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Encyclopedia > Surgery
A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center.
A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center.

In medicine, surgery (from the Greek χειρουργική meaning "hand work") is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. Surgeons may be physicians, dentists, or veterinarians who specialize in surgery. Surgeon may refer to: A practitioner of surgery Surgeon General is a high-ranking medical official Surgeon (musician), the moniker of British electronic music producer and DJ, Anthony Child In former usage, a title for some sorts of non-surgical doctor, e. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2860, 2921 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Surgery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2860, 2921 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Surgery ... Mitral valve replacement is a cardiac surgery procedure in which a patients mitral valve is replaced by a different valve. ... Fitzsimons aerial view, circa 1973. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ... Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The term surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.

Contents

History

Main article: History of surgery

At least two prehistoric cultures had developed forms of surgery. The oldest for which we have evidence is trepannation,[1] in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull, thus exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial pressure and other diseases. Evidence has been found in prehistoric human remains from Neolithic times, in cave paintings, and the procedure continued in use well into recorded history. Surprisingly, many prehistoric and premodern patients had signs of their skull structure healing; suggesting that many survived the operation. In modern-day Pakistan, remains from the early Harappan periods of the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300 BC) show evidence of teeth having been drilled dating back 9,000 years.[2] A final candidate for prehistoric surgical techniques is ancient Egypt, where a mandible dated to approximately 2650 BC shows two perforations just below the root of the first molar, indicating the draining of an abscessed tooth. Recent excavations of the construction workers of the Egyptian pyramids also led to possible evidence of brain surgery.[citation needed] History of surgery covers the development of invasive and non-invasive medical procedures from prehistoric to modern times. ... 18th century French illustration of trepanation (Larger Version) Trepanation, also known as trephinning or trepanning, is a form of surgery where a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull, leaving the membrane around the brain intact. ... A child using an electric drill with a screwdriver bit mounted in the chuck. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The // (c. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Major climate shift possibly due to shift in solar activity. ... Ancient Egypt was a long-standing civilization in northeastern Africa. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... (Redirected from 2800 BC) (29th century BC - 28th century BC - 27th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2775 - 2650 BC - Second Dynasty wars in Egypt 2750 BC - End of the Early Dynastic I Period, and the beginning of the Early Dynastic II... Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ... A humans visible teeth. ... All Giza Pyramids Map of Giza pyramid complex. ... Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating the central and peripheral nervous system. ...


The oldest known surgical texts date back to Indian physician Sushruta, the "Father of Surgery", who taught and practiced surgery on the banks of the Ganges around 600 BC. Much of what is known about Sushruta is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Susrutha Samhita. It is the oldest known surgical text and it describes in great detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments, as well as procedures on performing various forms of plastic surgery, such as cosmetic surgery and rhinoplasty.[3] His technique for the latter, used to reconstruct noses that were amputated as a punishment for crimes, is practiced almost unchanged in technique to this day. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ... “Facial reconstruction” redirects here. ... Rhinoplasty (Greek: , Nose + , to shape) is a type of plastic surgery that is used to improve the function (reconstructive surgery) or appearance (cosmetic surgery) of a persons nose. ...


Other ancient cultures to have surgical knowledge include ancient Greece - the Hippocratic Oath was an innovation of the Greek physician Hippocrates - and ancient China. However ancient Greek culture traditionally considered the practice of opening the body to be repulsive and thus left known surgical practices such as lithotomy to such persons as practice [it]. In China, Hua Tuo was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. He was the first person to perform surgery with the aid of anesthesia, some 1600 years before the practice was adopted by Europeans.[citation needed] The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... A twelfth-century Byzantine manuscript of the Oath in the form of a cross. ... Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Lithotomy from Greek for lithos (stone) and thomos (cut), is a surgical method for removal of calculi, stones formed inside certain hollow organs, such as the bladder and kidneys (urinary calculus) and gallbladder (gallstones), that cannot exit naturally through the urethra, ureter or biliary duct. ... Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ...


In the Middle Ages, surgery was developed to a high degree in the Islamic world, with renowned practitioners such as Abulcasis (Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi), an Andalusian-Arab physician and scientist who practised in the Zahra suburb of Córdoba. A great medieval surgeon, whose comprehensive medical texts shaped European surgical procedures up until the Renaissance. He is also often regarded as a Father Of Surgery.[4] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... Abu al-Qasim (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم) also known as Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi known in the West as Abucalsis, is medieval Islams most prominent scholar of medicine. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ...


In Europe, the demand grew for surgeons to formally study for many years before practicing; universities such as Montpellier, Padua and Bologna Universities were particularly renowned. By the fifteenth century at the latest, surgery had split away from physics as its own subject, of a lesser status than pure medicine, and initially took the form of a craft tradition until Rogerius Salernitanus composed his Chirurgia, laying the foundation for modern Western surgical manuals up to the modern time. World map showing the location of Europe. ... Montpellier (Occitan Montpelhièr) is a city in the south of France. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... Detail from Rogerius treatise (Amiens, ca. ...


Modern surgery developed rapidly with the scientific era. Ambroise Paré pioneered the treatment of gunshot wounds, and the first modern surgeons were battlefield doctors in the Napoleonic Wars. Naval surgeons were often barber surgeons, who combined surgery with their main jobs as barbers. Three main developments permitted the transition to modern surgical approaches - control of bleeding, control of infection and control of pain (anaesthesia). Ambroise Paré. Ambroise Paré (1510 – December 20, 1590) was a French surgeon, the official royal surgeon for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, is considered by some as one of the Fathers of Surgery. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... Barbers were often recruited for the job of surgery in earlier military history. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ...

Bleeding: - Before modern surgical developments, there was a very real threat that a patient would bleed to death before treatment, or during the operation. cauterization (fusing a wound closed with extreme heat) was successful but limited - it was destructive, painful and in the long term had very poor outcomes. Ligatures, or material used to tie off severed blood vessels, are believed to have originated with Ambroise Pare (sometimes spelled "Ambrose"[5]) during the 16th century, but were highly dangerous until infection risk was brought under control - at the time of its discovery, the concept of infection did not exist. Finally, early 20th century research into blood groups allowed the first effective blood transfusions.
Infection: - The concept of infection was unknown until relatively modern times. The first progress in combating infection was made in 1847 by the Hungarian doctor Ignaz Semmelweis who noticed that medical students fresh from the dissecting room were causing excess maternal death compared to midwives. Semmelweis, despite ridicule and opposition, introduced compulsory handwashing for everyone entering the maternal wards and was rewarded with a plunge in maternal and fetal deaths, however the Royal Society in the UK still dismissed his advice. Significant progress came following the work of Pasteur, when the British surgeon Joseph Lister began experimenting with using phenol during surgery to prevent infections. Lister was able to quickly reduce infection rates, a reduction that was further helped by his subsequent introduction of techniques to sterilize equipment, have rigorous hand washing and a later implementation of rubber gloves. Lister published his work as a series of articles in The Lancet (March 1867) under the title Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery. The work was groundbreaking and laid the foundations for a rapid advance in infection control that saw modern aseptic operating theatres widely used within 50 years (Lister himself went on to make further strides in antisepsis and asepsis throughout his lifetime).
Pain: - Modern pain control (anesthesia) was discovered by two American dentists, Horace Wells (1815-1848) and William Morton. Before the advent of anesthesia, surgery was a traumatically painful procedure and surgeons were encouraged to be as swift as possible to minimize patient suffering. This also meant that operations were largely restricted to amputations and external growth removals. Beginning in the 1840s, surgery began to change dramatically in character with the discovery of effective and practical anaesthetic chemicals such as ether and chloroform, later pioneered in Britain by John Snow. In addition to relieving patient suffering, anaesthesia allowed more intricate operations in the internal regions of the human body. In addition, the discovery of muscle relaxants such as curare allowed for safer applications.

Cauterization is a medical term describing the burning of the body to remove or close a part of it. ... The word ligature can mean more than one thing. ... Ambroise Par . ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ignaz Semmelweis (1860 portrait): advised handwashing with a chlorinated-lime solution in 1847. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery is a paper regarding antiseptics written by Joseph Lister in 1867. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... Partial hand amputation For the song Amputations by Death Cab for Cutie, see You Can Play These Songs with Chords Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma (also referred to as avulsion) or surgery. ... // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Dr. John Snow John Snow (16 March 1813 - 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene, and is considered one of the fathers of epidemiology for his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, Westminster, England... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 This page is about the plant toxins. ...

Surgeon titles

In the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand surgeons are distinguished from physicians by being referred to as "Mister," "Mrs", "Ms" or "Miss." This tradition has its origins in the 18th century, when surgeons were barber-surgeons and did not have a degree (or indeed any formal qualification), unlike physicians, who were doctors with a university medical degree. Mister or mister can be:- The full spelling (rarely used) of the title Mr. ... Mrs. ... MS may refer to: Mississippi - a state in the United States of America Manuscript - a hand-written document (plural MSS). ... Miss is a title typically used for an unmarried woman (not entitled to a higher title). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The barber surgeon was one of the most common medical practitioners of medieval times - generally charged with looking after soldiers during or after a battle. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ...


By the beginning of the 19th century, surgeons had obtained high status, and in 1800, the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) in London began to offer surgeons a formal status via RCS membership. The title Mister became a badge of honour, and today only surgeons who are Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons generally call themselves Mister, Miss, Mrs or Ms in the course of their professional practice. [citation needed] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. ... Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS) is a professional qualification for practicing as a consultant surgeon. ... Mister or mister can be:- The full spelling (rarely used) of the title Mr. ... Miss is a title typically used for an unmarried woman (not entitled to a higher title). ... Mrs. ... Ms or Ms. ...


By contrast, North American physicians and surgeons are always addressed as "Doctor." The title of doctor is represented in a physician and surgeon's name by the title M.D., D.O., D.V.M., D.P.M , D.D.S., or D.M.D. following his/her surname. Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... Osteopathic medicine (formerly known as osteopathy) is [1] Outside the United States, osteopathic medicine is often used interchangeably with osteopathy. Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine, or D.O.s, apply the philosophy of treating the whole person (a holistic approach) to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of illness, disease and injury... A veterinary surgeon removes stitches from a cats face following minor surgery on an absess. ... A podiatrist (US English), or chiropodist (British English), is a podiatry professional, that is a person devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the foot and ankle. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Doctor of Dental Medicine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Doctor of Dental Surgery. ...


Conditions that can be treated by surgery

Surgery is used to both as a treatment, and as an aspect of treatment, for many conditions, including:

In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A metabolic disease is a disease caused by malfunction in the human total metabolism. ... Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal proliferation of cells in a tissue or organ. ... A cyst (soft c, rhymes with list) is a closed sac having a distinct membrane and develosion on the nearby tissue. ... Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term for an increase in the number of the cells of an organ or tissue causing it to increase in size. ... Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A deformity, dysmorphism, or dysmorphic feature is a major difference in the shape of the body a body part, or a body organ (internal or external) compared to the average shape for the part in question. ... A scar results from the biologic process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues of the body. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Axonotmesis. ...

Common surgical procedures

According to 1996 data from the US National Center for Health Statistics, 40.3 million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 1996, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient operations. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... Medio-lateral episiotomy as baby crowns. ... Definition A cut is an injury that results in a break or opening in the skin. ... A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), is a surgical incision through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more fetuses. ... For the alien race in Stephen Donaldsons The Gap Cycle, see Amnion (Gap Cycle). ... Partial hand amputation For the song Amputations by Death Cab for Cutie, see You Can Play These Songs with Chords Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma (also referred to as avulsion) or surgery. ... An appendicectomy in progress An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ... Seixas Family circumcision set and trunk, ca. ... Surgical extraction of an impacted molar. ... Herniorraphy (Hernioplasty, Hernia repair) is a surgical procedure for correcting hernia. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is one of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ...


Noted surgeons

For a more complete list, see List of surgeons.

Below follows a list of surgeons: David Hayes Agnew Christiaan Barnard, cardiac surgery, first heart transplantation Norman Bethune (1890-1939), battlefield surgery. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... “Facial reconstruction” redirects here. ... The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905. ... Alfred Blalock (1899-1964) circa 1944 Alfred Blalock (April 5, 1899 – September 15, 1964) was a 20th century American innovator in the field of medical science most noted for his research on the medical condition of shock and the development of the Blalock-Taussig Shunt, surgical relief of the cyanosis... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (e. ... Dr. C. Walton Lillehei (October 23, 1918–July 5, 1999) is known as the Father of Open-Heart Surgery. ... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (e. ... Christiaan Neethling Barnard (November 8, 1922 – September 2, 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon. ... Dr. Walter Jackson Freeman II (November 14, 1895 – May 31, 1972) was a physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, graduate of Yale and the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, advocate and very prolific practitioner of psychosurgery, specifically lobotomy. ... A human brain that has undergone lobotomy. ... Engraving of John Hunter (1728 – 1793) taken from the original portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which is in the Royal College of Surgeons. ... The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... Sir Victor Alexander Haden Horsley (April 14, 1857-July 16, 1916) was an accomplished scientist and professor. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... Lars Leksell (1907-1986) was a Swedish physician and Professor of Neurosurgery at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Harvey Cushing (c. ... Lall Ramnath Sawh C.M.T., FRCS (Edin) is one of the most celebrated Urologists in the Caribbean and Latin America. ... Joseph Pancoast Joseph Pancoast was a 19th century American surgeon. ... Dr. Norman Bethune 1922 Henry Norman Bethune, MD (March 3, 1890 – November 12, 1939) was a Canadian physician, medical innovator, and humanitarian. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... Universal health care is a state in which all residents of a geographic or political region have access to most types of health care. ... Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (Russian: ; 15 June 1921 – 1992) was a Russian physician, known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for his eponymous surgery. ... Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (BE: orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic and recurrent injuries and other disorders of the locomotor system, its musclular and bone parts. ... The Ilizarov apparatus is used in a surgical procedure that can be used to lengthen or reshape limb bones. ... Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov (Святослав Николаевич Фёдоров), (August 8, 1927-June 2, 2000) Russian ophthalmologist, eye microsurgeon, creator of Radial keratotomy technique, professor, full member of the Russian... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Eye surgery in the middle ages. ... Radial keratotomy (RK) is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia. ... Mahmut Gazi YaÅŸargil is a Turkish medical scientist and neurosurgeon (born on July 6, 1925 in Lice, Diyarbakır, Turkey. ... Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating the central and peripheral nervous system. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Surgical procedures and techniques

Podiatric Foot & Ankle Surgical procedures have long and possibly daunting names. ... The term abdominal surgery broadly covers surgical procedures that involve opening the abdomen. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ... A dental officer and his assistant remove the wisdom tooth of a crew member of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS (CVN-69) Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures which involve artificially modifying the dentition. ... A surgeon operating General surgery, despite its name, is a surgical specialty that focuses on surgical treatment of abdominal organs, e. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Laparoscopic surgery, also called keyhole surgery (when natural body openings are not used), bandaid surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a surgical technique. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... Eye surgery, also known as ophthalmic surgery or ocular surgery, is a surgical procedure performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist. ... Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. ... This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae, known as a teardrop fracture is one of the conditions treated by orthopaedic surgeons. ... “Facial reconstruction” redirects here. ...

Remote surgery (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Vascular surgery is the branch of surgery that occupies itself with surgical interventions of arteries and veins, as well as conservative therapies for disease of the peripheral vascular system. ...

See also

Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... ASA stands for American Society of Anesthesiologists. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic or natural material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (e. ... A surgical drain is a tube used to remove pus, blood or other fluids from a wound. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer A flexible endoscope. ... FACS may be: Facial Action Coding System, an acronym which indicates a procedure to analyse human face expressions Fellow of the American College of Surgeons Fluorescent-activated cell sorting Formal Aspects of Computing Science, a British Computer Society Specialist Group Family and consumer science This page expands a four-character... Hypnosurgery is the term given to an operation where the patient is sedated using hypnotherapy rather than traditional anaesthetics. ... KNOT is a commercial Classic Country music radio station in Prescott, Arizona, broadcasting to the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona area on 1450 AM. Query the FCCs AM station database for KNOT Radio Locator Information on KNOT AM radio stations in the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona market (Arbitron #151) By frequency: By... Minimally invasive surgical procedures avoid open invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery with less trauma. ... Perioperative mortality is mortality in relation to surgery, usually taken as death within two weeks of a surgical procedure. ... Traumatology (from Greek Trauma meaning injury or wound) is the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical treatment and repair of the damage. ...

References

  1. ^ (Capasso 2001)
  2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4882968.stm
  3. ^ http://www.jpgmonline.com/article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=2002;volume=48;issue=1;spage=76;epage=8;aulast=Rana
  4. ^ biography from Famousmuslims.com accessed 16 April 2007.
  5. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1558689&dopt=Abstract : Historical notes on pressure ulcers: the cure of Ambrose Paré

is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

External links


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What surgery is used for : Cancerbackup (342 words)
Where possible, surgery is used to remove the tumour and nearby tissues that might contain cancer cells.
If the cancer has spread to other parts of the body that cannot be totally removed by surgery, you may still have surgery to remove the primary tumour of the initial cancer.
Radiotherapy may also be used to help to control cancer that cannot be treated surgically or to reduce the extent of surgery.
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