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Encyclopedia > Strategos
Bust of an unidentified strategos with Corinthian helmet; Hadrianic Roman copy of a Greek sculpture of c. 400 BC
Bust of an unidentified strategos with Corinthian helmet; Hadrianic Roman copy of a Greek sculpture of c. 400 BC
For the board game, see Stratego.

The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) (literally meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean "general". In the Hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. In the modern Hellenic Army, it is the highest officer rank. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,700 × 2,590 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,700 × 2,590 pixels, file size: 2. ... Bronze Corinthian Helmet The Corinthian helmet (Ancient Greek κόρυς κορινθίη, Modern κάσκα κορινθιακή) was a type of bronze helmet which in its later styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes and mouth. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... This article is about the board game. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the land force of the modern nation of Greece. ...

Contents

The office of Strategos in other Classical Greek states

Other Greek states also possessed the office of Strategos. Notable among these was the Achaean League, whose most famous strategoi were Aratus of Sicyon and Philopoemon. The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaea, a territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. ... Aratus (271 BC - 213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon in the 3rd century BC. He deposed Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was a supporter of Greek unity and integrated Sicyon into the Achaean League, which was led by him to his maximum extent. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Hellenistic and later use

In the Hellenistic empires of the Diadochi, notably Lagid Egypt, Strategos became a gubernatorial office. In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ...


This use was continued in the Byzantine empire (see Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy). Painting of Emperor Basil II, exemplifying the Imperial Crown handed down by Angels. ...


Modern use

In the modern Hellenic Army of Greece, strategos (the spelling remains στρατηγός) is the highest officer rank. Officers holding this rank are addressed as "stratige" (Στρατηγε) (stressed on the last syllable). All but one of the other Greek general officer ranks are derivations of this word: antistrategos and ypostratigos, lieutenant general and major general, respectively; brigadier general, however is taxiarkhos, after a taxis (in modern usage taxiarkhia), which means brigade. This article is about the land force of the modern nation of Greece. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Taxiarhos is used in the Greek language to mean Brigadier. In Ancient Greece the title/rank was held by a number of officers in the armies of several but not all city-states. ...

Greek commissioned officer ranks Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ...

  Student Officer OF-D OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9 OF-10
Hellenic Navy: Anthypoploiarkhos & Semaiophoros Ypoploiarkhos Plotarhis Antiploiarkhos Ploiarkhos Arkhiploiarkhos Yponavarkhos Antinavarkhos Navarkhos
Army: Ypolokhagos & Anthypolokhagos Lokhagos Tagmatarkhis Antisyntagmatarkhis Syntagmatarkhis Taxiarkhos Ypostrategos Antistrategos Strategos
Hellenic Air Force: Yposminagos & Anthyposminagos Sminagos Episminagos Antisminarkhos Sminarkhos Taxiarkhos Aeroporias Ypopterarkhos Antipterarkhos Pterarkhos

at the present Stratégòs is the name of a social network of business strategists [1] The Hellenic Navy (Greek: , Polemikón Nautikón) is the naval force of the modern nation of Greece (Hellenic Republic). ... This article is about the land force of the modern nation of Greece. ... Ypolokhagos is used in the Greek language to mean First Lieutenant. In the modern Hellenic Army the rank is superior to that of Anthypolokhagos (Second Liutenant) and inferior to that of an Lokhagos (Captain). ... Anthypolokhagos is used in the Greek language to mean Second Lieutenant. In the modern Hellenic Army the rank is the lowest commissioned officer rank and is inferior to an Ypolokhagos (First Lieutenant). ... Lokhagos is used in the Greek language to mean Captain. The term has been used since the times of Ancient Greece to describe the commanding officer of a lokhos (company. ... Tagmatarhis is used in the Greek language to mean Major. The name was used in ancient times to signify the commanding officer of a tagma (battalion). ... Antisyntagmatarhis is used in the Greek language to mean Lieutenant Colonel. The term was first used in the Greek War of Independence (1821 - 1827). ... Syntagmatarhis (Συνταγματάρχης) is used in the Greek language to mean Colonel. It is translated as leader of a regiment (syntagma), and dates back to the Classical Age armies. ... Taxiarhos is used in the Greek language to mean Brigadier. In Ancient Greece the title/rank was held by a number of officers in the armies of several but not all city-states. ... Bust of an unidentified strategos with Corinthian helmet; Hadrianic Roman copy of a Greek sculpture of c. ... Bust of an unidentified strategos with Corinthian helmet; Hadrianic Roman copy of a Greek sculpture of c. ... Bust of an unidentified strategos with Corinthian helmet; Hadrianic Roman copy of a Greek sculpture of c. ... Hellenic Air Force ensign The Hellenic Air Force (HAF) (Greek: (ΠΑ), Polemikí Aeroporía) is the air force of Greece. ...


Fictional uses

This position was featured in Orson Scott Card's novel Ender's Game. In the novel, the position of Strategos was charged with overall command of solar system defense. The Strategos, along with the positions of Polemarch (responsible for the International Fleet of space warships), and the Hegemon (the political leader of Earth, rather like a stronger version of the Secretary-General of the United Nations), was one of the three most powerful people alive. Because of a belief in their inherent luck and brilliance--specifically, that no Jewish general had ever lost a war--all three positions were filled with Jewish people - an American Jew as Hegemon, an Israeli Jew as Strategos, and a Russian Jew as Polemarch. The defeat of the Formics by half-Māori Mazer Rackham changed this position. Bean was given the title of Strategos by Peter Wiggin after he assumed the role of Hegemon. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A polemarch was one of the magistrates of ancient Athens. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or a member of the Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Hegemony is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; or more broadly, that cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... A polemarch was one of the magistrates of ancient Athens. ... Formics, usually referred to by the pejorative term buggers, are a fictional insectoid alien species from the Enders Game series of science fiction novels by Orson Scott Card. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Mazer Rackham is a fictional character in the novel Enders Game by Orson Scott Card. ... Bean is a major character in Orson Scott Cards science fiction novels revolving around Ender Wiggin. ... In the science fiction story Enders Game and its sequels, Peter Wiggin is Enders (or Andrews) older brother. ...


The dystopian slave-empire of the Draka, in the series of books by S. M. Stirling, also uses "Strategos" together with many other military ranks and terms drawn from Classical Antiquity - though often with only the most loose resemblance to what they originally meant. The Draka world in 1942 The Draka world in 1948 The Draka are the main villains/heroes in S. M. Stirlings Domination trilogy (depending on ones point of view). ... Stephen Michael Stirling is an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


The position of 'Strategos' was also featured in the English language version of the Sunrise anime The Vision of Escaflowne; the character Folken occupied the position when he served the Zaibach empire. A typical sunrise, in New Zealand A sunrise through clouds over Oakland, California. ... Original run April 2, 1996 – September 24, 1996 Episodes 26[1] Manga: The Vision of Escaflowne (shōnen ver. ...


The oldest use of the term "strategos" in fiction may be found in the "Callirhoe" of Chariton of Aphrodisias which is dated in the first century A.D. There, Hermocrates is the "strategos" of Syracuse and the father of Callirhoe, living in the 5th century B.C. In fact, he was a historical person, the victor over the Athenians in 413 B.C., an event which stopped Athenian expansion to the West. His role as a character in the novel is rather limited. Although his position in Syracuse gives Callirhoe a background, and he gives consent to her marriage and fulfills a few official duties, his legal or constitutional position is not very clear. In Greek mythology, three women were named Callirhoe or Callirrhoe: A daughter of Oceanus and mother of Echidna, one of the Oceanids. ...


References

  • Hansen M.H. 1987, The Athenian Democracy in the age of Demosthenes. Oxford.
  • Debra Hamel 1998, Athenian generals : Military authority in the classical period. Leiden.
  • Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1996: strategoi.
  • Pauly-Wissowa

  Results from FactBites:
 
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Strategos International ascribes to the same philosophy in their training – refusing to limit themselves to a few basic courses - rather, they have developed an ever-evolving curriculum, offering a wide range of tactical training staffed by professionals with both extensive military and law enforcement backgrounds.”
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