longman/Wiley, New York, 1989
  2. ^ L. G. Wade, Organic Chemistry, 5th ed., p. 871, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RIver, New Jersey, 2003
  3. ^ J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., p. 723, Wiley, New York, 1992
  4. ^ Nakajima T, Wang R, Elovaara E, Gonzalez F, Gelboin H, Raunio H, Pelkonen O, Vainio H, Aoyama T (1997). "Toluene metabolism by cDNA-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450". Biochem Pharmacol 53 (3): 271-7. PMID 9065730. 
  5. ^ Chapman D, Moore T, Michener S, Powis G. "Metabolism and covalent binding of [14C]toluene by human and rat liver microsomal fractions and liver slices". Drug Metab Dispos 18 (6): 929-36. PMID 1981539. 
  6. ^ Hanioka H, Hamamura M, Kakino K, Ogata H, Jinno H, Takahashi A, Nishimura T, Ando M (1995). "Dog liver microsomal P450 enzyme-mediated toluene biotransformation". Xenobiotica 25 (11): 1207-17. PMID 8592870. 
  7. ^ van Doorn R, Leijdekkers C, Bos R, Brouns R, Henderson P (1981). "Alcohol and sulphate intermediates in the metabolism of toluene and xylenes to mercapturic acids". J Appl Toxicol 1 (4): 236-42. PMID 6764216. 

External links

  • External solubility data
  • Computational Chemistry Wiki
  • Links to external chemical sources

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... An aldehyde. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms. ... Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compounds: - the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N), or a compound that contains this functional group (pictured to the right); or - a particular kind of nitrogen anion. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Azo compounds refer to chemical compounds bearing the functional group R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aryl or alkyl. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... The cyanate ion is an anion consisting of one oxygen atom, one carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom (OCN−), in that order, and possesses 1 unit of negative charge, borne mainly by the nitrogen atom. ... In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol groups. ... General formula of a carboxylate ester. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond. ... An isocyanide (erroneously called isonitrile) is a functional group in organic synthesis containing carbon and nitrogen. ... Isocyanate is the chemical group of atoms -N=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen), as opposed to cyanate, -O-C≡N, which is formed from cyanogen in the normal -ate manner. ... Ketone group A ketone is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... A nitrile is any organic compound which has a -C≡N functional group. ... Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (-NO2). ... Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the general formula R-NO. Nitroso compounds can be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds or by the oxidation of hydroxylamines. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is an inorganic mineral acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... A sulfone is a chemical compound containing a sulfonyl functional group attached to two carbon atoms. ... It has been suggested that Sulfonic acid/Temp be merged into this article or section. ... A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl functional group with a sulfur oxygen double bond attached to two carbon atoms. ... Thioesters are compounds resulting from the bonding of sulfur with an acyl group (an alkyl group attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond), with the general formula R-S-CO-R. Some biochemists believe that the thioester bond was critical for the origin of life. ... A thioether (also known as a sulfide) is a functional group in organic chemistry that has the structure R-S-R, where R is any organic group. ... Sulfhydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
EPA - Air Toxics Website - Toluene (1635 words)
Toluene is also used to produce benzene and as a solvent in paints, coatings, synthetic fragrances, adhesives, inks, and cleaning agents.
Toluene exposure may also occur in the workplace, especially in occupations such as printing or painting, where toluene is frequently used as a solvent.
Toluene occurs as a colorless, flammable, refractive liquid, that is slightly soluble in water.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m