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Encyclopedia > Seaweed
Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada
Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada
Dead Man's Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast
Dead Man's Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast
For the band, see; Seaweed (band)
For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician)

Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. They are macroscopic and multicellular, in contrast with most other algae. [1] Seaweeds are often found in the seashore biome. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 381 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (635 × 1000 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 381 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (635 × 1000 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis Knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis) is a large, common, brown, edible seaweed of the northern Atlantic Ocean. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1217 KB) Codium fragile (Dead Mans Fingers), Massachusetts coast. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1217 KB) Codium fragile (Dead Mans Fingers), Massachusetts coast. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The band Seaweed was a group active throughout the 1990s. ... Seaweed is a rock musician from North Carolina, United States. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Seagrass growing off the coast of the Florida Keys. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ...

Contents

Taxonomy

Seaweeds consist of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae. As these three groups are not thought to have a common multicellular ancestor, the seaweeds are a paraphyletic group. In addition, tuft-forming bluegreen algae (Cyanobacteria) are sometimes considered as seaweeds. Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae Red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Orders Ascoseirales Chordariales Cutleriales Desmarestiales Dictyosiphonales Dictyotales Ectocarpales Fucales Laminariales(kelps) Scytosiphonales Scytothamnales Sphacelariales Sporochnales Syringodermatales Tilopteridales The brown algae or phaeophytes are a large group of multicellular algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ...


Seaweeds are popularly described as plants, but only red and green algae belong to the kingdom Plantae). They should not be confused with aquatic plants such as seagrasses (which are vascular plants). In biological taxonomy, a kingdom or regnum is a taxon in either (historically) the highest rank, or (in the new three-domain system) the rank below domain. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ... Seagrass from the coast of Florida Sea grass (or sea-grass in British English) are flowering plants from four plant families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae, and Cymodoceaceae) that grow in the marine saline environment. ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Ophioglossophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants, tracheophytes or higher plants are plants in the kingdom Plantae that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ...


Structure

Seaweeds' appearance somewhat resembles non-arboreal terrestrial plants. Download high resolution version (1296x972, 528 KB)Kelp forest, Otago peninsular, Oct 2004 Author: User:Velela. ... Download high resolution version (1296x972, 528 KB)Kelp forest, Otago peninsular, Oct 2004 Author: User:Velela. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ... Otago (help· info) is one of the regions of New Zealand and lies in the south-east of the South Island. ... The kinkajou is an arboreal mammal. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

  • thallus: the algal body
    • lamina: a flattened structure that is somewhat leaf-like
    • stipe: a stem-like structure, may be absent
    • holdfast: specialized basal structure providing attachment to a surface, often a rock or another alga.
    • haptera: finger-like extensions of holdfast anchoring to benthic substrate

The stipe and blade are collectively known as fronds. Thallus is an undifferentiated vegetative tissue (without specialization of function) of some non-mobile organisms, which were previously known as the thallophytes. ... A Lamina in the algae is a generally flattened structure which typically forms the principal bulk of macroscopic plants. ... The underside of a fertile frond of Dicksonia antarctica. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Species F. serratus F. vesiculosus Fucus is a genus of seaweed that lives in the intertidal zones of rocky shores. ... Phytology A pneumatocyst is a large float containing gas found in brown algae. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Phytology A pneumatocyst is a large float containing gas found in brown algae. ... In botany, a stipe is a supportive structure that may be stem-like, as in seaweed, or a true leaf stem, as in ferns. ... A holdfast is a rootlike plant structure that anchors a seaweed. ... A fern with simple (lobed or pinnatifid) blades, the dissection of each blade not quite reaching to the rachis. ...


Ecology

The ecology of seaweeds is dominated by two specific environmental requirements. These are the presence of sea-water (or at least brackish water) and the presence of light sufficient to drive photosynthesis. A very common requirement is also to have a firm point of attachment. As a result, seaweeds are most commonly found in the littoral zone and within that zone more frequently on rocky shores than on sand or shingle. The ecological niches utilised by seaweeds are wide ranging. At the highest level are those that inhabit the zone that is only wetted by the tops of sea spray, the deepest living are those that are attached to the sea-bed under several meters of water. In some parts of the world, the area colonized by littoral seaweeds can extend for several miles away from the shore. The limiting factor in such cases is the availability of sufficient sun-light to support photosynthesis. The deepest living sea-weeds are the various kelps. Brackish redirects here. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


In addition to the familiar sea-shore seaweeds, a number of species have adapted to a fully planktonic niche and are free-floating, often with the assistance of gas filled sacs. Sargassum is one of the better know examples of this type of seaweed. Species Sargassum bacciferum, aka. ...


A number of species have adapted to the specialised environment of tidal rock pools. In this niche seaweeds are able to withstand rapidly changing temperature and salinity and even occasional drying. [2]


Uses

Seaweed is used in ice cream production and sushi.


Food

Packaged seaweed
Packaged seaweed

Seaweeds are extensively used as food by coastal peoples, particularly in East Asia, e.g. Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, but also in Indonesia, Peru, the Canadian Maritimes, Scandinavia, Ireland, Wales, Philippines, and Scotland, among other places. For example, Porphyra is a red alga used in Wales to make laverbread. In Asia, nori is a food composed of sheets of dried Porphyra and is used in soups or to wrap sushi. Chondrus crispus (commonly known as Irish moss or carrageenan moss) is another red alga used in producing various food additives, along with Kappaphycus and various gigartinoid seaweeds. Laverbread made from oats and the seaweed laver is a popular dish in Wales. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1275 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seaweed User:SpLoT/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1275 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Seaweed User:SpLoT/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Porphyra is a genus of red algae. ... Laverbread (Welsh: Bara Lawr) is a traditional Welsh delicacy made from the seaweed laver. ... For other uses, see Nori (disambiguation). ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ... Binomial name Chondrus crispus Stackhouse Irish moss, or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, moss of the rock) is a species of red algae (Chondrus crispus) which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. ... Binomial name Stackhouse Irish moss, or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, moss of the rock) is a species of red alga (Chondrus crispus Stackhouse) which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. ... Carrageenans or carrageenins (pronounced ) are a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds. ... Laverbread (Welsh: Bara Lawr) is a traditional Welsh delicacy made from the seaweed laver. ...


Seaweeds are also harvested or cultivated for the extraction of alginate, agar and carrageenan, gelatinous substances collectively known as hydrocolloids or phycocolloids. Hydrocolloids have attained commercial significance, especially in food production as food additives. [3] The food industry exploits the gelling, water-retention, emulsifying and other physical properties of these hydrocolloids. Agar is used in foods such as confectionery, meats and poultry products, desserts and beverages and moulded foods. Carrageenan is used in preparation of salad dressings and sauces, dietetic foods, and as a preservative in meat and fish products, dairy items and baked goods. Alginates enjoy many of the same uses as carrageenan, but are also used in production of industrial products such as paper coatings, adhesives, dyes, gels, explosives and in processes such as paper sizing, textile printing, hydro-mulching and drilling. Alginate is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked ß-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer α-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Carrageenans or carrageenins (pronounced ) are a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds. ... Hydrocolloids are used in some skin care products A hydrocolloid is defined as a colloid system were the colloid particles are disperesed in water. ...


Medicine

In the biomedicine and pharmaceutical industries, alginates are used in wound dressings, and production of dental moulds and have a host of other applications. In microbiology research, agar is extensively used as culture medium. Carrageenans, alginates and agaroses (the latter are prepared from agar by purification), together with other lesser-known macroalgal polysaccharides, also have several important biological activities or applications in biomedicine.[citation needed] It has been asserted that seaweeds may have curative properties for tuberculosis, arthritis, colds and influenza, worm infestations and even tumors [1].[dubious ] A number of research studies have been conducted to investigate these claims and other effects of seaweed on human health [2].[citation needed] See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ...


See also Fucoidan There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Other uses

Other seaweeds may be used as seaweed fertilizer. Vraicking in Jersey Seaweed fertiliser, also spelled seaweed fertilizer, is a valuable addition to the organic garden, and is abundantly available for free for those living near the coast. ...

Seaweed-covered rocks in the UK

Seeweed covered rocks. ... Seeweed covered rocks. ...

References

  1. ^ Smith, G.M. 1944. Marine Algae of the Monterey Peninsula, California. Stanford Univ., 2nd Edition.
  2. ^ Lewis, J.R. 1964. The Ecology of Rocky Shores. The English Universities Press Ltd.
  3. ^ Round F.E. 1962 The Biology of the Algae. Edward Arnold Ltd.

See also

An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... Binomial name Alaria esculenta Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville. ... Binomial name Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis Knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis) is a large, common, brown, edible seaweed of the northern Atlantic Ocean. ... Binomial name Chondrus crispus Stackhouse Irish moss, or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, moss of the rock) is a species of red algae (Chondrus crispus) which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. ... Species and many others Caulerpa is a genus of seaweeds in the family Caulerpaceae (among the green algae). ... Pink-colored Dunaliella salina within sea salt. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species Laminaria japonica . ... Laver is an edible seaweed that has high content of mineral salts, particularly iodine and iron. ... Species In taxonomy, Monostroma is a genus of algae, specifically of the Monostromataceae. ... Ogonori (Gracilaria spp. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus) Kuntze, 1891 Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze, also called Dulse, dillisk, dilsk or creathnach, is a red algae (Rhodophyta) previously referred to as Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville. ... Porphyra is a genus of red algae. ... Binomial name (Lyngbye) J. Agardh Scytosiphon lomentaria is a littoral brown seaweed with an irregularly lobed many filamentous form. ... Species Ulva lactuca Ulva pertusa Ulva fasciata Ulva rigida Ulva pertusa Ulva linza and more at algaeBASE The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae widely distributed along the coasts of the worlds oceans. ... Spirulina may refer to: Spirulina (dietary supplement), a popular health-food supplement made from the Arthrospira genus of cyanobacteria. ... Species Synonyms In taxonomy, Trentepohlia is a genus of algae, specifically of the Trentepohliaceae, living on terrestrial supports. ... Binomial name (Harvey) Suringar, 1873 Wakame ), Undaria pinnatifida, is a type of edible kelp. ...

External links

  • The Seaweed Site, information on all aspects of seaweeds and marine algal biology
  • AlgaeBase, a searchable taxonomic, image, and utilization database of freshwater, marine and terrestrial algae, including seaweed.
  • SeaweedAfrica, information on seaweed utilisation for the African continent.
  • NCBI PubMed Search, allows for search on health research studies, including seaweed
  • Fountain of Youth Equals Phorphyra Sp. (It Wouldn't Hurt) - A Review from the Science Creative Quarterly

  Results from FactBites:
 
www.seaweed.ie (570 words)
Seaweeds are very important ecologically: they dominate the rocky intertidal in most oceans, and in temperate and polar regions cover rock surfaces in the shallow subtidal.
Seaweeds are found throughout the world's oceans and seas and none is known to be poisonous.
Seaweed extracts appear in the oddest of places: you almost certainly have eaten some sort of seaweed extract in the last 24 hrs as many processed foods such as chocolate milk, yoghurts, health drinks, and even quality beers contain seaweed polysaccharides such as agars, carrageenans and alginates!
Seaweed Systems | Home (231 words)
Seaweed Systems is a one-stop shop for organizations developing devices that display both 2D and 3D graphics.
Seaweed Systems knows OpenGL® software, and it understands how graphics interfaces apply in embedded-system contexts — including how they interact with applications, operating systems, hardware platforms, graphics devices, and even graphics device firmware.
Seaweed Systems' DER is available for consultation on software and electronic hardware compliance and certification issues.
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