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Encyclopedia > Solar deity
The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating, the sun, an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology
The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating, the sun, an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology
Statue of Hathor - Luxor Museum
Statue of Hathor - Luxor Museum
"Sun god" redirects here. For the Ramsey Lewis album, see Sun Goddess (Jazz Album). For the statue, see Sun God (statue). For the festival, see Sun God (Festival). For the rapper, see Sun God (rapper). For the racehorse, see Sun Chariot (horse).

A solar deity (also heliolatry or sun worship), is a deity who represents the sun, or an aspect of it. People have worshipped these for all of recorded history. Hence, many beliefs have formed around this worship, such as the "missing sun" found in many cultures (see below). Sun worship is a possible origin of henotheism and ultimately monotheism. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links en: Solvognen (The Sun Carriage) from the Bronze Age, at display at the National Museum (Nationalmuseet) in Denmark da: Solvognen fra bronzealderen, udstillet på Nationalmuseet Date: 29. ... Image File history File links en: Solvognen (The Sun Carriage) from the Bronze Age, at display at the National Museum (Nationalmuseet) in Denmark da: Solvognen fra bronzealderen, udstillet på Nationalmuseet Date: 29. ... The Sun Chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... Image File history File links Egypt. ... Image File history File links Egypt. ... For other uses, see Hathor (disambiguation). ... Ramsey Emmanuel Lewis, Jr. ... The Sun God statue. ... 2007 Sun God Concert - T.I. on stage The Sun God Festival is an annual campus festival at the University of California, San Diego that usually takes place the sixth or seventh week of the spring quarter. ... The pioneering hardcore hip hop group Wu-Tang Clans plan to conquer the hip hop industry consisted not only of making each core member into a solo star in their own right, but also to create and promote numerous affiliate artists. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ...

Contents

Solar barge / Sun chariot

Ra in his solar barge
Ra in his solar barge

A solar barge (also solar bark, solar barque, solar boat, sun boat) is a mythological representation of the sun riding in a boat. The "Khufu ship", a 43.6-meter-long vessel that was sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC, is a full-size surviving example which may have fulfilled the symbolic function of a solar barque. Image File history File links The Egyptian Sun God Ra on the Solar Barque. ... Image File history File links The Egyptian Sun God Ra on the Solar Barque. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... The reconstructed Solar barge of Khufu The Khufu ship is an intact full-size vessel from Ancient Egypt that was sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2,500 BC. The ship was almost certainly built for Khufu... 19th-century tourists in front of the Sphinx - view from South-East, Great Pyramid in background The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ...


Examples include:

  • Neolithic petroglyphs which (it has been speculated) show solar barges
  • The many early Egyptian goddesses who are related as sun deities and the later gods Ra and Horus depicted as riding in a solar barge. In Egyptian myths of the afterlife, Ra rides in an underground channel from west to east every night so that he can rise in the east the next morning.
  • The Nebra sky disk, which (it has been speculated) features a depiction of a solar barge [2]
  • Nordic Bronze Age petroglyphs, including those found in Tanumshede often contains barges and sun crosses in different constellations.

A sun chariot is a mythological representation of the sun riding in a chariot. The concept is younger than that of the solar barge, and typically Indo-European, corresponding with the Indo-European expansion after the invention of the chariot in the 2nd millennium BC. For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... Ihy redirects here. ... Diagram of the disk in its current condition (a star and a part of the full moon was restored). ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... Tanumshede (58. ... A Caddo solar cross, to Southeastern Native Americans a symbol of both the sun and fire. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ...


Examples include:

The sun itself also was compared to a wheel, possibly in Proto-Indo-European, Greek hēliou kuklos, Sanskrit suryasya cakram, Anglo-Saxon sunnan hweogul (PIE *swelyosyo kukwelos). The Sun Chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Arvak (early-riser) and Alsvid (all-swift) were the horses that pulled Sols chariot (i. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... The fall of Phaeton, Johann Liss, beginning of 17th century. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... A quadriga (from the Latin language quadri-, four, and jungere, to yoke) is a four-horse chariot, raced in the Olympic Games and other sacred games, and represented in profile as the usual chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and bas-reliefs. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... For the intercontinental ballistic missile, see Surya (missile). ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ...


Female and male

The warrior goddess Sekhmet, shown with her sun disk and cobra crown
The warrior goddess Sekhmet, shown with her sun disk and cobra crown

Solar deities are popularly thought of as male counterparts of the lunar deity (usually female); however, sun goddesses are found on every continent (e.g. Amaterasu in Japanese belief), then paired with male lunar deities. Among the earliest records of human beliefs, the early goddesses of the Egyptian pantheon carried a sun above their head as a symbol of dignity. The sun was a major aspect of egyptian symbols and hieroglyphs, all the lunar deities of that pantheon were male deities. The cobra, the lioness, the cow-the dominant symbols of the most ancient Egyptian deities-carried their relationship to the sun atop their heads; they were female and their cults remained active throughout the history of the culture. Later a sun god was established in the eighteenth dynasty on top of the other solar deities, before the "aberration" was stamped out and the old pantheon re-established. When male deities became associated with the sun in that culture, they began as the offspring of a mother. Feminist examination of some of the earliest religions of Western cultures concluded that a sun goddess, often, driving her chariot bearing it across the sky daily. Sól is the goddess after whom the sun and Sunday are named in English. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1009 × 1516 pixel, file size: 683 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Antiquité égyptienne, la déesse Sekhmet (Égypte). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1009 × 1516 pixel, file size: 683 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Antiquité égyptienne, la déesse Sekhmet (Égypte). ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon In mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with or symbolizing the moon: see moon (mythology). ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... --68. ... Egyptian Cobra, Naga haje This article is about snakes. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some mythologists, such as Brian Branston, contend that sun goddesses are more common worldwide than their male counterparts. They also claim that the belief that solar deities are primarily male is linked to the fact that a few better known mythologies (such as those of late classical Greece and late Roman mythology) rarely break from this rule, although closer examination of the earlier myths of those cultures reveal a very different distribution than the contemporary popular belief. The dualism of sun/male/light and moon/female/darkness is found in many (but not all) late southern traditions in Europe that derive from Orphic and Gnostic philosophies. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ...


In Germanic mythology the Sun is female and the Moon is male. The corresponding Old English name is Siȝel (/ˈsɪ jel/), continuing Proto-Germanic *Sôwilô or *Saewelô. The Old High German Sun goddess is Sunna. In the Norse traditions, every day, Sól rode through the sky on her chariot, pulled by two horses named Arvak and Alsvid. Sól also was called Sunna, Sunne, and Frau Sunne, from which are derived the words, sun and Sunday. Thor, god of thunder, one of the major figures in Germanic mythology. ...


Missing sun motif

Amaterasu finally emerges from the cave
Amaterasu finally emerges from the cave

The missing sun is a theme in the myths of many cultures, sometimes including the themes of imprisonment, exile, or death. The missing sun is often used to explain various natural phenomena, including the disappearance of the sun at night, shorter days during the winter, and solar eclipses. Even the Greek myth of Gaia as Demeter and her daughter, Persephone or Kore, imply that the latter was a sun goddess who went missing, bringing on winter when her mother failed to keep the earth bountiful as she searched for her missing daughter. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about astronomical eclipses. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... KORE is an AM radio station in Springfield, Oregon, USA, serving the Eugene-Springfield metropolitan area with Christian music and programming. ...


Some other tales are similar, such as the Sumerian story of the goddess, Inanna's descent into the underworld. These may have parallel themes, but do not fit in this motif unless they concern a solar deity. Chaldean mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ...


In late Egyptian mythology, Ra passes through Duat (the underworld) every night. Apep has to be defeated in the darkness hours for Ra and his solar barge to emerge in the east each morning. Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Duat (also called Akert or Amenthes) is the underworld, where the sun traveled from west to east during the night and where dead souls were judged by Osiris, using a feather, representing Truth. ... For the Cypriot football team, see APEP Kyperounda FC. An Egyptian deity wards off the snake-like Apep [1] In Egyptian mythology, Apep (also spelled Apepi, and Aapep, or Apophis in Greek) was an evil demon, the deification of darkness and chaos (isfet in Egyptian), and thus opponent of light...


In Japanese mythology, the sun goddess Amaterasu is angered by the behavior of her brother, Susanoo, and hides in a cave, plunging the world into darkness until she is willing to emerge. Japanese mythology is a very complex system of beliefs that embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculture-based folk religion. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... Susanoo, (Japanese: 須佐之男命, Susa-no-O-no-Mikoto; also romanized as Susanoo, Susa-no-O, and Susanowo) in Shinto is the god of the sea and storms. ...


In Norse mythology, both the gods Odin and Tyr have attributes of a sky father, and they are doomed to be devoured by wolves (Fenrir and Garm, respectively) at Ragnarok. Sól, the Norse sun goddess, will be devoured by the wolf Skoll. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... This is the article about the chief god in North Germanic tradition; for other uses see Odin (disambiguation). ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... According to the Edda Fenrisulfr bites off the hand of Týr (John Bauer, 1911) In Norse mythology, Fenrir or Fenrisulfr is a wolf, the son of Loki and the giantess Angrboða. ... In Norse mythology, Garm was a huge dog that guarded Helheim, the land of the dead, living in a cave called Gnipa (Gnipahellir). ... Look up Ragnarok in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Norse mythology, Sköll was a wolf that chased the sun (Sol) through the sky every day, trying to eat her. ...


Solar deities throughout cultures

The winged sun was an ancient (3rd millennium BC) symbol of Horus, later identified with Ra
The winged sun was an ancient (3rd millennium BC) symbol of Horus, later identified with Ra

In different religions solarised supreme deities carry different names and are associated with different aspects of the cultural universe of the society, but for the most part its raw image remains identical. Image File history File links Winged_sun_sharpe. ... Image File history File links Winged_sun_sharpe. ... Stele to Assurnasiripal II at Nimrud (9th century BC), detail showing the winged sun. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Ihy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ...


The Neolithic concept of a solar barge, the sun as traversing the sky in a boat, is found in the later myths of ancient Egypt, with Ra and Horus. Earlier Egyptian myths imply that the sun is within the lioness, Sekhmet, at night and can be seen reflected in her eyes or that it is within the cow, Hathor during the night, being reborn each morning as her son (bull). Proto-Indo-European religion has a solar chariot, the sun as traversing the sky in a chariot. Ra in his Solar barge A Solar barge (also Solar bark, Solar boat, Sun boat) is a mythological representation of the Sun riding in a boat. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... Ihy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... A Sun chariot is a mythological representation of the Sun riding in a chariot. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ...


During the Roman Empire, a festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice, — the "rebirth" of the sun. In Germanic mythology this is Sol, in Vedic Surya, and in Greek Helios (occasionally referred to as Titan) and (sometimes) as Apollo. Mesopotamian Shamash plays an important role during the Bronze Age, and "my Sun" is eventually used as an address to royalty. Similarly, South American cultures have emphatic Sun worship, see Inti. See also Sol Invictus. Svarog is the Slavic god sun and spirit of fire. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... For the intercontinental ballistic missile, see Surya (missile). ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... Titan may mean: // Titan (mythology), a class of deities who preceded the Olympians in Greek mythology Helios, Greek sun-deity sometimes referred to as Titan (Mahler), nicknamed Titan Titan (satellite), largest satellite of the planet Saturn Titan beetle, the largest beetle in the Amazon rainforest USS Titan (AGOS-15), a... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог, Sorbian: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic Sun God and spirit of fire; his name means bright and clear. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Sol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ...


Africa

Many African peoples use the local word for "Sun" as the name for their supreme being.[citation needed] The Munsh tribe considers the Sun to be the son of the supreme being Awondo and the Moon is Awondo's daughter. The Barotse tribe believes that the Sun is inhabited by the sky god Nyambi and the Moon is his wife. Even where the sun god is equated with the supreme being, in some African mythologies he or she does not have any special functions or privileges as compared to other deities.


Ancient Egypt

Isis, bearing her solar disk and horns nurses her infant, Horus
Isis, bearing her solar disk and horns nurses her infant, Horus

Sun worship was exceptionally prevalent in ancient Egyptian religion. The earliest deities associated with the sun are Wadjet, Sekhmet, Hathor, Nut, Bast, Bat, and Menhit. First Hathor, and then Isis, give birth to and nurse Horus and Ra. Statue of Isis and Horus, Berlin Museum. ... Statue of Isis and Horus, Berlin Museum. ... In Egyptian mythology, Buto (papyrus colored--referring to the color of the cobra) was a snake (especially cobra) goddess and patron of the oracle in the city of the same name. ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hathor (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Nuit or Nut was the sky goddess, in contrast to most other mythologies, which usually have a sky father. ... In Egyptian mythology, Bast (also spelt Bastet, Ubasti, and Pasht) is an ancient goddess, worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Egyptian mythology, Menhit (she who massacres; also Menchit) was a lion-goddess of war. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ...


The Sun's movement across the sky represents a struggle between the Pharaoh's soul and an avatar of Osiris. The "solarisation" of several local gods (Hnum-Re, Min-Re, Amon-Re) reaches its peak in the period of the fifth dynasty. Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty. ...


In the eighteenth dynasty, Akhenaten changed the polytheistic religion of Egypt to a pseudo-monotheistic one, Atenism. All other deities were replaced by the Aten, including, Amun, the reigning sun god of Akhenaten's own region. Unlike other deities, the Aten did not have multiple forms. His only image was a disk—a symbol of the sun. The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Aten Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is one of the earliest monotheistic religions, associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ...


Soon after his death, worship of the traditional deities was reestablished by the religious leaders who had adopted the Aten during the reign of Akhenaten.


Chinese mythology

In Chinese mythology (cosmology), there were ten suns in the sky in the beginning. The world was so hot that nothing grew. A hero called Hou Yi shot down nine of them with bow and arrows. The world became better ever since. In another myth, the solar eclipse was caused by the dog of heaven biting off a piece of the sun. There was a tradition in China to hit pots and pans during a solar eclipse to drive away the "dog". Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... Houyi (后羿) was a mythological Chinese archer. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ...


Hinduism

Surya at Konark Temple
Surya at Konark Temple

In the Vedas, numerous hymns are dedicated to Surya deva, the Sun personified, and Savitar, "the impeller", a solar deity either identified with or associated with Surya. Even the Gayatri mantra, which is regarded as one of the most sacred of the Hindu hymns is dedicated to the Sun. The Adityas are a group of solar deities, from the Brahmana period numbering twelve. The ritual of sandhyavandanam, performed by some Hindus, is meant to worship the sun. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (878 × 585 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image was copied from wikipedia:fr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (878 × 585 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image was copied from wikipedia:fr. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Veda redirects here. ... For the intercontinental ballistic missile, see Surya (missile). ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, Savitri (also Savitr, Savitar) is a solar deity and one of the Adityas. ... Gayatri (gāyatrī) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... In Hinduism, the s are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kashyapa. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Sandhyavandanam (Sanskrit: ) is a Hindu religious practice performed in the morning, noon, and evening. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


The Mahabharata describes its warrior hero Karna as being the son of Kunti and the Sun. The Ramayana has its protagonist Rama as being from the Surya Vamsham or the clan of kings as bright as the Sun. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...


The charioteer of Surya is Arun, who is also personified as the redness that accompanies the sunlight in dawn and dusk.


At Konark, a town in Orissa, a temple is dedicated to Surya. The Konark temple has also been declared a UNESCO world heritage site. Surya is the most prominent of the navagrahas or nine celestial objects of the Hindus. Navagrahas can be found in almost all Hindu temples. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... In Hindu astrology, the Navagraha are the nine chief celestial beings: Surya (Sun) Chandra/Soma (Moon) Angaaraka/Chevaai (Mars) Budha (Mercury) Guru (Jupiter) Shukra (Venus) Shanaischara (Saturn) Rahu (Head of Demon Snake) Ketu (Tail of Demon Snake) Nava means nine. Graha is sometimes translated as planet, but the Sun, Moon...


Indonesia

The same swapping process is seen in Indonesia. The solar gods have a stronger presence in Indonesia's religious life and myth.


In some cases the Sun is revered as a "father" or "founder" of the tribe. This may apply for the whole tribe or only for the royal and ruling families. This practise is more common in Australia and on the island of Timor, where the tribal leaders are seen as direct heirs to the Sun god.


Some of the initiation rites include the second reincarnation of the rite's subject as a "son of the Sun", through a symbolic death and a rebirth in the form of a Sun. These rituals hint that the Sun may have an important role in the sphere of funerary beliefs. Watching the Sun's path has given birth to the idea in some societies that the deity of the Sun descends in to the underworld without dying and is capable of returning afterward. This is the reason for the Sun being associated with functions such as guide of the deceased tribe members to the underworld, as well as with revival of perished. The Sun is a mediator between the planes of the living and the dead.


Folklore

In folklore traditions there are many preserved archaic Sun cults which incorporate themselves into newer religions. For example, the burning wheels rolled down hills during sun equinox days, the ban on using jiggers on certain days of the year or the custom of tying a man to a wheel. The "sun-fertility-hero/representative of the underworld" cult complex is also evident in Japan where there is a custom that young people representing the Sun's ancestors (i.e. the dead) should paint their faces red and visit village homes, guaranteeing the land's fertility through this magical ritual. Look up jigger in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Another important mythological complex is that of the "Sun Hero", typical of the nomad-herders. Such heroes are encountered among the African nomad tribes, the tribes from Central Asia (Gesen Khan), and among all Indo-European peoples. The Sun Hero always has a "dark" side - he has some sort of connection with the underworld, with the initiation ritual and with fertility. The Sun Hero myth contains many elements that link the Hero with the Demiurge. The Hero often saves the world, renews the world, opens a new epoch, and generally brings about some major renewal to the established cosmical order. These functions of the Sun Hero represent the demiurgical "legacy" left from the supreme celestial being. A typical example for such evolution is the god Mithras. Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ...


Solar myth

Three theories exercised great influence on nineteenth and early twentieth century mythography, beside the Tree worship of Mannhardt and the Totemism of J.F. McLennan, the "Sun myth" of Alvin Boyd Kuhn and Max Müller. Tree worship refers to the tendency of many societies throughout history to worship or otherwise mythologize trees. ... Wilhelm Mannhardt (1831- 1880) was a German scholar and folklorist. ... Totemism (derived from the root -oode in the Ojibwe language, which referred to something kinship-related) is a religious belief that is frequently associated with shamanistic religions. ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ...


R.F. Littledale criticized the Sun myth theory when he illustrated that Max Müller on his own principles was himself only a Solar myth, whilst Alfred Lyall delivered a still stronger attack on the same theory and its assumption that tribal gods and heroes, such as those of Homer, were mere reflections of the Sun myth by proving that the gods of certain Rajput clans were really warriors who founded the clans not many centuries ago, and were the ancestors of the present chieftains.[5] Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall (January 4, 1835 _ April 11, 1911) was a British civil servant, literary historian and poet. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... The Rajputs are a community of Hindus belonging to the Kshatriya or warrior varna. ...


See also

In Hinduism, the s are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kashyapa. ... In Celtic mythology, Belenus (also Belinus, Belenos, Belinos, Belinu, Bellinus, Belus, Bel) was a deity worshipped in Gaul, Britain and Celtic areas of Austria. ... Indo-Parthian stone palette, illustrating a fire worship, possibly of a Zoroastrian nature. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... List of solar deities Abenaki mythology Kee-zos-en Aboriginal mythology Gnowee Walo Wuriupranili Yhi Ainu mythology Chup Kamui Akkadian mythology Shamash Algonquin mythology Michabo Armenian mythology Mihr Aztec mythology Huitzilopochtli Ipalnemohuani Tonatiuh Bakairi mythology Evaki Basque mythology Ekhi Canaanite mythology Moloch Celtic mythology Crom Cruach Cuchulainn Etain Lugh Mog... The Order of the Solar Temple also known as Ordre du Temple Solaire (OTS) in French, and the International Chivalric Organization of the Solar Tradition or simply as The Solar Temple was a secret society based upon the new age myth of the continuing existence of the Knights Templar (see... For other mythic firebirds, see Fire bird (mythology). ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... A solar symbol is a symbol which symbolises the sun. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... For the intercontinental ballistic missile, see Surya (missile). ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ... The Sun Chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... Stele to Assurnasiripal II at Nimrud (9th century BC), detail showing the winged sun. ...

Bibliography

  • Azize, Joseph (2005) The Phoenician Solar Theology. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-59333-210-6.
  • Olcott, William Tyler (1914/2003) Sun Lore of All Ages: A Collection of Myths and Legends Concerning the Sun and Its Worship Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 0543960277.

External links

References

  1. ^ theoi.com Helios
  2. ^ thanasis.com Helios & Phaethon
  3. ^ Probus Coin
  4. ^ Bible Gateway, KJV, 2 Kings 2:1-17
  5. ^ William Ridgeway , Solar Myths, Tree Spirits, and Totems, The Dramas and Dramatic Dances of Non-European Races. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1915. pp. 11-19.[1]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Solar deity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (889 words)
Although many sources contend that solar deities are generally male, and the brother, father, husband and/or enemy of the lunar deity (usually female), this is not cross-culturally upheld, as sun goddesses are found on every continent.
The neolithic concept of a solar barge, the sun as traversing the sky in a boat, is found in ancient Egypt, with Ra and Horus.
In the Vedas, numerous hymns are dedicated to Surya, the Sun personified, and Savitar, "the impeller", a solar deity either identified with or associated with Surya.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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