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Encyclopedia > Scandium
21 calciumscandiumtitanium
-

Sc

Y
General
Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21
Chemical series transition metals
Group, period, block 34, d
Appearance silvery white
Standard atomic weight 44.955912(6) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 2.985 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 2.80 g·cm−3
Melting point 1814 K
(1541 °C, 2806 °F)
Boiling point 3109 K
(2836 °C, 5136 °F)
Heat of fusion 14.1 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 332.7 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.52 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1645 1804 (2006) (2266) (2613) (3101)
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 3
(weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.36 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 633.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1235.0 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2388.6 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 160 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 184 pm
Covalent radius 144 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly)
calc. 562 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 15.8 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
10.2 µm/(m·K)
Young's modulus 74.4 GPa
Shear modulus 29.1 GPa
Bulk modulus 56.6 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.279
Brinell hardness 750 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-20-2
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of scandium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
44mSc syn 58.61 h IT 0.2709 44Sc
γ 1.0, 1.1, 1.1 44Sc
ε - 44Ca
45Sc 100% Sc is stable with 24 neutrons
46Sc syn 83.79 d β- 0.3569 46Ti
γ 0.889, 1.120 -
47Sc syn 3.3492 d β- 0.44, 0.60 47Ti
γ 0.159 -
48Sc syn 43.67 h β- 0.661 48Ti
γ 0.9, 1.3, 1.0 -
References
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Element 21 redirects here, for the golf company see: Element 21 (golf company).

Scandium (pronounced /ˈskændiəm/) is a chemical element that has the symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery white metal that is always present as compounds, scandium ores occur as rare minerals from Scandinavia and elsewhere, and it is sometimes considered along with yttrium, and the lanthanides and actinides, to be a rare earth element. For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... Image File history File links Sc-TableImage. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... A Group 3 element is an element in periodic table group 3 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: scandium (21) yttrium (39) lanthanum (57) - lutetium (71) actinium (89) - lawrencium (103) All of these elements are classed in Group 3 because their outer shell holds three electrons. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Scandium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Scandium (Sc) Standard atomic mass: 44. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable or isomeric state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 105 seconds and 106 seconds (27. ... . Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts with an electron in one of the lower electron shells, causing the electron to be emitted from the atom. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 106 seconds (a megasecond) and 107 seconds (11. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 105 seconds and 106 seconds (27. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 105 seconds and 106 seconds (27. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: advertising - the details of the stunt are already recorded in Expedition 14 and Mikhail Tyurin, dont think a redirect makes sense here. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... Rare earth ore Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are trivial names sometimes applied to a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Scandium is a rare, hard, silvery, rough very dark metallic element that develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast when exposed to air. It is not resistant to weathering when pure and is destroyed on prolonged contact with most dilute acids. However, like some other reactive metals, this metal is not attacked by a 1:1 mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrofluoric acid, HF. Rare is a term used to denote low numbers or abundance. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ...


The rarity of scandium is not an arbitrary fact. The thermonuclear reactions that produce the elements in this range of atomic numbers tend to produce much greater quantities of elements with an even atomic number. These elements were usually produced by the fusion of lighter elements with helium-4 nuclei, starting with carbon-12 (element six). Thus, the common elements in the range of scandium are atomic numbers 18 (argon), 20 (calcium), 22 (titanium), and 24 (chromium); with elements with odd atomic numbers 19 (potassium), 21 (scandium), and 23 (vanadium) being rarely produced, and thus much less common. The production of the odd-numbered elements in this range result from much less common thermonuclear reactions, as is explained elsewhere. See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ...


Applications

Since it is not a very common metal, scandium does not have many applications. If it were more common, it might be useful in the making of aircraft and spacecraft structures, probably alloyed with other metals.


It is used in lacrosse sticks; a light yet strong metal is needed for precise accuracy and speed. U.S. gunmaker Smith & Wesson produces a small, lightweight revolver with a frame composed of scandium alloy and a titanium cylinder.[1]


Approximately 20 kg (as Sc2O3) of scandium is used annually in the United States to make high-intensity lights. [2] Scandium iodide added to mercury-vapor lamps produces an efficient artificial light source that resembles sunlight, and which allows good color-reproduction with TV cameras. About 80 kg of scandium is used in light bulbs globally per year. The radioactive isotope Sc-46 is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent. [2] General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A Mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses mercury in an excited state to produce light. ... TV redirects here. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ...


The main application of scandium by weight is in aluminium-scandium alloys for minor aerospace industry components, and for unusual designs sports equipment (bikes, baseball bats, firearms, etc.) which rely on high performance materials. However, titanium, being much more common, and similar in lightness and strength, is much more widely used, with tons found in some aircraft, especially military ones. An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ...


When added to aluminium, scandium substantially lowers the rate of recrystallization and associated grain-growth in weld heat-affected zones. Aluminium, being a face-centred-cubic metal, is not particularly subject to the strengthening effects of the decrease in grain diameter. However, the presence of fine dispersions of Al3Sc does increase strength by a small measure, much as any other precipitate system in aluminium alloys. It is added to aluminium alloys primarily to control that otherwise excessive grain growth in the heat-affected zone of weldable structural aluminium alloys, which gives two knock-on effects; greater strengthening via finer precipitation of other alloying elements and by reducing the precipitate-free zones that normally exist at the grain boundaries of age-hardening aluminium alloys.


The original use of scandium-aluminium alloys was in the nose cones of some USSR submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). The strength of the resulting nose cone was enough to enable it to pierce the ice-cap without damage, and so, enabling a missile launch while still submerged under the Arctic ice cap.


Scandium triflate is a catalytic Lewis acid used in organic chemistry. Scandium Triflate or Sc(TfO)3 is a chemical compound composed of scandium with triflate counterions. ... In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well...


History

Dmitri Mendeleev used his periodic law, in 1869, to predict the existence of, and some properties of, three unknown elements, including one he called ekaboron . Portrait of Dmitri Mendeleev by Ilya Repin (Russian: , Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev  ) (8 February [O.S. 27 January] 1834 in Tobolsk – 2 February [O.S. 20 January] 1907 in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist and inventor. ... In the beginning People have known about basic chemical elements such as gold, silver, and copper from antiquity, as these can all be discovered in nature in native form and are relatively simple to mine with primitive tools. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Professor Dimitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. ...


Lars Fredrick Nilson and his team, apparently unaware of that prediction in the spring of 1879, were looking for rare earth metals. By using spectral analysis, they found a new element within the minerals euxenite and gadolinite. They named it scandium, from the Latin Scandia meaning "Scandinavia", and in the process of isolating the scandium, they processed 10 kilograms of euxenite, producing about 2.0 grams of a very pure scandium oxide (Sc2O3). Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Rare earth ore Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are trivial names sometimes applied to a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. ... This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... Euxenite or euxenite-Y is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster, found in Norway. ... Gadolinite is a mineral of a nearly black color and vitreous luster, and consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with formula: (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Kg redirects here. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Scandium(III) oxide (Sc2O3), also known as scandia, is a white amorphous powder used for its heat and thermal shock resistance in high temperature systems, electronic ceramics and as a helper material in glass composition. ...


Per Teodor Cleve of Sweden concluded that scandium corresponded well to the hoped-for ekaboron, and he notified Mendeleev of this in August. Per Teodor Cleve (Stockholm February 10, 1840 – Uppsala June 18, 1905) was a Swedish chemist and geologist. ...


Fischer, Brunger, and Grienelaus prepared metallic scandium for the first time in 1937, by electrolysis of a eutectic melt of potassium, lithium, and scandium chlorides at a temperature of 700 to 800°C. Tungsten wires in a pool of liquid zinc were the electrodes in a graphite crucible. The first pound of 99% pure scandium metal was not produced until 1960. Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more elements which has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... Scandium chloride, ScCl3, is a colourless compound ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Occurrence

Scandium is distributed sparsely on earth, occurring only as trace quantities in many minerals. Rare minerals from Scandinavia and Madagascar, such as thortveitite, euxenite, and gadolinite are the only known concentrated sources of this element (which is never found as a free metal). It is also found in residues that remain after tungsten is extracted from wolframite, and from ores after uranium and thorium have been extracted. For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Thortveitite is a mineral consisting of scandium yttrium silicate and is the primary source of scandium. ... Euxenite or euxenite-Y is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster, found in Norway. ... Gadolinite is a mineral of a nearly black color and vitreous luster, and consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with formula: (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... Wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe2+ rich) and huebernite (Mn2+ rich). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ...


Scandium is more common in the sun and certain stars than on Earth. Scandium is only the 50th most common element on earth (35th most abundant in the Earth's crust), but it is the 23rd most common element in the sun. This article is about the astronomical object. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


The blue color of the aquamarine variety of beryl is thought to be caused by scandium impurities in it. For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... Three varieties of beryl: Morganite, Aquamarine, and Heliodor The mineral beryl is a beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. ...


Isolation

Thortveitite and kolbeckite are the primary mineral sources of scandium. Uranium-mill tailings by-products also are an important source. Pure scandium is commercially produced by reducing scandium fluoride with metallic calcium. This article is about the chemical element. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Scandium(III) flouride, ScF3, is an ionic compound. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...


Scandium market

World production of scandium is in the order of 2,000 kg per year, generally as a by-product of uranium and nickel-cobalt-copper or PGE mining. Consumption is in the order of 5,000 kg, and typically is consumed in bicycle frames in Sc-Al alloys.


The present main source of scandium metal to meet this shortfall is from the military stockpiles of the former Soviet Union (mainly in the country of Ukraine), which were extracted from uranium tailings. There is no primary production in the Americas, Europe, or Australia, although gigantic scandium deposits are associated with uranium, nickel-copper-cobalt laterite deposits and associated with ultramafic rocks worldwide. For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... Cutting of laterite brickstones, Angadipuram, India Laterite is a surface formation in tropical areas which is enriched in iron and aluminium and develops by intensive and long lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. ...


Scandium can also be extracted from tantalum residues, tungsten processing wastes, tin slags and a variety of other such industrial waste streams, and it is sometimes recovered from rare earth ores, particularly the rare earth oxide deposits of Bayan Obo, China.


The strength and commerciality of the scandium market is yet to be demonstrated as it is a specialty metal and a single producer could corner the supply with minimal tonnage production. The price in 2006 of 99.0% scandium oxide is of order of US$700 per kilogram [3]


Compounds

The most common oxidation state of scandium in is +3. Scandium chemically resembles yttrium and the rare earth metals more than it resembles aluminium or titanium. Thus scandium is sometimes seen as the scandium oxide, Sc2O3, and as scandium chloride, ScCl3. In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ...


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of scandium

Naturally occurring scandium is composed of 1 stable isotope 45Sc. 13 radioisotopes have been characterized with the most stable being 46Sc with a half-life of 83.8 days, 47Sc with a half-life of 3.35 days, and 48Sc with a half-life of 43.7 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half lives that are less than 4 hours, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 2 minutes. This element also has 5 meta states with the most stable being 44mSc (t½ 58.6 h). Scandium (Sc) Standard atomic mass: 44. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The isotopes of scandium range in atomic weight from 40 u (40Sc) to 54 u (54Sc). The primary decay mode at masses lower than the only stable isotope, 45Sc, is electron capture, and the primary mode at masses above it is beta emission. The primary decay products at atomic weights below 45Sc are calcium isotopes and the primary products from higher atomic weights are titanium isotopes. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ...


See also

References

  1. ^ Small Frame (J) - Model 340PD Revolver. Smith & Wesson.
  2. ^ a b C.R. Hammond in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 85th ed., Section 4; The Elements
  3. ^ Scandium United States Geological Society, 2006

Smith & Wesson NASDAQ: SWHC (S&W) is the largest manufacturer of handguns in the United States. ...

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Scandium compounds Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...


Scandium minerals compounds


  Results from FactBites:
 
Scandium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (719 words)
Scandium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
A soft, silvery, white transition metal, scandium occurs in rare minerals from Scandinavia and it is sometimes classified along with yttrium and the lanthanides as a rare earth.
Fischer, Brunger, and Grienelaus prepared metallic scandium for the first time in 1937, by electrolysis of a eutectic melt of potassium, lithium, and scandium chlorides at 700 to 800°C Tungsten wire in a pool of liquid zinc were the electrodes in a graphite crucible.
Scandium - Wikipedia (283 words)
Scandium is een scheikundig element met symbool Sc en atoomnummer 21.
Scandium heeft de naam te danken aan de eerst genoemde ontdekker (scandia is de Latijnse naam voor Scandinavië).
Scandium komt voor in zeldzame mineralen die soms in Scandinavië en Madagaskar gevonden worden, vaak samen met yttrium of lanthaniden.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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