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Tea plant (Camellia Sinensis) from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.
Tea plant (Camellia Sinensis) from Köhler's Medicinal Plants.
A tea bush.
A tea bush.

Tea is an infusion made by steeping processed leaves, buds, or twigs of the tea bush, Camellia sinensis, in hot water for several minutes. The processing can include oxidation, heating, drying, and the addition of other herbs, flowers, spices, and fruits. The four basic types of true tea are black tea, oolong tea, green tea, and white tea. The term "herbal tea" usually refers to infusions or tisane of fruit or herbs that contain no Camellia sinensis.[1] Tea can have different meanings depending on the context: Tea, a caffeinated beverage Bubble tea Chinese tea Herbal tea Afternoon tea, the meal Tea is beatnik slang for marijuana. ... Image File history File links Koeh-025. ... Image File history File links Koeh-025. ... Kohlers Medicinal Plants (Köhlers Medizinal-Pflanzen in naturgetreuen Abbildungen mit kurz erläuterndem Texte : Atlas zur Pharmacopoea germanica) is a German rare medicinal guide published in 1887 in three volumes. ... Image File history File links HCAM13. ... Image File history File links HCAM13. ... An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... Steeping may mean: Soaking in liquid until saturated with a soluble ingredient, as in, for example, the steeping of tea. ... Binomial name (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Alternate meanings: Oolong (disambiguation) Oolong (烏龍 wūlóng in the Mandarin Pinyin romanization) is a traditional Chinese type of tea somewhere in between green and black in oxidation (traditionally but improperly called fermentation) time. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ... Herbal tea An herbal tea, tisane, or ptisan is an herbal infusion not made from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ... An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... Herbal tea A tisane, ptisan or herbal tea is any herbal infusion other than from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ...


Tea is one of the most widely-consumed beverages in the world, second only to water.[2] It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavor.[3] It has almost no carbohydrates, fat, or protein. Tea is a natural source of the amino acid theanine, methylxanthines such as caffeine and theobromine,[4] and polyphenolic antioxidant catechins[3] (often referred to as tannins). A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... “Vegetable oil” redirects here. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Theanine is an amino acid which is a deriviative of glutamine. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Catechin is a bioflavonoid and a powerful anti-oxidant. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ...


The word tea came into the English language from the Chinese word for tea (), which is pronounced in the Min Nan spoken variant. The British English slang word "char" for "tea" arose from its Mandarin Chinese pronunciation "cha" with its spelling affected by British English arhotic dialect pronunciation.[5] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Spoken Chinese Spoken Chinese comprises many regional variants. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ...

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.

Contents

Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ...

Cultivation

Plantation workers picking tea in Tanzania.
Plantation workers picking tea in Tanzania.

Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and sub-tropical climates. However, it is commercially cultivated from the equator to as far north as Cornwall on the UK mainland.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1776 KB) Camellia sinensis File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tea Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1776 KB) Camellia sinensis File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tea Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Binomial name (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... This article is about plant types. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


In addition to a tropical climate, it requires at least 50 inches of rainfall a year, and prefers acidic soils.[7] Many high quality tea plants grow at elevations up to 1500 meters (5,000 ft), as the plants grow more slowly and acquire a better flavor.[8]


Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called flushes,[9] and a plant will grow a new flush every seven to ten days during the growing season.


Tea plants will grow into a tree if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.[10]


Two principal varieties are used, the small-leaved China plant (C. sinensis sinensis) and the large-leaved Assam plant (C. sinensis assamica). Leaf size is the chief criterion for the classification of tea plants.[11] Based upon this criterion, tea is classified into (1) Assam type characterized by the largest leaves, (2) China type characterized by the smallest leaves and (3) Cambod characterized by leaves of intermediate size.[11]


Processing and classification

Main article: Tea processing

Types of tea are distinguished by the processing they undergo. Leaves of Camellia sinensis soon begin to wilt and oxidize if not dried quickly after picking. The leaves turn progressively darker because chlorophyll breaks down and tannins are released. This process, enzymatic oxidation, is called fermentation in the tea industry although it is not a true fermentation: it is not caused by micro-organisms, and is not an anaerobic process. The next step in processing is to stop the oxidation process at a predetermined stage by heating, which deactivates the enzymes responsible. With black tea this is done simultaneously with drying. Without careful moisture and temperature control during its manufacture and thereafter, fungi will grow on tea. This form of fungus causes real fermentation that will contaminate the tea with toxic and sometimes carcinogenic substances and off-flavours, rendering the tea unfit for consumption. Worker picking tea flushes in Tanzania. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...

Tea leaf processing methods (Simplified)
Tea leaf processing methods (Simplified)

Tea is traditionally classified based on producing technique:[12]

  • White tea: Un-Wilted and unoxidized
  • Yellow tea: Un-wilted and unoxidized but allowed to yellow
  • Green tea: Wilted and unoxidized
  • Oolong: Wilted, bruised, and partially oxidized
  • Black tea/Red tea: Wilted, crushed, and fully oxidized
  • Post-fermented tea: Green Tea that has been allowed to ferment/compost

Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ... Junshan Yinzhen, a Chinese Famous Tea Yellow tea (黃茶) usually implies a special tea processed similarly to green tea, but with a slower drying phase. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Rolled Oolong tea leaves Oolong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a traditional Chinese tea somewhere between green and black in oxidation. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Post-fermented teas are a class of teas that have undergone a period of aging in open-air, from several months to many years. ...

Blending and additives

Tea weighing station north of Batumi, before 1915
Tea weighing station north of Batumi, before 1915

Almost all teas in bags and most other teas sold in the West are blends. Blending may occur in the tea-planting area (as in the case of Assam), or teas from many areas may be blended. The aim is to obtain better taste, better price or both, as more expensive, better-tasting tea may cover the inferior taste of cheaper varieties. Blending may also achieve more consistent taste of the blend, regardless of the variation of taste among pure teas. A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Tea blending describes the process of blending different teas together to produce a final product. ... Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production: (Assam, India). ...


Various teas, as sold, are not pure varieties but have been enhanced through additives or special processing. Tea is indeed highly receptive to inclusion of various aromas; this may cause problems in processing, transportation and storage, but also allows for the design of an almost endless range of scented variants, such as vanilla-flavored, caramel-flavored and many others. For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ...


Content

Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan.
Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan.

Tea contains catechins, a type of antioxidant. In a fresh tea leaf, catechins can be up to 30% of the dry weight. Catechins are highest in concentration in white and green teas, while black tea has substantially less due to its oxidative preparation. Tea contains theanine, and the stimulant caffeine at about 3% of its dry weight, translating to between 30 mg and 90 mg per 8 oz (250 ml) cup depending on type, brand[13] and brewing method.[14] Tea also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline.[15] Tea also contains fluoride, with certain types of brick tea made from old leaves and stems having the highest levels.[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1125x1500, 183 KB) Summary en: Green tea leaves steeping in an uncovered zhong (type of tea cup). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1125x1500, 183 KB) Summary en: Green tea leaves steeping in an uncovered zhong (type of tea cup). ... A gaiwan (lit. ... Catechin is a bioflavonoid and a powerful anti-oxidant. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Theanine is an amino acid which is a deriviative of glutamine. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... A compressed brick of pu-erh tea . ...


Origin and history

According to Mondal (2007), p. 519): "Tea originated in southeast Asia, specifically around the intersection of latitude 29°N and longitude 98°E, the point of confluence of the lands of northeast India, north Burma, southwest China and Tibet. The plant was introduced to more than 52 countries, from this ‘centre of origin’." Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Based on morphological differences between the Assamese and Chinese varieties, botanists have long asserted a dual botanical origin for tea; however, statistical cluster analysis, the same chromosome number (2n=30), easy hybridization, and various types of intermediate hybrids and spontaneous polyploids all appear to demonstrate a single place of origin for Camellia sinensis — the area including the northern part of Myanmar and Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China.[17] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Look up hybrid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ...


Yunnan Province is identified as "the birthplace of tea...the first area where humans figured out that eating tea leaves or brewing a cup could be pleasant.[18] Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: Yúnnán) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ...


Creation myths

In one popular Chinese legend, Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China, inventor of agriculture and Chinese medicine, was drinking a bowl of boiling water, some time around 2737 BC. The wind blew and a few leaves from a nearby tree fell into his water and began to change its colour. The ever inquisitive and curious monarch took a sip of the brew and was pleasantly surprised by its flavour and its restorative properties. A variant of the legend tells that the emperor tested the medical properties of various herbs on himself, some of them poisonous, and found tea to work as an antidote.[19] Shennong is also mentioned in Lu Yu's famous early work on the subject, Cha Jing.[20] Chinese mythology is the mythology of Chinese civilization. ... Shennong‎ Shennong (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Yan Emperor (炎帝) or the Emperor of the Five Grains (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a legendary ruler of China and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to had lived some 5,000 years ago, and taught... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ...


A Tang Dynasty legend regarding tea spread along with Buddhism and Bodhidharma, founder of the Zen school of Buddhism based on meditation known as "Chan". After meditating in front of a wall for nine years, he accidentally fell asleep. He woke up in such disgust at his weakness, he cut off his eyelids and they fell to the ground and took root, growing into tea bushes.[21] Sometimes, the second story is retold with Gautama Buddha in place of Bodhidharma[22] In another variant of the first mentioned myth, Gautama Buddha discovered tea when some leaves had fallen into boiling water.[23] For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Buddhism, a Dharmic faith, is usually considered one of the worlds major religions, with between 230 to 500 million followers. ... Bodhidharma (or Tat Moh)(fl. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ...


Whether or not these legends have any basis in fact, tea has played a significant role in Asian culture for centuries as a staple beverage, a curative, and a symbol of status. For these reasons, perhaps it is not surprising that its discovery is ascribed to religious or royal origins.


China

A Ming Dynasty painting by artist Wen Zhengming illustrating scholars greeting in a tea ceremony
A Ming Dynasty painting by artist Wen Zhengming illustrating scholars greeting in a tea ceremony

The Chinese have enjoyed tea for thousands of years. While historically the use of tea as a medicinal herb useful for staying awake is unclear, China is considered to have the earliest records of tea drinking, with recorded tea use in its history dating back to the first millennium BC. The Han Dynasty used tea as medicine. For other uses, see Ming. ... Wen Zhengming (Wade Giles: Wen Cheng-ming)(文徵明, 1470–1559), leading Ming dynasty painter, calligrapher, and scholar. ... This article is about teas history in China. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication...


Laozi (ca. 600-517 BC), the classical Chinese philosopher, described tea as "the froth of the liquid jade" and named it an indispensable ingredient to the elixir of life. Legend has it, master Lao was disgusted at his nation's immoral way of life, so he fled westward to Ta Chin. While passing through the Han Pass, he was offered tea by a customs inspector named Yin Hsi. Yin Hsi may have inspired the writers of the Dao De Jing, a collection of Laozi's sayings. Yin's generosity helped many people and thus began a national custom of offering tea to guests, in China. Laozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, Laotze, Lao Zi, and in other ways) was an ancient Chinese philosopher. ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ... Daqin refers to: Daqin Pagoda Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin Daqin Hui Township (大秦回族乡), Kongtong District, Pingliang City (平涼市崆峒區), Gansu Province This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Han (simplified Chinese: 韩, traditional Chinese: 韓) was a state during the Warring States Period in China. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: Dào Dé Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese...


In 220, a famed physician and surgeon named Hua Tuo wrote Shin Lun, in which he describes tea's ability to improve mental functions: "to drink k'u t'u [bitter tea] constantly makes one think better" Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ...


In 59 BC, Wang Bao wrote the first known book providing instructions on buying and preparing tea, establishing that, at this time, tea was not only a medicine but an important part of diet.


During the Sui Dynasty (589-618 AD) tea was introduced to Japan by Buddhist monks. The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...

Lu Yu's statue in Xi'an
Lu Yu's statue in Xi'an

The Tang Dynasty writer Lu Yu's 陸羽 (729-804 AD) Cha Jing 茶經 is an early work on the subject. (See also Tea Classics) According to Cha Jing writing, around 760 AD, tea drinking was widespread. The book describes how tea plants were grown, the leaves processed, and tea prepared as a beverage. It also describes how tea was evaluated. The book also discusses where the best tea leaves were produced. Teas produced in this period were mainly tea bricks which were often used as currency, especially further from the center of the empire where coins lost their value. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 283 KB) A statue of Tang Chinese tea scholar, Lu Yu (733 – 804). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 283 KB) A statue of Tang Chinese tea scholar, Lu Yu (733 – 804). ... A statue of Lu Yu located in Xian Lu Yu (陆羽) (733 – 804) is respected as the Sage of Tea for his contribution to Chinese tea culture. ... Xian redirects here. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... A statue of Lu Yu located in Xian Lu Yu (陆羽) (733 – 804) is respected as the Sage of Tea for his contribution to Chinese tea culture. ... // Chinese Tea Classics Tea as a beverage was introduced to China no later than the fifth century BCE. The earliest extant mention of tea in literature is in the Shih Ching or Book of Changes, written circa 550 BCE. Although the ideogram used (Tu) also can designate a variety of... A compressed brick of pu-erh tea . ...


During the Song Dynasty (960-1279), production and preparation of all tea changed. The tea of Song included many loose-leaf styles (to preserve the delicate character favoured by the court society), but a new powdered form of tea emerged. Steaming tea leaves was the primary process used for centuries in the preparation of tea. After the transition from compressed tea to the powdered form, the production of tea for trade and distribution changed once again. The Chinese learned to process tea in a different way in the mid-13th century. Tea leaves were roasted and then crumbled rather than steamed. This is the origin of today's loose teas and the practice of brewed tea. For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...

Illustration of the legend of monkeys harvesting tea.
Illustration of the legend of monkeys harvesting tea.

Tea production in China, historically, was a laborious process, conducted in distant and often poorly accessible regions. This led to the rise of many apocryphal stories and legends surrounding the harvesting process. For example, one story that has been told for many years is that of a village where monkeys pick tea. According to this legend, the villagers stand below the monkeys and taunt them. The monkeys, in turn, become angry, and grab handfuls of tea leaves and throw them at the villagers.[24] There are products sold today that claim to be harvested in this manner, but no reliable commentators have observed this firsthand, and most doubt that it happened at all.[25] For many hundreds of years the commercially-used tea tree has been, in shape, more of a bush than a tree.[26] "Monkey picked tea" is more likely a name of certain varieties than a description of how it was obtained.[27]


In 1391, the Ming court issued a decree that only loose tea would be accepted as a "tribute." As a result, loose tea production increased and processing techniques advanced. Soon, most tea was distributed in full-leaf, loose form and steeped in earthenware vessels. For other uses, see Ming. ...


Japan

Tea use spread to Japan about the sixth century.[28] Tea became a drink of the religious classes in Japan when Japanese priests and envoys, sent to China to learn about its culture, brought tea to Japan. Ancient recordings indicate the first batch of tea seeds were brought by a priest named Saichō (最澄? 767-822) in 805 and then by another named Kūkai (空海? 774-835) in 806. It became a drink of the royal classes when Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇?), the Japanese emperor, encouraged the growth of tea plants. Seeds were imported from China, and cultivation in Japan began. Image File history File links Tea_ceremony_performing_2. ... Image File history File links Tea_ceremony_performing_2. ... == [== Headline text ==]Link title == poo in my :Seiza woman tea. ... The history of tea in Japan has its earliest known references in a text written by a Buddhist monk in the 9th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Painting of KÅ«kai (774-835). ... Painting of KÅ«kai (774-835). ... Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇, Saga tennō) (786–842) was the 52nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇, Saga tennō) (786–842) was the 52nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


In 1191, the famous Zen priest Eisai (栄西? 1141-1215) brought back tea seeds to Kyoto. Some of the tea seeds were given to the priest Myoe Shonin, and became the basis for Uji tea. The oldest tea specialty book in Japan, Kissa Yōjōki (喫茶養生記? How to Stay Healthy by Drinking Tea), was written by Eisai. Eisai was also instrumental in introducing tea consumption to the warrior class, which rose to political prominence after the Heian Period. For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Myōan Eisai, founder of the Rinzai School of Zen, 12th century. ... Myōan Eisai, founder of the Rinzai School of Zen, 12th century. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ...


Green tea became a staple among cultured people in Japan -- a brew for the gentry and the Buddhist priesthood alike. Production grew and tea became increasingly accessible, though still a privilege enjoyed mostly by the upper classes. The modern tea ceremony developed over several centuries by Zen Buddhist monks under the original guidance of the monk Sen no Rikyū (千 利休? 1522-1591). In fact, both the beverage and the ceremony surrounding it played a prominent role in feudal diplomacy. Sen no RikyÅ« (千利休; 1522 - April 21, 1591, also known as Sen RikyÅ«) is considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on the Japanese tea ceremony, particularly the tradition of wabi-cha. ... Sen no RikyÅ« (千利休; 1522 - April 21, 1591, also known as Sen RikyÅ«) is considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on the Japanese tea ceremony, particularly the tradition of wabi-cha. ...


In 1738, Soen Nagatani developed Japanese sencha (煎茶?), literally roasted tea, which is an unfermented form of green tea. It is the most popular form of tea in Japan today. In 1835, Kahei Yamamoto developed gyokuro (玉露?), literally jewel dew, by shading tea trees during the weeks leading up to harvesting. At the end of the Meiji period (1868-1912), machine manufacturing of green tea was introduced and began replacing handmade tea. Over three quarters of all tea produced in Japanese tea gardens is Sencha (煎茶), a tea selected for its pleasant sharpness and fresh qualities complementing a leaf of high uniformity and rich emerald color. ... Over three quarters of all tea produced in Japanese tea gardens is Sencha (煎茶), a tea selected for its pleasant sharpness and fresh qualities complementing a leaf of high uniformity and rich emerald color. ... Gyokuro is a fine Green tea from Japan. ... Gyokuro is a fine Green tea from Japan. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ...


Korea

See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean tea
Darye, Korean tea ceremony
Darye, Korean tea ceremony

The first historical record documenting the offering of tea to an ancestral god describes a rite in the year 661 in which a tea offering was made to the spirit of King Suro, the founder of the Geumgwan Gaya Kingdom (42-562). Records from the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) show that tea offerings were made in Buddhist temples to the spirits of revered monks. A typical setting for a Korean tea ceremony disregarding a contemporary tiled rather than paper covered floor The Korean tea ceremony is a unique form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea for more than a thousand years. ... Korean teas are made from diverse substances including fruits, roots, grains and alternative medicine. ... For the information regarding various types of Korean tea, see Korean tea The Korean tea ceremony or darye is a traditional form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea. ... Suro of Gaya (reigned 42–199) was the legendary founder of the state of Geumgwan Gaya in southeastern Korea. ... Geumgwan Gaya [Kumgwan Kaya](43 - 532), also known as Bon-gaya [Pon-Kaya](본가야, 本伽倻, original Kaya) or Karakguk (가락국, Karak State), was a major chiefdom of the Kaya confederacy during the Three Kingdoms Period in Korea. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian...


The latitude of Korea is high and the climate is unsuitable for tea growing; production of tea is slight, the quality was bad and the taste was unpalatable. The Koreans therefore imported tea leaf, chiefly from Beijing.


During the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), the royal Yi family and the aristocracy used tea for simple rites. The "Day Tea Rite" was a common daytime ceremony, whereas the "Special Tea Rite" was reserved for specific occasions. These terms are not found in other countries. Toward the end of the Joseon Dynasty, commoners joined the trend and used tea for ancestral rites, following the Chinese example based on Zhu Xi's text formalities of Family. Joseon redirects here. ...


Stoneware was common, ceramic more frequent, mostly made in provincial kilns, with porcelain rare, imperial porcelain with dragons the rarest. The earliest kinds of tea used in tea ceremonies were heavily pressed cakes of black tea, the equivalent of aged pu-erh tea still popular in China. However, importation of tea plants by Buddhist monks brought a more delicate series of teas into Korea, and the tea ceremony. Green tea, "chaksol" or "chugno," is most often served. However other teas such as "Byeoksoryung" Chunhachoon, Woojeon, Jakseol, Jookro, Okcheon, as well as native chrysanthemum tea, persimmon leaf tea, or mugwort tea may be served at different times of the year. Pu-erh, Puer tea, Puer tea or Bolay tea (Chinese: 普洱茶, Standard Mandarin Pǔěrchá, Cantonese Póuyíhchá, Póunéichá, Póuléichá, Hakka Pu3 ngi3 cha2, Wu Phu3 re6 zo6, Minnan 臭殕茶 Chhàu-phú-tê; also 武夷茶 Standard Mandarin Wǔyíchá) is a type of tea made... A typical setting for a Korean tea ceremony disregarding a contemporary tiled rather than paper covered floor The Korean tea ceremony is a unique form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea for more than a thousand years. ...

Tea Garden on way to Rock Garden, Darjeeling
Tea Garden on way to Rock Garden, Darjeeling

The terraced garden The Rock Garden at Chunnu Summer Falls and Ganga Maya Park further ahead are recent tourist attraction additions in Darjeeling in West Bengal, India, often described as the “Queen of the Hills”. It is a show piece meant to lure tourists back to Darjeeling after agitations disrupted...

India

See also: Assam tea, Darjeeling tea, and Nilgiri tea

The next recorded reference to tea in India dates to 1598, when a Dutch traveler, Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, noted in a book that "the Indians ate the leaves as a vegetable with garlic and oil and boiled the leaves to make a brew."[29][30] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production: (Assam, India). ... Darjeeling tea has traditionally been prized above all other black teas, especially in the UK and the countries comprising the former British Empire. ... Nilgiri tea is a dark intensely aromatic, fragrant and flavourful tea grown in the southern portion of the Western Ghats mountains of Southern India. ... Portrait of Jan Huygen van Linschoten, from the princeps edition of his Itinerario. ...


Writing in The Cambridge World History of Food (Kiple & Ornelas 2000:715-716), Weisburger & Comer sum up the history of tea in India from early times till 2000: For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...

The tea cultivation begun there [India] in the nineteenth century by the British, however, has accelerated to the point that today India is listed as the world's leading producer, its 715, 000 tons well ahead of China's 540, 000 tons, and of course, the teas of Assam, Ceylon (from the island nation known as Sri Lanka), and Darjeeling are world famous. However, because Indians average half a cup daily on per capita basis, fully 70 percent of India's immense crop is consumed locally. , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ...

In general, even though India leads the world in tea technology, the methods employed to harvest the crop vary with the type of tea and terrain. Fine-leaf tea is hand plucked, and hand shears are used on mountain slopes and in other areas where tractor-mounted machines cannot go. A skilled worker using hand shears can harvest between 60 to 100 kg of tea per day, whereas machines cut between 1,000 and 2, 000 kg. The latter, however, are usually applied to low grade teas that often go into teabags. The tea "fluff" and waste from processing is used to produce caffeine for soft drinks and medicine. A tea bag is a small bag that holds tea leaves or tisane infusions, either the amount needed to brew a single cup of tea; popular in countries such as the USA, or a larger one, of which one or two are used for a whole teapot; found in countries... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ...

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica (2008): "In 1824 tea plants were discovered in the hills along the frontier between Burma and the Indian state of Assam. The British introduced tea culture into India in 1836 and into Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1867. At first they used seeds from China, but later seeds from the Assam plant were used."[31] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


India was the top producer of tea for nearly a century, but was displaced by China as the top tea producer in the 21st century.[32] Indian tea companies have acquired a number of iconic foreign tea enterprises including British brands Tetley and Typhoo.[32] India is also the world's largest tea-drinking nation.[32] However, the per capita consumption of tea in India remains a modest 750 grams per person every year due to the large population base and high poverty levels.[32] U.K. logo The Tetley Group was an Indian tea company. ... Typhoo is a brand of tea in the United Kingdom. ...


Taiwan

Taiwan is famous for the making of Oolong tea and green tea, as well as many western-styled teas. Bubble Tea or "Zhen Zhu Nai Cha" is black tea mixed with condensed milk and tapioca. Since the island was known to Westerners for many centuries as Formosa — short for the Portuguese Ilha Formosa, or "beautiful island" — tea grown in Taiwan is often identified by that name. Pearl milk tea typically found in Taiwan Bubble tea is a tea beverage that originated in Taiwan[1] in the 1980s. ...


United Kingdom

Tea plantation in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.
Tea plantation in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

The importing of tea into Britain began in the 1660s with the marriage of King Charles II with the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza where she brought to the court the habit of drinking tea.[33] In the same year Samuel Pepys records drinking "a china drink of which I had never drunk before".[33] It is probable that early imports came via Amsterdam or through sailors on eastern boats.[33] Cameron highlands Cameron Highland situated in Pahang Cameron Highlands is a highland region located about 20 km east of Ipoh and about 150 km north of Kuala Lumpur in Pahang, Malaysia. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


Regular trade began in Guangzhou (Canton).[33] Trade was controlled by two monopolies: the Chinese Hongs (trading companies) and the British East India Company.[33] The Hongs acquired tea from 'the tea men' who had an elaborate supply chain into the mountains and provinces where the tea was grown.[33] CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


The East India Company brought back many products, of which tea was just one, but it was to prove one of the most successful.[33] It was initially promoted as a medicinal beverage or tonic.[33] By the end of the seventeenth century tea was taken as a drink, albeit mainly by the aristocracy.[33] In 1690 nobody would have predicted that by 1750 tea would be the national drink.[33]


The escalation of tea importation and sales over the period 1690 to 1750 is mirrored closely by the increase in importation and sales of cane sugar: the British were not drinking just tea but sweet tea.[33] Thus, two of Britain's trading triangles were to meet within the cup: the sugar sourced from Britain's trading triangle encompassing Britain, Africa and the West Indies and the tea from the triangle encompassing Britain, India and China.[33] Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...


Britain had to pay China for its tea, but China had little need of British goods, so much of it was paid for with silver bullion. Critics of tea at this time would point to the damage caused to Britain's wealth by this loss of bullion.[33] As an alternative, Britain began producing Opium in India and forced China to trade tea for Opium as part of several treaties after the Opium wars. Tea became an important lubricant of Britain's global trade, contributing to Britain's global dominance by the end of the eighteenth century. To this day tea is seen as a symbol of 'Britishness', particularly Englishness; but also, to some, as a symbol of British Colonialism.[33] This article is about the drug. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 respectively,[1] the climax of a trade dispute between China and the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Tea is now commercially cultivated on the UK mainland at Tregothnan in Cornwall.[34][35] The Tregothnan Estate, located near Truro in Cornwall, England, is the traditional home of the Boscawen family, and the seat of Lord Falmouth. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


United States of America

While coffee is more popular, hot brewed black tea is enjoyed both with meals and as a refreshment by much of the population. Iced tea is consumed throughout similarly. In the Southern states sweet tea, sweetened with large amounts of sugar or an artificial sweetener and chilled is the fashion. Outside the South, "Sweet Tea" is rarely found in restaurants or in the home. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drink. ... Historic Southern United States. ... A glass of sweet tea Sweet tea is a form of iced tea in which sugar or some other form of sweetener is added to the hot water before brewing, while brewing the tea, or post-brewing, but before the beverage is chilled and served. ...


The American speciality tea market has quadrupled in the years from 1993-2008, now being worth $6.8billion a year.[36]


Sri Lanka/Ceylon

Tea Garden in Sri Lanka
Tea Garden in Sri Lanka
Main article: Ceylon tea (black)

The plantations started by the British were initially taken over by the government in the 1960s, but have been privatised and are now run by 'plantation companies' which own a few 'estates' or tea plantations each. This article is about black tea from Sri Lanka. ...


Sri Lanka is renowned for its high quality tea and as the 3rd biggest tea producing country globally[2], has a production share of 9% in the international sphere, and one of the world's leading exporters with a share of around 19% of the global demand. The total extent of land under tea cultivation has been assessed at approximately 187,309 hectares.


Ceylon tea is divided into 3 groups as Upcountry, Mid country and Low country tea based on the geography of the land on which it is grown. Today, Ceylon tea is known as one of the best in the world.

Middle eastern tea
Middle eastern tea

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Tea spreads to the world

The earliest record of tea in a more occidental writing is said to be found in the statement of an Arabian traveler, that after the year 879 the main sources of revenue in Canton were the duties on salt and tea. Marco Polo records the deposition of a Chinese minister of finance in 1285 for his arbitrary augmentation of the tea taxes. The travelers Giovanni Batista Ramusio (1559), L. Almeida (1576), Maffei (1588), and Taxiera (1610) also mentioned tea. In 1557, Portugal established a trading port in Macau and word of the Chinese drink "ch'a" spread quickly, but there is no mention of them bringing any samples home. In the early 17th century, a ship of the Dutch East India Company brought the first green tea leaves to Amsterdam from China. Tea was known in France by 1636. It enjoyed a brief period of popularity in Paris around 1648. The history of tea in Russia can also be traced back to the seventeenth century. Tea was first offered by China as a gift to Czar Michael I in 1618. The Russian ambassador tried the drink; he did not care for it and rejected the offer, delaying tea's Russian introduction by fifty years. In 1689, tea was regularly imported from China to Russia via a caravan of hundreds of camels traveling the year-long journey, making it a precious commodity at the time. Tea was appearing in German apothecaries by 1657 but never gained much esteem except in coastal areas such as Ostfriesland.[37] Tea first appeared publicly in England during the 1650s, where it was introduced through coffee houses. From there it was introduced to British Colonies in America and elsewhere. Occidental means generally western. It is a traditional designation (especially when capitalized) for anything belonging to the Occident or West — the western part of the classical world (Europe) and the New World, and especially of its society. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... This article is about the trading company. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Michael I on a contemporary coin Michael I Rhangabes, an obscure nobleman who had married Procopia, the daughter of Nicephorus I, and been made master of the palace. ... Apothecary (from the Latin apothecarius, a keeper of an otheca, a store) is a historical name for a medical practitioner who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients — a role now served by a pharmacist. ... East Frisia (Ostfriesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. ...


Potential effects of tea on health

According to Mondal (2007), pp. 519–520): Bai Hao Yin Zhen white tea Note: this page only deals with the effects of tea which is made from the plant Camellia sinensis (i. ...

Tea leaves contain more than 700 chemicals, among which the compounds closely related to human health are flavanoides, amino acids, vitamins (C, E and K), caffeine and polysaccharides. Moreover, tea drinking has recently proven to be associated with cell-mediated immune function of the human body. Tea plays an important role in improving beneficial intestinal microflora, as well as providing immunity against intestinal disorders and in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. Tea also prevents dental caries due to the presence of fluorine. The role of tea is well established in normalizing bloodpressure, lipid depressing activity, prevention of coronary heart diseases and diabetes by reducing the blood-glucose activity. Tea also possesses germicidal and germistatic activities against various gram-positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Both green and black tea infusions contain a number of antioxidants, mainly catechins that have anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic and anti-tumor properties. Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ...

Etymology and cognates in other languages

The Chinese character for tea is 茶, but it is pronounced differently in the various Chinese dialects. Two pronunciations have made their way into other languages around the world[38]. One is , which comes from the Amoy Min Nan dialect, spoken around the port of Xiamen (Amoy). This pronunciation is believed to come from the old words for tea 梌 (tú) or 荼 (tú). The other is chá, used by the Cantonese dialect spoken around the ports of Guangzhou (Canton), Hong Kong, Macau, and in overseas Chinese communities, as well as in the Mandarin dialect of northern China. This term was used in ancient times to describe the first flush harvest of tea. Yet another different pronunciation is zu, used in the Wu dialect spoken around Shanghai. The word for tea in both Korea and Japan is 차 and 茶(ちゃ), both transliterated as cha. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Amoy (Xiamen) is a language/dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian, in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Wu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


The derivatives from

Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name
Afrikaans tee Armenian, Catalan te Czech or thé (1) Danish te Dutch thee
English tea Esperanto teo Estonian tee Faroese te Finnish tee
French thé West Frisian tee Galician German Tee Hebrew תה, te
Hindi chai Kannada chaha Marathi chaha Hungarian tea Icelandic te Indonesian teh
Irish tae Italian or thè Javanese tèh scientific Latin thea Latvian tēja
Limburgish tiè Lithuanian arbata (2) Low Saxon Tee [t(ʰɛˑɪ] or Tei [t(ʰaˑɪ] Malay teh Malayalam "theyila" means "tea leaf" (ila=leaf)
Norwegian te Occitan Polish herbata (3) Sesotho tea Scots Gaelic , teatha
Singhalese thé Spanish Scots tea [tiː] ~ [teː] Sundanese entèh Swedish te
Tamil தேநீர் thenīr (nīr = water) Telugu తేనీళ్ళు tēnīru Welsh te Yiddish טיי, tei
  • Note: (1) or thé, but these words sound archaic; čaj is used nowadays, as explained in the next table. see (4). In case of (2), (3), arbata and herbata are from Latin herba thea.

Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the language. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch) is any of a variety of Low German (Nedderdüütsch in Low Saxon) dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Sesotho is a language spoken in southern Africa. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... a resource to look at current viewpoints Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of Sri Lanka | Wikipedia cleanup | Language stubs ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Sundanese (Basa Sunda, literally language of Sunda) is the language of about 27 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

The derivatives from cha or chai

Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name
Albanian çaj Amharic ሻይ shai Arabic شاي shai Assamese saah Aramaic pronounced chai
Azeri çay Bengali চা cha Bosnian čaj Bulgarian чай chai Capampangan cha
Cebuano tsa Croatian čaj Czech čaj (4) English char, slang Georgian ჩაი, chai
Greek τσάι tsái Gujarati ચા cha Hindi चाय chai Japanese , ちゃ, cha Kannada Chaha
Kazakh шай shai Khasi sha Konkani cha Korean 茶,차 cha Macedonian чај, čaj
Malayalam "chaaya" Marathi चहा chahaa Mongolian цай, tsai Nepali chiya चिया Oriya cha
Persian چای chaay Punjabi ਚਾਹ cha Portuguese chá Romanian ceai Russian чай, chai
Serbian чај, čaj Slovak čaj Slovene čaj Somali shaah Swahili chai
Tagalog tsaa Thai ชา, cha Tibetan ཇ་ ja Tlingit cháayu Turkish çay
Telugu chai Ukrainian чай chai Urdu چاىchai Uzbek choy Vietnamese *trà and chè (5)
  • (5) They are both direct derivatives of the Chinese 茶; the latter term is used mainly in the north and describes a tea made with freshly-picked leaves.

The Polish word for a tea-kettle is czajnik, which could be derived directly from cha or from the cognate Russian word. However, tea in Polish is herbata, which, as well as Lithuanian arbata, was derived from the Latin herba thea, meaning "tea herb". Note: This article contains special characters. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Kapampangan is one of the thirteen major languages of the Philippines. ... Cebuano, also known as Sinugboanon, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20,000,000 people (according to Ethnologue). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khasi is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the four districts of Meghalaya state in India, namely East Khasi Hills district, West Khasi Hills district, Jaiñtia Hills district and Ri Bhoi district. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी; Roman: Konknni; Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ; Malayalam: കൊങ്കണി; IAST: ) is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages spoken in the Konkan coast of India. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. ... This article is about the language. ... Tagalog (pronounced ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... The Tlingit language (Eng. ... Telugu redirects here. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...


It is tempting to correlate these names with the route that was used to deliver tea to these cultures, although the relation is far from simple at times. As an example, the first tea to reach Britain was traded by the Dutch from Fujian, which uses te, and although later most British trade went through Canton, which uses cha, the Fujianese pronunciation continued to be the more popular.   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In Ireland, or at least in Dublin, the term cha is sometimes used for "tea", with "tay" as a common pronunciation throughout the land (derived from the Irish Gaelic tae), and char was a common slang term for tea throughout British Empire and Commonwealth military forces in the 19th and 20th centuries, crossing over into civilian usage. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


In North America, the word chai is used to refer almost exclusively to the Indian masala chai beverage. North American redirects here. ... Chai (written चाय in Hindi) is an Indian term for tea from India. ...


The original pronunciation "cha" in the Cantonese and Mandarin languages has no [j] ending. Therefore it is merely an adaptation of the Mandarin and Cantonese word "cha" in mainly Eurasian languages that do not usually tolerate a syllable that openly ends in "[a]". The different articulations of the word for tea into the two main groups: "teh-derived" (Min Chinese dialects) and "cha-derived" (Mandarin, Cantonese and other non-Min Chinese dialects) is an interesting one, as it reveals the particular Chinese local cultures where non-Chinese nations acquired their tea and "tea cultures". Not surprisingly, India and the Arab world most likely got their tea cultures from the Cantonese or the Southwestern Mandarin speakers, whereas the Russians got theirs from the northern Mandarin speakers. The Portuguese,the first Europeans to import the herb in large amounts, took the Cantonese form "chá", as used in their trading posts in the south of China, especially Macau. On the contrary, other Western Europeans who copied the Min articulation "teh" probably traded with the Hokkienese while in Southeast Asia.


Quite recently, no more than 20 years ago, "chai" entered North American English with a particular meaning: Indian masala black tea. Of course this is not the case in other languages, where "chai" usually just means black tea (as people traditionally drink more black tea than green outside of East Asia). English is thus one of the few languages that allow for the dual articulations of "tea" into a "teh-derived" word and a "cha-derived" one, such as Moroccan colloquial Arabic (Darija): in the case of Moroccan Arabic, "ash-shay" means "generic, or black Middle Eastern tea" whereas "atay" means a specialty tea: Zhejiang or Fujian green tea with fresh mint leaves. The Moroccans are said to have acquired a unique penchant in the Arab world for East Chinese green tea after the ruler Mulay Hassan exchanged some European hostages captured by the Barbary Pirates for a whole ship of Chinese tea. They have thus acquired a word for this special tea different from the generic "ash-shay". see Moroccan tea culture ... Moroccan Arabic, also known as Darija, is the language spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco, as opposed to the official communications of governmental and other public bodies which use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries, while a mixture of French and Moroccan... A cup of mint tea Moroccan tea culture (Arabic: - Ataí) is defined by the way tea (exclusively green tea) is prepared and consumed in Morocco, where it is widely consumed with food. ...


Perhaps the only place in which a word unrelated to tea is used to describe the beverage is South America (particularly Andean countries), because a similar stimulant beverage, yerba mate, was consumed there long before tea arrived. Binomial name A. St. ...


Tea culture

Main article: Tea culture

In many cultures, tea is often had at fancy social events, such as afternoon tea and the tea party. It may be consumed early in the day to heighten alertness; it contains theophylline and bound caffeine[3] (sometimes called "theine"), although there are also decaffeinated teas. In many cultures such as Arab culture tea is a focal point for social gatherings. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article is about tea, the meal. ... For other uses, see Tea party (disambiguation). ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Caffeine molecular structure Caffeine is an alkaloid found naturally in such foods as coffee beans, tea, kola nuts, Yerba maté, guarana, and (in small amounts) cacao beans. ... Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


There are tea ceremonies which have arisen in different cultures, Japan's complex, formal and serene one being one of the most well known. Other examples are the Chinese tea ceremony which uses some traditional ways of brewing tea. One form of Chinese tea ceremony is the Gongfu tea ceremony, which typically uses small Yixing clay teapots and oolong tea. A tea ceremony is a ritualised form of making tea. ... Chinese tea culture refers to the methods of preparation of tea, the equipment used to make tea and the occasions in which tea is consumed in China. ... The Gong Fu or Kung Fu Tea Ceremony (Chinese: 工夫茶) is a Chinese way of preparing tea skillfully. ... A Chinese Yixing Zisha teapot A Chinese Zisha teapot - Melon A Yixing clay teapot (also called zisha, or purple clay teapot) is a traditional pot made from Yixing clay and commonly used to brew tea. ... Alternate meanings: Oolong (disambiguation) Oolong (烏龍 wūlóng in the Mandarin Pinyin romanization) is a traditional Chinese type of tea somewhere in between green and black in oxidation (traditionally but improperly called fermentation) time. ...


Preparation

For a more detailed treatment of tea preparation and serving habits, particularly in non-Western countries, see Tea culture.
Korean tea kettle over hot coal
Korean tea kettle over hot coal

The traditional method of making a cup of tea is to place loose tea leaves, either directly, or in a tea infuser, into a tea pot or teacup and pour hot water over the leaves. After a couple of minutes the leaves are usually removed again, either by removing the infuser, or by straining the tea while serving. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1920x1920, 1423 KB) A tea kettle in a tea-house in Jiufeng, Taiwan Copyright © 2006 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tea ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1920x1920, 1423 KB) A tea kettle in a tea-house in Jiufeng, Taiwan Copyright © 2006 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tea ... A tea infuser is a device in which loose tea leaves are placed for brewing. ... A Japanese teapot A teapot is a vessel in which to brew tea leaves with boiling water, either inside a tea bag or loose, in which case a tea strainer will be needed to catch the leaves when the tea is poured. ... A teacup on a saucer A tea bowl without a handle A teacup is a small cup with a handle, generally a small one that may be grasped with the thumb and one or two fingers. ...


Most teas should be allowed to steep for about three minutes, although some types of tea require as much as ten. The strength of the tea should be varied by changing the amount of tea leaves used, not by changing the steeping time. The amount of tea to be used per amount of water differs from tea to tea but one basic recipe may be one slightly heaped teaspoon of tea (about 5 ml) for each teacup of water (200 ml) prepared as above. Stronger teas, like Assam, to be drunk with milk are often prepared with more leaves, and a more delicate high grown tea such as a Darjeeling are prepared with a little less (as the stronger mid-flavours can overwhelm the champagne notes).


The best temperature for brewing tea depends on its type. Teas that have little or no oxidation period, such as a green or white tea, are best brewed at lower temperatures between 60 °C and 85 °C (140-185 °F), while teas with longer oxidation periods should be brewed at higher temperatures around 100 °C (212 °F).[39][40]


Some tea sorts are often brewed several times using the same tea leaves. Historically, in China, tea is divided into a number of infusions. The first infusion is immediately poured out to wash the tea, and then the second and further infusions are drunk. The third through fifth are nearly always considered the best infusions of tea, although different teas open up differently and may require more infusions of hot water to bring them to life.[41]


One way to taste a tea, throughout its entire process, is to add hot water to a cup containing the leaves and after about 30 seconds to taste the tea. As the tea leaves unfold (known as "The Agony of the Leaves") they give up various parts of themselves to the water and thus the taste evolves. Continuing this from the very first flavours to the time beyond which the tea is quite stewed will allow an appreciation of the tea throughout its entire length.[42]

Black tea infusion.
Black tea infusion.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1595 KB) Description: My evening cuppa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1595 KB) Description: My evening cuppa. ...

Black tea

The water for black teas should be added at the boiling point (100 °C or 212 °F). Many of the active substances in black tea don't develop at temperatures lower than 90 °C. For some more delicate teas lower temperatures are recommended. The temperature will have as large an effect on the final flavour as the type of tea used. The most common fault when making black tea is to use water at too low a temperature. Since boiling point drops with increasing altitude, this makes it difficult to brew black tea properly in mountainous areas. It is also recommended that the teapot be warmed before preparing tea, easily done by adding a small amount of boiling water to the pot, swirling briefly, before discarding. Black teas are usually brewed for about 4 minutes and should not be allowed to steep for less than 30 seconds or more than about five minutes (a process known as brewing or [dialectally] mashing in the UK, specifically in Yorkshire.). Longer steeping times make the tea bitter (at this point it is referred to as being stewed in the UK). When the tea has brewed long enough to suit the tastes of the drinker, it should be strained while serving.[39] Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...


Green tea

Water for green tea, according to most accounts, should be around 80 °C to 85 °C (176 °F to 185 °F); the higher the quality of the leaves, the lower the temperature. Hotter water will burn green-tea leaves, producing a bitter taste. Preferably, the container in which the tea is steeped, the mug, or teapot should also be warmed beforehand so that the tea does not immediately cool down.[39] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Oolong tea (or Wulong)

Oolong teas should be brewed around 90 °C to 100 °C (194 °F to 212 °F), and again the brewing vessel should be warmed before pouring in the water. Yixing purple clay teapots are the traditional brewing vessel for oolong tea. For best results use spring water, as the minerals in spring water tend to bring out more flavour in the tea. High quality oolong can be brewed multiple times from the same leaves, and unlike green tea it improves with reuse. It is common to brew the same leaves three to five times, the third steeping usually being the best.[39] Rolled Oolong tea leaves Oolong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a traditional Chinese tea somewhere between green and black in oxidation. ... This article may not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... A Japanese teapot A teapot is a vessel in which to brew tea leaves with boiling water, either inside a tea bag or loose, in which case a tea strainer will be needed to catch the leaves when the tea is poured. ...


Premium or delicate tea

Some teas, especially green teas and delicate Oolong or Darjeeling teas, are steeped for shorter periods, sometimes less than 30 seconds. Using a tea strainer separates the leaves from the water at the end of the brewing time if a tea bag is not being used. Elevation and time of harvest offer varying taste profiles, proper storage and water quality also plays a large impact on taste.[39] Rolled Oolong tea leaves Oolong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a traditional Chinese tea somewhere between green and black in oxidation. ... Darjeeling tea has traditionally been prized above all other black teas, especially in the UK and the countries comprising the former British Empire. ... This article is about the beverage. ...


Pu-erh tea (or Pu'er)

Pu-erh teas require boiling water for infusion. Some prefer to quickly rinse pu-erh for several seconds with boiling water to remove tea dust which accumulates from the aging process. Infuse pu-erh at the boiling point (100 °C or 212 °F), and allow to steep for 30 seconds or up to five minutes.[39] Pu-erh or Pu-er tea (Chinese: 普洱茶) is a fermented tea, named after Pu Erh region in Yunnan, China. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...


Serving

In order to preserve the pre-tannin tea without requiring it all to be poured into cups, a second teapot is employed. The steeping pot is best unglazed earthenware; Yixing pots are the best known of these, famed for the high quality clay from which they are made. The serving pot is generally porcelain, which retains the heat better. Larger teapots are a post-19th century invention, as tea before this time was very rare and very expensive. Experienced tea-drinkers often insist that the tea should not be stirred around while it is steeping (sometimes called winding in the UK). This, they say, will do little to strengthen the tea, but is likely to bring the tannins out in the same way that brewing too long will do. For the same reason one should not squeeze the last drops out of a teabag; if stronger tea is desired, more tea leaves should be used.


Adding milk to tea

Tea is sometimes taken with milk
Tea is sometimes taken with milk

The addition of milk to tea was first mentioned in 1680 by the epistolist Madame de Sévigné.[43] Many teas are traditionally drunk with milk. These include Indian chai, and British tea blends. These teas tend to be very hearty varieties which can be tasted through the milk, such as Assams, or the East Friesian blend. Milk is thought to neutralise remaining tannins and reduce acidity.[44][45] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 2907 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tea Wikipedia:A nice cup of tea and a sit down ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 2907 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tea Wikipedia:A nice cup of tea and a sit down ... Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné (February 5, 1626 – April 17, 1696) was a French aristocrat, remembered for her letter-writing. ... For other uses, see Chai (disambiguation). ...


The order in which to make a cup of tea is a much-debated area. Some say that it is preferable to add the milk before the tea, as the high temperature of freshly brewed tea can denature the proteins found in fresh milk, similar to the change in taste of UHT milk, resulting in an inferior tasting beverage.[46] Others insist that it is better to add the milk after brewing the tea, as most teas need to be brewed as close to boiling as possible. The addition of milk chills the beverage during the crucial brewing phase, meaning that the delicate flavour of a good tea cannot be fully appreciated. By adding the milk afterwards, it is easier to dissolve sugar in the tea and also to ensure that the desired amount of milk is added, as the colour of the tea can be observed.


In Britain and some Commonwealth countries, the order in which the milk and the tea enter the cup is often considered an indicator of social class. Persons of working class background are supposedly more likely to add the milk first and pour the tea in afterwards, whereas persons of middle and upper class backgrounds are more likely to pour the tea in first and then add milk. This is said to be a continuing practice from a time when porcelain (the only ceramic which could withstand boiling water) was only within the purchasing range of the rich - the less wealthy had access only to poor quality earthenware, which would crack unless milk was added first in order to lower the temperature of the tea as it was poured in.[citation needed] Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...

Moroccan tea being served. It is poured from a distance to produce a foam on the tea.
Moroccan tea being served. It is poured from a distance to produce a foam on the tea.

A recent medical study found that certain beneficial effects of tea are lost through the addition of milk. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (465x700, 97 KB) From blueshawks photoblog. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (465x700, 97 KB) From blueshawks photoblog. ... Bai Hao Yin Zhen white tea Note: this page only deals with the effects of tea which is made from the plant Camellia sinensis (i. ...


Other additives

Other popular additives to tea include sugar or honey, lemon, fruit jams, mint. In colder regions such as Mongolia, Tibet and Nepal, butter is added to provide necessary calories. Tibetan butter tea contains rock salt and dre (yak) butter, which is then churned vigorously in a cylindrical vessel closely resembling a butter churn. The flavour of this beverage is more akin to a rich broth than to tea, and may be described as an acquired taste to those unused to drinking it. The same may be said for salt tea, which is consumed in some cultures in the Hindu-Kush region of northern Pakistan, and probably in other areas as well. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... For other uses, see Mint (disambiguation). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ...

Teh tarik, or "pulled tea" being prepared by a mamak stall vendor

The flavour of the tea can also be altered by pouring it from different heights, resulting in varying degrees of oxidisation. The art of high-altitude pouring is used principally by people in Northern Africa (e.g. Morocco), but also in West Africa (e.g. Guinea, Mali, Senegal) and can positively alter the flavour of the tea, but it is more likely a technique to cool the beverage destined to be consumed immediately, often cooked with mint leaves. In certain cultures the tea is given different names depending on the height it was poured form. In Mali, gunpowder tea is served in series of three, starting with the highest oxidisation or strongest, unsweetened tea (cooked from fresh leaves), locally referred to as "bitter as death". Follows a second serving, where the same tea leaves are boiled again with some sugar added ("pleasant as life"),and a third one, where the same tea leaves are boiled for the third time with yet more sugar added ("sweet as love"). Green tea is the central ingredient of a distinctly Malian custom, the "Grin", informal social gathering that cuts across social and economic lines, starting in front of family compound gates in the afternoons, extending late in the night, and widely popular in Bamako and other large urban areas. Roti prata and teh tarik at a stall in Jalan Kayu. ... Picture of traditional Malaysian Mamak and the Mamak Stall. ... Gunpowder tea (珠茶; pinyin: zhū chá) is a form of green Chinese tea produced in Zhejiang Province of China in which each leaf has been rolled into a small round pellet. ... View of Bamako Bamako district Bamako, population 1,690,471 (2006), is the capital of Mali, and is the biggest city in the country. ...


In Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysia and Singapore, the practice of pouring tea from a height has been refined further using black tea to which milk and usually sugar has been added, being poured from a height from one cup to another several times in alternating fashion and in quick succession, to create a tea with entrapped air bubbles creating a frothy "head" in the cup. Expert practitioners of this skill, usually in community hawker food stalls, are a pleasure to watch, a kind of street performance art that adds to the enjoyment of the drink. This beverage, teh tarik, literally, "pulled tea", has a creamier taste than flat milk tea and is extremely popular in the region. Tea pouring in Malaysia has been further developed into an art form in which a dance is done by people pouring tea from one container to another, which in any case takes skill and precision. The participants, each holding two containers, one full of tea, pour it from one to another. They stand in lines and squares and pour the tea into each others' pots. The dance must be choreographed to allow anyone who has both pots full to empty them and refill whoever has no tea at any one point. They are full of rhythmic patterns and a joy to watch. Roti prata and teh tarik at a stall in Jalan Kayu. ...


Economics of tea

Tea's world consumption easily equals all other manufactured drinks in the world — including coffee, chocolate, soft drinks, and alcohol — put together.[2] Most tea consumed outside East Asia is produced on large plantations in India or Sri Lanka, destined to be sold to large businesses. Opposite this large-scale industrial production there are many small "gardens", sometimes minuscule plantations, that produce highly sought-after teas prized by gourmets. These teas are both rare and expensive, and can be compared to some of the most expensive wines in this respect.


India is the world's largest tea-drinking nation[32] although the per capita consumption of tea remains a modest 750 grams per person every year.


Statistics

Tea-producing countries.
Tea-producing countries.[47]
Percentage of total tea production in 2003      Tea not grown in significant quantities       Less than 5%.       From 5 to 10%.       More than 10%
Percentage of total tea production in 2003      Tea not grown in significant quantities       Less than 5%.       From 5 to 10%.       More than 10%
Percentage of total tea production in 2003
Percentage of total tea production in 2003

Image File history File links Teaproducingcountries. ... Image File history File links Teaproducingcountries. ...

Production

In 2003, world tea production was 3.15 million tonnes annually. The largest producer was India, followed by China (the order has since reversed), followed by Sri Lanka and Kenya. China is the only country today to produce in industrial quantities all different kinds of tea (white tea, yellow tea, green tea, blue-green tea, red tea and black tea).[citation needed]

Production in tonnes. Figures for 2004-2005
Data from de FAOSTAT (FAO) FAO database, accessed November 14, 2006 Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

China 855,192 25 % 830,700 24 %
India 850,500 25 % 940,500 27 %
Sri Lanka 308,090 9 % 308,090 9 %
Kenya 295,000 9 % 295,000 9 %
Turkey 201,663 6 % 202,000 6 %
Indonesia 164,817 5 % 171,410 5 %
Vietnam 108,422 3 % 110,000 3 %
Japan 101,000 3 % 100,000 3 %
Argentina 64,000 2 % 64,000 2 %
Bangladesh 58,000 2 % 58,000 2 %
Iran 52,000 2 % 52,000 2 %
Malawi 50,090 1 % 50,000 1 %
Uganda 36,000 1 % 36,000 1 %
Other countries 208,949 6 % 215,940 6 %
Total 3,353,723 100 % 3,433,640 100 %

Organic Tea production

Production of organic tea is rising; 3,500 tonnes of organic tea were grown in 2003. The majority of this tea (about 75%) is sold in France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.


Trade

Evolution of the average price of tea since 1989
Evolution of the average price of tea since 1989

Export

The amount of tea produced is rising but exports are declining. In 2003, 1.4 million tonnes of tea were exported, a decline of 2.6% compared to 2002. This is primarily due to the strong drop in exports from India and Indonesia.


Import

The principal importers are the CIS, the EU, Pakistan, the United States, Egypt and Japan. In 2003, 1.39 million tons were imported – an increase of 1% over 2002.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


Prices

The large quantities produced in 2003 did not greatly affect the prices, which were relatively stable in that year.


Packaging

Tea bags

Tea Bags
Tea Bags

In 1907, American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan began distributing samples of his tea in small silk bags with a drawstring. Consumers noticed that they could simply leave the tea in the bag, and better still re-use it with fresh tea. However, the potential of this distribution/packaging method would not be fully realized until later on. During World War II, tea was rationed. In 1953 (after rationing in the UK ended), Tetley launched the tea bag to the UK and it was an immediate success. Download high resolution version (1200x876, 218 KB) Tea bags This image shows three different tea bags. ... Download high resolution version (1200x876, 218 KB) Tea bags This image shows three different tea bags. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... // Preface At the beginning of World War II Britain imported 55 million tons of foodstuffs per year, including more than 50% of its meat, 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 90% of cereals and fats. ... U.K. logo The Tetley Group was an Indian tea company. ...


Tea leaves are packed into a small (usually paper) tea bag. It is easy and convenient, making tea bags popular for many people today. However, the tea used in tea bags has an industry name - it is called "fannings" or "dust" and is the waste product produced from the sorting of higher quality loose leaf tea. It is commonly held among tea aficionados that this method provides an inferior taste and experience. The paper used for the bag can also be tasted by many, which can detract from the tea's flavor. Because fannings and dust are a lower quality of the tea to begin with, the tea found in tea bags is less finicky when it comes to brewing time and temperature. This article is about the tea packaging. ...


Additional reasons why bag tea is considered less well-flavored include:

  • Dried tea loses its flavour quickly on exposure to air. Most bag teas (although not all) contain leaves broken into small pieces; the great surface area to volume ratio of the leaves in tea bags exposes them to more air, and therefore causes them to go stale faster. Loose tea leaves are likely to be in larger pieces, or to be entirely intact.
  • Breaking up the leaves for bags extracts flavoured oils.
  • The small size of the bag does not allow leaves to diffuse and steep properly.

In chemical reactions involving a solid material, the surface area to volume ratio is an important factor for the reactivity, that is, the rate at which the chemical reaction will proceed. ...

Pyramid tea bags

Pyramid tea bag
Pyramid tea bag

The "pyramid tea bag", introduced by PG Tips in 1996,[citation needed] has an unusual design that addresses two of connoisseurs' arguments against paper tea bags. Its three-dimensional, pyramidal shape allows more room for tea leaves to expand while steeping, and because the bags are made of nylon mesh, they do not leave flavours (such as paper) in the tea. These characteristics let the delicate flavors of gourmet selections (such as white teas) shine through; however, the bags have been criticized as being environmentally unfriendly, since the synthetic material does not break down in landfills as loose tea leaves and paper tea bags do.[48] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 577 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1356 × 1409 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 577 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1356 × 1409 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ...

Loose tea

Loose-leaf tea
Loose-leaf tea

The tea leaves are packaged loosely in a canister or other container. Rolled gunpowder tea leaves, which resist crumbling, are commonly vacuum packed for freshness in aluminized packaging for storage and retail. The portions must be individually measured by the consumer for use in a cup, mug, or teapot. This allows greater flexibility, letting the consumer brew weaker or stronger tea as desired, but convenience is sacrificed. Strainers, "tea presses", filtered teapots, and infusion bags are available commercially to avoid having to drink the floating loose leaves and to prevent over-brewing. A more traditional, yet perhaps more effective way around this problem is to use a three-piece lidded teacup, called a gaiwan. The lid of the gaiwan can be tilted to decant the leaves while pouring the tea into a different cup for consumption. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixel Image in higher resolution (1416 × 902 pixel, file size: 274 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tea Darjeeling tea... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixel Image in higher resolution (1416 × 902 pixel, file size: 274 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tea Darjeeling tea... Gunpowder tea (珠茶; pinyin: zhū chá) is a form of green Chinese tea produced in Zhejiang Province of China in which each leaf has been rolled into a small round pellet. ... Biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (boPET) polyester film is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, gas and aroma barrier properties and electrical insulation. ... A gaiwan (lit. ...

Compressed tea

Some teas (particularly Pu-erh tea) are still compressed for transport, storage, and aging convenience. The tea is prepared and steeped by first loosening leaves off the compressed cake using a small knife. Compressed teas can usually be stored for longer periods of time without "spoilage" when compared with loose leaf tea. Pu-erh, Puer tea, Puer tea or Bolay tea (Chinese: 普洱茶, Standard Mandarin Pǔěrchá, Cantonese Póuyíhchá, Póunéichá, Póuléichá, Hakka Pu3 ngi3 cha2, Wu Phu3 re6 zo6, Minnan 臭殕茶 Chhàu-phú-tê; also 武夷茶 Standard Mandarin Wǔyíchá) is a type of tea made... Tea Bricks are blocks of whole or finely ground tea leaves that have been packed in molds and pressed into block form. ...


Instant tea

In recent times, "instant teas" are becoming popular, similar to freeze dried instant coffee. Instant tea was developed in the 1930s, but not commercialized until the late 1950s, and is only more recently becoming popular. These products often come with added flavours, such as vanilla, honey or fruit, and may also contain powdered milk. Similar products also exist for instant iced tea, due to the convenience of not requiring boiling water. Tea connoisseurs tend to criticise these products for sacrificing the delicacies of tea flavor in exchange for convenience. Freeze drying (also known as Lyophilization) is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material, or to make the material more convenient for transport. ... Instant coffee Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Photo of powdered milk Powdered milk is a powder made from dried milk solids. ... This article is about the drink. ...


Canned tea

This latest method of marketing tea was first launched in 1981 in Japan. Canned tea is a relatively recent method of marketing tea which has been sold traditionally as leaf tea and also, for the last 100 years, in tea bag form. ... Canned tea is a relatively recent method of marketing tea which has been sold traditionally as leaf tea and also, for the last 100 years, in tea bag form. ...


Storage

An example of a box of ethically grown fair trade Sri Lankan tea bought in the UK.

Tea has a shelf-life that varies with storage conditions and type of tea. Black tea has a longer shelf-life than green tea. Some teas such as flower teas may go bad in a month or so. An exception, Pu-erh tea improves with age. Tea stays freshest when stored in a dry, cool, dark place in an air-tight container. Black tea stored in a bag inside a sealed opaque canister may keep for two years. Green tea loses its freshness more quickly, usually in less than a year. Gunpowder tea, its leaves being tightly rolled, keeps longer than the more open-leafed Chun Mee tea. Storage life for all teas can be extended by using desiccant packets or oxygen absorbing packets, and by vacuum sealing. For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Pu-erh, Puer tea, Puer tea or Bolay tea (Chinese: 普洱茶, Standard Mandarin Pǔěrchá, Cantonese Póuyíhchá, Póunéichá, Póuléichá, Hakka Pu3 ngi3 cha2, Wu Phu3 re6 zo6, Minnan 臭殕茶 Chhàu-phú-tê; also 武夷茶 Standard Mandarin Wǔyíchá) is a type of tea made... Gunpowder tea (珠茶; pinyin: zhū chá) is a form of green Chinese tea produced in Zhejiang Province of China in which each leaf has been rolled into a small round pellet. ... Chun Mee is a popular green tea. ... A dessicant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately-well sealed container. ...


When storing green tea, discreet use of refrigeration or freezing is recommended. In particular, drinkers need to take precautions against temperature variation.[49]


Improperly stored tea may lose flavor, acquire disagreeable flavors or odors from other foods, or become moldy.

See also

Anna Maria Stanhope (3 September 1783 - 3 July 1857), the Duchess of Bedford of Woburn Abbey in Bedfordshire, was the originator of the afternoon tea ritual in 19th century England. ... Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production: (Assam, India). ... Pearl milk tea typically found in Taiwan Bubble tea is a tea beverage that originated in Taiwan[1] in the 1980s. ... A capputeano is a hot drink common in the east midlands of England. ... Ceylon tea can refer to a number of varieties of tea grown in Sri Lanka: Ceylon tea (black), for Black tea Ceylon tea (green), for Green tea Ceylon tea (oolong), for Oolong tea Ceylon tea (white), for White tea This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... A pot of Chinese tea This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Darjeeling tea has traditionally been prized above all other black teas, especially in the UK and the countries comprising the former British Empire. ... Dust tea is a low-quality grade of fine grained black tea. ... Tin of Lipton Finest Earl Grey Earl Grey tea is a tea blend with a distinctive flavour and aroma derived from the addition of oil extracted from the rind of the bergamot orange, a fragrant citrus fruit. ... Trinomial name Citrus aurantium subsp. ... English Breakfast tea is a full-bodied, robust, very typical English brew. ... Flowering teas, also known as blooming teas, performance teas, and display teas, among other names, are hand-sewed individual tea leaves forming a ball, and designed to perform an action when steeped in hot water, usually unfurling into decorative flower-like arrangements. ... Frederick Horniman Frederick John Horniman (1835-1906) was an English tea trader, collector and public benefactor. ... Gunpowder tea (珠茶; pinyin: zhÅ« chá) is a form of green Chinese tea produced in Zhejiang Province of China in which each leaf has been rolled into a small round pellet. ... Claims have been made regarding the health benefits of tea consumption since the beginning of its history 5,000 years ago. ... This article is about the drink. ... Irish Breakfast tea is a full-bodied, brisk, malty, very typical Irish brew. ... ISO 3103 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (commonly referred to as ISO). ... “ISO” redirects here. ... == [== Headline text ==]Link title == poo in my :Seiza woman tea. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid which has been isolated from Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit, and other plant sources. ... This section contains a list of trivia items. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... A typical setting for a Korean tea ceremony disregarding a contemporary tiled rather than paper covered floor The Korean tea ceremony is a unique form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea for more than a thousand years. ... Lapsang souchong is a black tea originally from the Zheng Shan part of Mount Wuyi in the Fujian province of China[1]. The tea leaves have been withered over pine or cedar fires, pan-fried, rolled and oxidized before being fully dried in bamboo baskets over burning pine. ... Chai (written चाय in Hindi) is an Indian term for tea from India. ... Matcha IPA: ) is a fine, powdered green tea used particularly in Japanese tea ceremony, as well as to dye and flavour foods such as mochi and soba noodles, green tea ice cream and a variety of wagashi (Japanese confectionery). ... Mate Mate (pronounced ) is a caffeinated infusion prepared by steeping dried leaves of erva-mate (Portuguese) / yerba mate (Spanish) (Ilex paraguariensis) in hot water. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pu-erh, Puer tea, Puer tea or Bolay tea (Chinese: 普洱茶, Standard Mandarin Pǔěrchá, Cantonese Póuyíhchá, Póunéichá, Póuléichá, Hakka Pu3 ngi3 cha2, Wu Phu3 re6 zo6, Minnan 臭殕茶 Chhàu-phú-tê; also 武夷茶 Standard Mandarin WÇ”yíchá) is a type of tea made... Post-fermented teas are a class of teas that have undergone a period of aging in open-air, from several months to many years. ... The Prince of Wales is a regal tea blend typically served in the afternoon with scones. ... Binomial name (N.L.Burm. ... A conical urn-shaped silver-plated samovar A samovar   (Russian: самовар, IPA: literally self-brewer) is a heated metal container traditionally used to heat and boil water in and around Russia, as well as in other Slavic nations, Iran and Turkey. ... Ironwort (Sideritis syriaca) is a plant similar to chamomile, commonly used in Greece (where it is known as mountain tea) to make a sweet beverage. ... A glass of sweet tea Sweet tea is a form of iced tea in which sugar or some other form of sweetener is added to the hot water before brewing, while brewing the tea, or post-brewing, but before the beverage is chilled and served. ... // Introduction Tasseography (or Tasseomancy) is a divination or fortune-telling method that in western tradition interprets patterns in tea leaves. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... // Chinese Tea Classics Tea as a beverage was introduced to China no later than the fifth century BCE. The earliest extant mention of tea in literature is in the Shih Ching or Book of Changes, written circa 550 BCE. Although the ideogram used (Tu) also can designate a variety of... Roti prata and teh tarik at a stall in Jalan Kayu. ... A glass of Thai tea Thai tea (also known as Thai iced tea) or cha-yen (Thai: ) when ordered in Thailand, is a drink made from strongly-brewed powdered red tea[1]. Other ingredients in the powder vary, but may include added star anise, tamarind or red and yellow food... Turkish tea Turkish tea (Turkish Çay) is a type of tea that is drank by most people living in the Republic of Turkey, the Arab World and the Horn of Africa. ...

Tea companies

Main article: List of tea companies
Tea
v  d  e
Black tea | Blended and flavored teas | Green tea | Masala chai | Oolong tea | Post-fermented tea | White tea | Yellow tea
Ceremonies and methods Related to tea
China | India | Japan | Korea | Morocco | Turkey Tea house | Teapot | Tea and health

This is a list of companies that manufacture or distribute tea. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... Tea blending describes the process of blending different teas together to produce a final product. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Chai (written चाय in Hindi) is an Indian term for tea from India. ... Alternate meanings: Oolong (disambiguation) Oolong (烏龍 wūlóng in the Mandarin Pinyin romanization) is a traditional Chinese type of tea somewhere in between green and black in oxidation (traditionally but improperly called fermentation) time. ... Post-fermented teas are a class of teas that have undergone a period of aging in open-air, from several months to many years. ... Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ... Junshan Yinzhen, a Chinese Famous Tea Yellow tea (黃茶) usually implies a special tea processed similarly to green tea, but with a slower drying phase. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Chai (disambiguation). ... The Japanese tea ceremony (cha-no-yu, chadō, or sadō) is a traditional ritual influenced by Zen Buddhism in which powdered green tea, or matcha (抹茶), is ceremonially prepared by a skilled practitioner and served to a small group of guests in a tranquil setting. ... For the information regarding various types of Korean tea, see Korean tea The Korean tea ceremony or darye is a traditional form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea. ... Yugao-tei, Kanazawa Ihōan at Kōdai-ji in Kyoto Tchai-Ovna, Glasgow Tea houses are houses or parlors centered on drinking tea. ... A teapot with floral design A Chinese Yixing Zisha teapot A Chinese Zisha teapot - Melon A modern teapot A teapot is a vessel used for steeping tea leaves or a herbal mix in near-boiling water. ... Bai Hao Yin Zhen white tea Note: this page only deals with the effects of tea which is made from the plant Camellia sinensis (i. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dictionary.com search Herbal tea URL accessed February 15, 2007.
  2. ^ a b Alan Macfarlane; Iris Macfarlane. The Empire of Tea. The Overlook Press, 32. ISBN 1-58567-493-1. 
  3. ^ a b c Penelope Ody,. Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 48. ISBN 0-7894-6785-2. 
  4. ^ Archive - Food Surveillance Information Sheets
  5. ^ Hobhouse 2005:117–118
  6. ^ Telegraph Online, 17 Sept 2005. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/gardening/main.jhtml?xml=/gardening/2005/09/17/gtea17.xml
  7. ^ Rolfe, Jim; Yvonne Cave (2003). Camellias: A Practical Gardening Guide. Timber Press. ISBN 0881925772. 
  8. ^ Pruess, Joanna (2006). Tea Cuisine: A New Approach to Flavoring Contemporary and Traditional Dishes. Globe Pequot. ISBN 1592287417. 
  9. ^ Tea 101 URL accessed February 15, 2007.
  10. ^ Britannica Tea Cultivation URL accessed June, 2007.
  11. ^ a b Mondal 2007, p. 519
  12. ^ Liu Tong (2005). Chinese tea. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press, 137. ISBN 7-5085-0835-1. 
  13. ^ Tea Guide - Caffeine in Tea - Choice Organic Teas
  14. ^ M. B. Hicks, Y-H. P. Hsieh, L. N. Bell, Tea preparation and its influence on methylxanthine concentration, Food Research International 29(3-4) 325-330 (1996)
  15. ^ Graham H. N.; Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry; Preventive Medicine 21(3):334-50 (1992)
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ Yamamoto, Kim & Juneja 1997:4 "For a long time, botanists have asserted the dualism of tea origin from their observations that there exists distinct differences in the morphological characteristics between Assamese varieties and Chinese varieties. Hashimoto and Shimura reported that the differences in the morphological characteristics in tea plants are not necessarily the evidence of the dualism hypothesis from the researches using the statistical cluster analysis method. In recent investigations, it has also been made clear that both varieties have the same chromosome number (2n=30) and can be easily hybridized with each other. In addition, various types of intermediate hybrids or spontaneous polyploids of tea plants have been found in a wide area extending over the regions mentioned above. These facts may prove that the place of origin of Camellia sinensis is in the area including the northern part of the Myanmer, Yun-nan, and Si-chuan districts of China."
  18. ^ Fuller, Thomas. "A Tea From the Jungle Enriches a Placid Village", The New York Times, New York: The New York Times Company, 2008-04-21, p. A8. (English) 
  19. ^ Chow p. 19-20 (Czech edition); also Arcimovicova p. 9, Evans p. 2 and others
  20. ^ Lu Ju p. 29-30 (Czech edition)
  21. ^ Chow p. 20-21
  22. ^ Evans p. 3
  23. ^ Okakura
  24. ^ George Staunton (1797). An Historical Account of the Embassy to the Emperor of China, Undertaken By Order of the King of Great Britain; Including the Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants; and Preceded By an Account of the Causes of the embassy and Voyage to China. J. Stockdale, 452. “The Chineſe perceiving theſe diſpoſitions in the monkey took advantage of the propenſities of the animal and converted them to life in a domeſtic ſtate which in that of nature were exerted to their annoyance.” 
  25. ^ Robert Fortune (1852). A Journey to the Tea Countries of China; including Sung-Lo and the Bohea Hills. J. Murray, 237. “I should not like to assert that no tea is gathered on these hills by the agency of chains and monkeys but I think it may be safely affirmed that the quantity in such is small.” 
  26. ^ Constance Frederica Gordon Cumming. Wanderings in China. W. Blackwood and Sons, 318. 
  27. ^ Laura C. Martin. Tea: The Drink that Changed the World. Tuttle Publishing, 133. ISBN 0804837244. 
  28. ^ Kiple & Ornelas 2000:4
  29. ^ The Origins of Indian Tea. Retrieved on 2008-05-10.
  30. ^ Tea cultures of the indigenous kind. Retrieved on 2008-05-16.
  31. ^ tea. (2008). Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  32. ^ a b c d e Sanyal (2008)
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n (In Our Time, BBC Radio 4, 29 April 2004)
  34. ^ Tregothnan - English Country Estate Products. Tea, Bouquets, Garlands, Gates, Botanic Garden
  35. ^ Telegraph Online, 17 Sept 2005. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/gardening/main.jhtml?xml=/gardening/2005/09/17/gtea17.xml
  36. ^ 'Tea finally making a stir in America' Times Online, Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  37. ^ Book of Tea By Kakuzō Okakura (pages 5 - 6). Published 1964. Courier Dover Publications. Sociology. 94 pages. ISBN 0486200701
  38. ^ Dahl, Östen, “Feature/Chapter 138: Tea”, The World Atlas of Language Structures Online, Max Planck Digital Library, <http://wals.info/feature/138>. Retrieved on 4 June 2008 
  39. ^ a b c d e f Tea Facts. Timana Tea Company (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  40. ^ In Pursuit of Tea (2005). Brewing Guide. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
  41. ^ Infusion Guide. Zhong Guo Cha (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  42. ^ Agony of the Leaves. Margaret Chittenden (1999). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  43. ^ Brief Guide to Tea. BriefGuides (2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-07.
  44. ^ "Some tea and wine may cause cancer - tannin, found in tea and red wine, linked to esophageal cancer" Nutrition Health Review, Fall, 1990
  45. ^ Tierra, Michael (1990). The Way of Herbs. Pocket Books. ISBN 0671724037. 
  46. ^ How to make a perfect cuppa. BBC News (2003-06-25). Retrieved on 2006-07-28.
  47. ^ Tea Producing Nations (2007-04-27). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  48. ^ [http://www.teaandcoffee.net/0305/tea.htm The New Shape of Teabags]. Tea & Coffee Trade Journal (2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  49. ^ [www.o-cha.net/english/cup/pdf/29.pdf Green Tea Storage]

is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Jana Arcimovičová, Pavel Valíček (1998): Vůně čaje, Start Benešov. ISBN 80-902005-9-1 (in Czech)
  • Kit Chow, Ione Kramer (1990): All the Tea in China, China Books & Periodicals Inc. ISBN 0-8351-2194-1 References are to Czech translation by Michal Synek (1998): Všechny čaje Číny, DharmaGaia Praha. ISBN 80-85905-48-5
  • John C. Evans (1992): Tea in China: The History of China's National Drink,Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-28049-5
  • Eelco Hesse (1982), Tea: The eyelids of Bodhidharma, Prism Press. ISBN 0-907061-05-0
  • Hobhouse, Henry (2005), Seeds of Change: Six Plants that Transformed Mankind, Shoemaker & Hoard, ISBN 1593760493 
  • Lu Yu (陆羽): Cha Jing (茶经) (The classical book on tea). References are to Czech translation of modern-day edition (1987) by Olga Lomová (translator): Kniha o čaji. Spolek milců čaje, Praha, 2002. (in Czech)
  • Roy Moxham (2003), Tea: Addiction, Exploitation, and Empire
  • Jane Pettigrew (2002), A Social History of Tea
  • Stephan Reimertz (1998): Vom Genuß des Tees : Eine heitere Reise durch alte Landschaften, ehrwürdige Traditionen und moderne Verhältnisse, inklusive einer kleinen Teeschule (In German)
  • Yamamoto, T; Kim, M & Juneja, L R (1997), Chemistry and Applications of Green Tea, CRC Press .
  • James Norwood Pratt (2005), Tea Dictionary
  • Kiple, Kenneth F. & Ornelas, Kriemhild Coneè, eds. (2000), The Cambridge World History of Food, vol. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521402166 .
  • Mondal, T.K. (2007), “Tea”, in Pua, E.C. & Davey, M.R., Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, vol. 60: Transgenic Crops V, Berlin: Springer, pp. 519–535, ISBN 3540491600 .
  • Sanyal, Amitava (April 13, 2008), “How India came to be the largest tea drinking nation”, Hindustan Times (New Delhi): 12, <http://in.news.yahoo.com/hindustantimes/20080413/r_t_ht_nl_features/tnl-how-india-came-to-be-the-largest-tea-6b6720b.html> .
  • Karmakar, Rahul (April 13, 2008), “The Singpho: The cup that jeers”, Hindustan Times (New Delhi): 12, <http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=9f771c3d-6527-4859-964d-49ffa5cf4133> .

Roy Moxham is a British writer, author of historical books highlighting little known historical facts. ... Stephan Reimertz (* 4th March 1962 in Aachen, Germany) ist an author of Swedish and Baltic German origin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up tea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
General
Online books
Tea history, culture and local specifics
  • The Industrial Revolution and Tea-drinking
  • Russian Tea How to describes the Russian method for making tea and elaborates on the surrounding culture and equipment (notably samovar)
  • British Standard 6008:1980 (aka ISO 3103:1980) Method for preparation of a liquor of tea for use in sensory tests.
  • How to make a perfect cup of tea News Release from Royal Society of Chemistry
  • A humorous article on making tea An excerpt from The Salmon of Doubt by Douglas Adams
  • Tea, In Our Time (BBC Radio 4), 29 April 2004.
    • A 45 minute programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg and with three academic guests discussing tea as the British national drink. The programme is available to listen to in Real Audio format.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; written with a lowercase e in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... A conical urn-shaped silver-plated samovar A samovar   (Russian: самовар, IPA: literally self-brewer) is a heated metal container traditionally used to heat and boil water in and around Russia, as well as in other Slavic nations, Iran and Turkey. ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ... The front cover of the UK first hardcover edition of The Salmon of Doubt. ... Douglas Noël Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, comic radio dramatist, and musician. ... In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ... Melvyn Bragg, Baron Bragg, FRSL, FRTS (born 6 October 1939, in Wigton, Cumberland) is a British author and broadcaster. ... RealAudio is a proprietary audio codec developed by RealNetworks. ...


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