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In music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those sets. Serialism is often, though not universally, held to begin with twelve-tone technique, which uses a set of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale to form a row (a fixed sequence of the 12 tones of the chromatic scale) as the unifying basis for a composition's melody, harmony, structural progressions, and variations. When not used synonymously, serialism differs from twelve-tone technique in that any number of elements from any musical dimension (called "parameters"), such as duration, register, dynamics, or timbre, and/or pitches, may be ordered in sets of fewer or more than twelve elements. The term "series" should not be confused with the mathematical definition, which nevertheless comes into conjunction when the scales involved are projected from numerical sequences such as the arithmetic series, harmonic series (including its acoustical manifestation as the overtone series and its inversion, the so-called subharmonic series), geometric series, Fibonacci series, or infinity series. Serial can refer to several things: Serial, anything in the form of a series Serial, a format by which a story is told in installments Serials, periodicals and journals, in publishing Serial cable, a type of computer cable Serial communications, computer communication technologies that use a single stream of data... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... In musical set theory, a set is a collection of discrete entities. ... An aspect of music is any characteristic, dimension, or element taken as a part or component of music. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... The chromatic scale is a scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone or half step apart. ... In music, a tone row or note row is a permutation, an arrangement or ordering, of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... For the ballet Theme and Variations, see Theme and Variations (ballet). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This is a page about mathematics. ... // Definition In mathematics, an arithmetic series is the sum of the components of an arithmetic progression. ... See harmonic series (music) for the (related) musical concept. ... Acoustics is the interdisciplinary sciences that always deals with the study of sound, ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ... Diagram showing the geometric series 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + ... which converges to 2. ... In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers form a sequence defined recursively by: In words: you start with 0 and 1, and then produce the next Fibonacci number by adding the two previous Fibonacci numbers. ... The infinity series (Danish UendelighedsrÃ¦kken) is a method discovered by the Danish composer Per NÃ¸rgÃ¥rd for serializing melody, harmony, and rhythm in musical composition. ...

Important serial composers such as Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, and Jean Barraqué, went through extended periods of time in which they disciplined themselves always to use some variety of serialism in writing their music. Other composers such as Béla Bartók, Luciano Berio, Benjamin Britten, Aaron Copland, Arvo Pärt, Walter Piston, Alfred Schnittke, Dmitri Shostakovich, Igor Stravinsky, and even some jazz composers such as Yusef Lateef and Bill Evans, used serialism only for some of their compositions or only for some sections of pieces. Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ËˆaËrnÉ”lt ËˆÊƒÃ¸ËnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 â€“ 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 â€“ September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 â€“ December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century (Barret 1988, 45; Harvey 1975b, 705; Hopkins 1972, 33; Klein 1968, 117; Power 1990, 30). ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjÉ›Ê.buËˆlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice. ... Jean BarraquÃ© (January 17, 1928 â€“ August 17, 1973) was a French composer. ... Bartok redirects here. ... Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925 â€“ May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. ... Britten redirects here. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 â€“ December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... Arvo PÃ¤rt (born September 11, 1935 in Paide), (IPA: ËˆÉ‘rÌºvÉ” ËˆpÃ¦rÌºt) is an Estonian composer, often identified with the school of minimalism and more specifically, that of mystic minimalism or sacred minimalism. He is considered a pioneer of this style, along with contemporaries Henryk GÃ³recki... Walter Hamor Piston Jr. ... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: ÐÐ»ÑŒÑ„Ñ€ÐµÌÐ´ Ð“Ð°ÌÑ€Ñ€Ð¸ÐµÐ²Ð¸Ñ‡ Ð¨Ð½Ð¸ÌÑ‚ÐºÐµ, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij DmitrieviÄ Å ostakoviÄ) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 â€“ August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Album cover of Eastern Sounds Dr. Yusef Lateef (born William Emanuel Huddleston, October 9, 1920) is an American jazz musician. ... William John Evans (better known as Bill Evans) (August 16, 1929 â€“ September 15, 1980) was an American jazz pianist and one of the most famous of the 20th century; he remains one of the major influences on post-1950s jazz piano. ...

The use of the word "serial" in connection with music was first introduced in French by René Leibowitz (1947), and immediately afterward by Humphrey Searle in English, as an alternative translation of the German Zwölftontechnik Twelve-tone technique or Reihenmusik (row music); it was independently introduced by Herbert Eimert and Karlheinz Stockhausen into German in 1954 as serielle Musik, with a different meaning, translated into English also as "serial music". RenÃ© Leibowitz (February 17, 1913 â€“ August 29, 1972) was a French composer, conductor, music theorist and teacher born in Warsaw, Poland. ... Humphrey Searle (August 26, 1915 - May 12, 1982) was a British composer. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... Herbert Eimert (born 8 April 1897 in Bad Kreuznach, died 15 December 1972 in DÃ¼sseldorf) was a German music theorist, musicologist, and composer. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century (Barret 1988, 45; Harvey 1975b, 705; Hopkins 1972, 33; Klein 1968, 117; Power 1990, 30). ...

Serialism is most specifically defined as the structural principle according to which a recurring series of ordered elements (normally a set – or 'row' – of pitches or 'pitch classes') which are used in order, or manipulated in particular ways, to give a piece unity. Serialism is often broadly applied to all music written in what Arnold Schoenberg called "The Method of Composing with Twelve Notes related only to one another", or dodecaphony, and methods which evolved from his methods. It is sometimes used more specifically to apply only to music where at least one other element other than pitch is subjected to being treated as a row or series. The term Schoenbergian serialism is sometimes used to make the same distinction between use of pitch series only, particularly if there is an adherence to post-Romantic textures, harmonic procedures, voice-leading and other audible elements of 19th-century music. In such usages post-Webernian serialism will be used to denote works which extend serial techniques to other elements of music. Other terms used to make the distinction are 12-note serialism for the former, and integral serialism for the latter. In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... Row may refer to: Row, an argument. ... In music and music theory a pitch class contains all notes that have the same name; for example, all Es, no matter which octave they are in, are in the same pitch class. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ËˆaËrnÉ”lt ËˆÊƒÃ¸ËnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 â€“ 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Twelve-tone technique is a system of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ...

A row may be assembled 'pre-compositionally' (perhaps to embody particular intervallic or symmetrical properties), or it may be derived from a spontaneously invented thematic or motivic idea.

Each row or series is said to have three (or five) other canonical forms (the expression is borrowed from mathematics): retrograde (the basic set backwards), inversion (the basic set "upside down"), and retrograde-inversion (the basic set upside down and backwards), to which is sometimes added the M5 (perfect fourth) and M7 (perfect fifth) transformations. The basic set is usually required to have certain properties, and may have additional restrictions, such as the requirement that it use each interval only once. The series in itself may be regarded as pre-compositional material: in the process of composition it is manipulated by various means to produce the musical substance. Generally, in mathematics, a canonical form is a function that is written in the most standard, conventional, and logical way. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ...

Serial composition then involves the creation of classes of musical elements; dividing them into equipotential members, such as steps on the chromatic scale; and then using techniques of serial composition, presenting the original set or sets in a myriad of forms to create a work of music. Very generally the act of composition per se takes the form of fixing, or otherwise constraining, in the case of indeterminate music, a sequence of units with particular parameters.

Composers have often built their pieces from discrete, atomic units—in most cases one just calls them "notes"—that enjoy a fixed identity and status within an extended musical practice and beyond the confines of any one particular composition. To these units attach various quantifiable or at least decidable parameters: pitch, loudness, duration, onset time, articulation, timbre, spatial location, etc.

The first wave of post-war serialism focused on placing more and more of the musical elements in a piece under serial control. The serial composer aims to create musical meaning directly out the variation of parameters. This has led many serial composers to adopt a style that allows space for each individual unit to assert its identity, to "speak," often using a "punctual" or "pointillist" style modelled in part on the music of Webern as an example. Punctualism (commonly also called pointillism) is a style of musical composition prevalent in Europe between 1949 and 1955 whose structures are predominantly effected from tone to tone, without superordinate formal conceptions coming to bear (Essl 1989, 93). ...

Although the "strict" school of European post-war serialism was considered to be descended from the example of Anton Webern (and the American school from that of Arnold Schoenberg), another path was followed by admirers of Alban Berg, Arnold Schoenberg, and Josef Matthias Hauer, with the result that some composers from the 1950s onward (e.g., Irving Fine, Ross Lee Finney, Tobias Picker, Walter Piston, Einojuhani Rautavaara, Dieter Schnebel, Tōru Takemitsu, Bernd Alois Zimmermann) employed serialism as one among several musical resources in compositions, without adherence to the rigorous methods observed by its most enthusiastic proponents.[citation needed] Josef Mattias Hauer (March 19, 1883 â€“ September 22, 1959) was an Austrian composer and music theorist. ... Irving Fine (December 3, 1914â€“August 23, 1962) was a US composer. ... Ross Lee Finney Junior (December 23, 1906â€“February 4, 1997) was an American composer born in Wells, Minnesota who taught for many years at the University of Michigan. ... Tobias Picker (b. ... Walter Hamor Piston Jr. ... Einojuhani Rautavaara (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish composer of classical music, probably the best known Finnish composer of his generation. ... Dieter Schnebel (born 1930 in Lahr/Baden) is a composer. ... TÅru Takemitsu (æ­¦æº€ å¾¹ Takemitsu TÅru, October 8, 1930â€“February 20, 1996) was a Japanese composer of music, and four time winner of the Japanese Academy Award, who explored the compositional principles of Western classical music and his native Japanese tradition both in isolation and in combination. ... Bernd Alois Zimmermann (Bliesheim, March 20, 1918 - Grosskönigsdorf, August 10, 1970) is a German composer. ...

## History of serial music

### Twelve tone music

In the early 20th century composers in the European classical tradition began searching for other ways to organize works of music other than reliance on the ordered system of chords and intervals known as tonality. Many composers used modal organization, and others began to use alternate scales, sometimes within a tonal context provided by jazz. There was an increasing movement to avoid any particular chord or pitch as being central, which was described as atonal or pantonal. Some composers seeking to extend this direction in music began to search for ways to compose systematically. Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ...

### Serialism invented and described

The period after World War II represents the codification of serialism as a body of theory. Most of the major concepts were named, refined, and a series of notational conventions were developed in order to deal with the particular problems of serial composition.

After the Second World War, students of Olivier Messiaen saw Webern's structure, and Messiaen's techniques of parameterization as the next way forward in composition. They began creating individual sets or series for each element of music. The elements thus serially determined included the duration of notes, their dynamics, their orchestration, and many others. To differentiate these compositions from twelve-tone works, the term "multiple serialism" or total serialism were used. René Leibowitz, as composer, conductor, teacher, and author was also influential in claiming the Second Viennese School as being the foundation for modern music. â€œFortissimoâ€ redirects here. ... RenÃ© Leibowitz (February 17, 1913 â€“ August 29, 1972) was a French composer, conductor, music theorist and teacher born in Warsaw, Poland. ...

Schoenberg's arrival in the US in 1933 helped accelerate the acceptance of both twelve-tone music, and serialism more generally in American academia, at that time dominated by neo-classicism. Even before his death in 1951 two major theorists and composers, Milton Babbitt and George Perle, emerged as prominent figures actively involved with the analysis of serial music as well the creation of new works using sometimes radical extensions and revisions of the method. Milton Byron Babbitt (born May 10, 1916) is an American composer. ... George Perle (born May 6, 1915 in Bayonne, New Jersey) is a composer and musicologist who has studied with Ernst Krenek. ...

In the late 1950s Allen Forte began working on ways to describe atonal harmony, making extensive use of set notation, pitch classes and families and other terms which would later become standard in the description of serial composition. For example, in 1964 he published an article entilted "A Theory of Set-Complexes for Music". In 1973 he published the very influential work The Structure of Atonal Music. Allen Forte (born December 23, 1926) is a music theorist and musicologist. ...

### Serialism and high modernism

Serialism, along with John Cage's indeterminate music (music composed with the use of chance operations), and Werner Meyer-Eppler's aleatoricism, was enormously influential in post-war music. Theorists such as George Perle codified serial systems, and his 1962 text Serial Composition and Atonality became a standard work on the origins of serial composition in the work of Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. Serialism created an environment where experimentation with sound, in a manner similar to the exploration of pure painting in Abstract Expressionism was at the forefront of composition,[citation needed] which led to increased use of electronics and other applications of mathematical notation to composition,[citation needed] developed by theorists such as the composer and mathematician Milton Babbitt. For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Indeterminate music was a form of music pioneered by the late John Cage. ... Werner Meyer-Eppler (1913â€“1960), physicist, experimental acoustician, phoneticist, and information theorist, was born on 30 April 1913 in Antwerp. ... Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning dice) is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance or some primary element of a composed works realization is left to the determination of its performer(s). ... George Perle (born May 6, 1915 in Bayonne, New Jersey) is a composer and musicologist who has studied with Ernst Krenek. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 â€“ December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Milton Byron Babbitt (born May 10, 1916) is an American composer. ...

Other composers to use serialism include Luigi Nono, who developed similar ideas separately,[citation needed] Roger Reynolds, and Charles Wuorinen, the later works of Igor Stravinsky and the early works of George Rochberg. Major centers for serialism were the Darmstadt School and the "School of Paris" centered around Pierre Boulez. Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice. ... American composer and teacher at the University of California at San Diego Roger Reynolds was born July 18, 1934 in Detroit, Michigan. ... Charles Wuorinen (born June 9, 1938 in New York City) is an American composer. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... George Rochberg, (July 5, 1918, Paterson, New Jersey â€“ May 29, 2005, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania) was an American composer of contemporary classical music. ... This article is specifically about a style of composition created by composers who attended Darmstadt New Music Summer School late 1950s/early 1960s called Darmstadt School. ...

Several of the composers associated with Darmstadt, notably Karlheinz Stockhausen, Karel Goeyvaerts, and Henri Pousseur developed a form of serialism which initially rejected the recurring rows characteristic of twelve-tone technique, in order to eradicate any lingering traces of thematicism (Felder 1977, 92). Instead of a recurring, referential row, "each musical component is subjected to control by a series of numerical proportions" (Morgan 1975, 3). In Europe, the style of some serial as well as non-serial music of the early 1950s emphasized the determination of all parameters for each note independently, often resulting in widely spaced, isolated "points" of sound, an effect called first in German "punktuelle Musik" ("pointist" or "punctual music"), then in French "musique ponctuelle", but quickly confused with "pointillistic" (German "pointillistische", French "pointilliste") the familiar term associated with the densely packed dots in paintings of Seurat, despite the fact that the conception was at the opposite extreme (Stockhausen and Frisius 1998, 451). Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a German composer, and one of the most important and controversial composers of the 20th century (Barret 1988, 45; Harvey 1975b, 705; Hopkins 1972, 33; Klein 1968, 117; Power 1990, 30). ... Karel Goeyvaerts (Antwerp Jun 8, 1923 - February 3, 1993, Antwerp) was a composer. ... Henri Pousseur (Composer Born 1929) Studied at the Academies of Music in LiÃ¨ge and in Brussels. ... In music, a theme is the initial or primary melody. ... Punctualism (commonly also called pointillism) is a style of musical composition prevalent in Europe between 1949 and 1955 whose structures are predominantly effected from tone to tone, without superordinate formal conceptions coming to bear (Essl 1989, 93). ... Detail from Seurats La Parade (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in pointillism. ... --68. ...

Integral serialism had demanded that all parameters in a work be treated as scaled sets (not necessarily in fixed successions) with an equal right to participate in the compositional process, but beginning in the mid-1950s, Stockhausen and others began to focus on "serial principles" as well as methods. Pieces were structured by closed sets of proportions, a method closely related to certain works from the de Stijl and Bauhaus movements in design and architecture called "serial art" by some writers (Bochner 1967, Sykora 1983, Guderian 1985), specifically the paintings of Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesberg, Bart van Leck, Georg van Tongerloo, Richard Paul Lohse, and Burgoyne Diller, who had been seeking to “avoid repetition and symmetry on all structural levels and working with a limited number of elements” (Bandur 2001, 54). De Stijl redirects here. ... For information about British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Piet Mondrian, 1924 Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Dutch IPA: , later IPA: ), (March 7, 1872â€“February 1, 1944) was a Dutch painter. ... Theo van Doesburg (born Christian Emil Marie Küpper) (August 30, 1883 - March 7, 1931) came in the hierarchy of de stijl movement second only to Piet Mondrian. ... Burgoyne Diller (1906 - 1965) was an American abstract painter. ...

Stockhausen described the final synthesis in this manner:

So serial thinking is something that's come into our consciousness and will be there forever: it's relativity and nothing else. It just says: Use all the components of any given number of elements, don't leave out individual elements, use them all with equal importance and try to find an equidistant scale so that certain steps are no larger than others. It's a spiritual and democratic attitude toward the world. The stars are organized in a serial way. Whenever you look at a certain star sign you find a limited number of elements with different intervals. If we more thoroughly studied the distances and proportions of the stars we'd probably find certain relationships of multiples based on some logarithmic scale or whatever the scale may be. (Cott 1973, 101)

Igor Stravinsky's adoption of serial techniques offers an example of the level of influence that serialism had after the Second World War. Previously Stravinsky had used series of notes without rhythmic or harmonic implications (Shatzkin 1977). Because many of the basic techniques of serial composition have analogs in traditional counterpoint, uses of inversion, retrograde and retrograde inversion from before the war are not necessarily indicative of Stravinsky adopting Schoenbergian techniques. However with his meeting Robert Craft and acquaintance with younger composers, Stravinsky began to consciously study Schoenberg's music, as well as the music of Webern and later composers, and began to use the techniques in his own work, using, for example, serial techniques applied to fewer than 12 notes. Over the course of the 1950s he used procedures related to Messiaen, Webern and Berg. While it is difficult to label each and every work as "serial" in the strict definition, every major work of the period has clear uses and references to its ideas. Robert Lawson Craft (October 20th, 1923 - ) is an American conductor and writer on music best known for his intimate working friendship with Igor Stravinsky, a relationship which has resulted in a number of recordings and books. ...

During this period, the concept of serialism influenced not only new compositions but also the scholarly analysis of the classical masters. Adding to their professional tools of sonata form and tonality, scholars began to analyze previous works in the light of serial techniques; for example they found the use of row technique in previous composers going back to Mozart (Keller 1955). In particular, using the analytical tools of serialism, scholars noted that the orchestral outburst that introduces the development section half-way through the last movement of Mozart's next-to-last symphony is a tone row that Mozart punctuates in a very modern and violent episode that Michael Steinberg called "rude octaves and frozen silences" (Steinberg 1998:400). This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. ...

### Reactions to and against serialism

Some music theorists have criticized serialism on the basis that the compositional strategies employed are often incompatible with the way information is extracted by the human mind from a piece of music. Nicolas Ruwet (1959) was one of the first to criticise serialism through a comparison with linguistic structures. Henri Pousseur (1959) questioned the equivalence made by Ruwet between phoneme and the single note, and suggested that analyses of serial compositions that Ruwet names as exceptions to his criticisms might "register the realities of perception more accurately." Later writers have continued Ruwet's line of reasoning. Fred Lerdahl, for example, outlines this subject further in his essay "Cognitive Constraints on Compositional Systems" (Lerdahl 1988). Lehrdahl has in turn been criticized for excluding "the possibility of other, non-hierarchical methods of achieving musical coherence," and for concentrating on the audibility of tone rows (Grant 2001, 219), and the portion of his essay focussing on Boulez's "multiplication" technique (exemplified in three movements of Le Marteau sans maître) has been challenged on perceptual grounds by Stephen Heinemann (1998) and Ulrich Mosch (2004). Henri Pousseur (Composer Born 1929) Studied at the Academies of Music in LiÃ¨ge and in Brussels. ... Fred Lerdahls Cognitive Constraints on Compositional Systems cites Pierre Boulezs Le Marteau sans MaÃ®tre (1954) as an example of a huge gap between compositional system and cognized result, though he could have illustrated just as well with works by Milton Babbitt, Elliott Carter, Luigi Nono, Karlheinz Stockhausen...

Within the community of modern music, exactly what constituted serialism was also a matter of debate. The conventional English usage is that the word "serial" applies to all 12-tone music, which is a "subset" of serial music, and it is this usage that is generally intended in reference works. Nevertheless, a large body of music exists that is called "serial" but does not employ note-rows at all, let alone twelve-tone technique (e.g., Stockhausen's Stimmung, Pousseur's Scambi). Stimmung is also the german word for mood Stimmung, for 6 vocalists & 6 microphones, is a piece by Karlheinz Stockhausen written in 1968 and commissioned by the City of Cologne for the Collegium Vocale. ...

## Theory of serial music

The vocabulary of serialism is rooted in set theory, and uses a quasi-mathematical language to describe how the basic sets are manipulated to produce the final result. Musical set theory is often used to analyze and compose serial music, but may also be used to study tonal music and nonserial atonal music. Musical set theory is a atonal or post-tonal method of musical analysis and composition which is based on explaining and proving musical phenomena, taken as sets and subsets, using mathematical rules and notation and using that information to gain insight to compositions or their creation. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ...

The basis for serial composition is Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique, where the 12 notes of the basic chromatic scale are organized into a row. This "basic" row is then used to create permutations, that is, rows derived from the basic set by reordering its elements. The row may be used to produce a set of intervals, or a composer may have wanted to use a particular succession of intervals, from which the original row was created. A row which uses all of the intervals in their ascending form once is an all-interval row. In addition to permutations, the basic row may have some set of notes derived from it which is used to create a new row, these are derived sets. Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ...

Because there are tonal chord progressions which use all 12 notes, it is possible to create pitch rows with very strong tonal implications, and even to write tonal music using 12-tone technique. Most tone rows contain subsets that can imply a pitch center; a composer can create music centered on one or more of the row's constituent pitches by emphasizing or avoiding these subsets, respectively, as well as through other, more complex compositional devices (Newlin 1974; Perle 1977). The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ...

To serialize other elements of music, a system quantifying an identifiable element must be created or defined (this is called "parametrization", after the term in mathematics). For example, if duration is to be serialized, then a set of durations must be specified. If tone colour, then the a set of separate tone colours must be identified, and so on. See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ...

The selected set or sets, their permutations and derived sets form the basic material with which the composer works.

Composition using 12-tone serial methods focuses on each appearance of the collection of twelve chromatic notes, called an aggregate. (Sets of more or fewer pitches, or of elements other than pitch may be treated analogously.) The principle is that in a row, no element of the aggregate should be reused until all of the other members have been used, and each member must appear only in its place in the series. This rule is violated in numerous works still termed "serial".

An aggregate may be divided into subsets, and all the members of the aggregate not part of any one subset are said to be its complement. A subset is self-complementing if it contains half of the set and its complement is also a permutation of the original subset. This is most commonly seen with hexachords or 6 notes of a basic tone row. A hexachord which is self-complementing for a particular permutatition is referred to as prime combinatorial. A hexachord which is self complementing for all of the canonic operations – Inversion, Retrograde and Retrograde Inversion – is referred to as all-combinatorial.

The composer then presents the aggregate. If there are multiple serial sets, or if several parameters are associated with the same set, then a presentation will have these values calculated. Large-scale design may be achieved through the use of combinatorial devices, for example, subjecting a subset of the basic set to a series of combinatorial devices.

## Important composers

Further information: List of pieces which use serialism
 Lou Harrison Jonathan Harvey Hermann Heiss Hans Werner Henze York Höller Heinz Holliger Bill Hopkins Klaus Huber Hanns Jelinek Ben Johnston Rudolf Kelterborn Gottfried Michael Koenig Józef Koffler Ernst Krenek René Leibowitz Ingvar Lidholm Bruno Maderna Ursula Mamlok Philippe Manoury Donald Martino Paul Méfano Jacques-Louis Monod Robert Morris Luigi Nono Per Nørgård Krzysztof Penderecki - early period Barbara Pentland Goffredo Petrassi Michel Philippot Walter Piston Henri Pousseur

## References

• Bandur, Markus. 2001. Aesthetics of Total Serialism: Contemporary Research from Music to Architecture. Basel, Boston and Berlin: Birkhäuser.
• Bochner, Mel. 1967. "The Serial Attitude". Artforum 6, no. 4 (December): 28–33.
• Cott, Jonathan. 1973. Stockhausen; Conversations with the Composer, New York: Simon & Schuster.
• Felder, David. 1977. “An Interview with Karlheinz Stockhausen.” Perspectives of New Music 16, no. 1 (Fall-Winter): 85–101.
• Forte, Allen. 1964. "A Theory of Set-Complexes for Music." Journal of Music Theory 8, no. 2 (Winter): 136-84.
• Forte, Allen. 1973. The Structure of Atonal Music. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
• Forte, Allen. 1998. The Atonal Music of Anton Webern. New Haven: Yale University Press.
• Gollin, Edward. 2007. "Multi-Aggregate Cycles and Multi-Aggregate Serial Techniques in the Music of Béla Bartók." Music Theory Spectrum 29, no. 2 (Fall): 143–76.
• Grant, Morag Josephine. 2001. Serial Music Serial Aesthetics: Compositional Theory in Post-War Europe. Music in the Twentieth Century, Arnold Whitall, general editor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521804582
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