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Encyclopedia > Romania
România
Romania
Flag of Romania
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
(each main institution has its own motto)
AnthemDeşteaptă-te, române!
Location of  Romania  (orange)

– on the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the European Union  (camel)                 [ Legend] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Romania_Coat_of_Arms. ... The national flag of Romania is a vertical tricolor of blue, yellow, and red. ... Coat of Arms of Romania The Coat of Arms of Romania consists of an eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a sword in its claws. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Romania has no official motto. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... DeÅŸteaptă-te, române (variously translated as Awaken thee, Romanian!, Awaken, Romanian!, or Wake Up, Romanian!) is Romanias national anthem. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 711 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romania ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Bucharest (Bucureşti)
44°25′N, 26°06′E
Official languages Romanian1
Demonym Romanian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Traian Băsescu
 -  Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu
Independence
 -  Declared 9 May 1877 (O.S.)² 
 -  Recognised 13 July 1878³ 
EU membership January 1, 2007
Area
 -  Total 238,392 km² (82nd)
92,043 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3
Population
 -  July 2007 estimate 22,276,056 (50th)
 -  2002 census 21,680,974 
 -  Density 93/km² (104th)
236/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $256.9 billion (43rd)
 -  Per capita $10,661[1] (64th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $157,6 billions (41th)
 -  Per capita $7,311 (65th)
Gini? (2003) 31 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.805 (high) (60th)
Currency Leu (RON)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .ro .eu4
Calling code +40
1 Other languages, such as Hungarian, German, Romani, Croatian, Ukrainian and Serbian, are official at various local levels.
² Romanian War of Independence.
³ Treaty of Berlin.
4 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Romania (Romanian: România, IPA: [ro.mɨˈni.a]) is a country in Southeastern Europe. It shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova to the northeast, and Bulgaria to the south. Romania has a stretch of sea coast along the Black Sea. It is located roughly in the lower basin of the Danube and almost all of the Danube Delta is located within its territory. Not to be confused with capitol. ... About 89. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Romanian history | Romanian Prime Ministers ... Călin-Constantin-Anton Popescu-Tăriceanu () (born January 14, 1952) is a Romanian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Romania since December 28, 2004. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style redirects here. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Developpment Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ro is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Romania. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 40 In the last years, landline usage started to drop as the mobile phones market was growing fast. ... This article is about the language spoken by Roma people. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Combatants Russian Empire Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Carol I of Romania Nikolai Konstantinovich, Grand Duke of Russia Ahmed Muhtar Pasha Casualties 10,000 The Romanian War of Independence was fought in 1877 against the Ottoman Empire. ... Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich. ... Romania may refer to: Romania (Rumania, Roumania) - the modern nation-state in southeastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ...


Romania is a semi-presidential unitary state. As a nation-state, the country was formed by the merging of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1859 and it gained recognition of its independence in 1878. Later, in 1918, they were joined by Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia. At the end of World War II, parts of its territories (roughly the present day Moldova) were occupied by USSR and Romania became a member of Warsaw Pact. With the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, Romania started a series of political and economic reforms that peaked with Romania joining the European Union. States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-Ceauşescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae Ceauşescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the...


Romania has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 2007, and has the ninth largest territory in the EU and with 22 million people [2] it has the 7th largest population among the EU member states. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest (Romanian: Bucureşti /bu.kuˈreʃtʲ/ ), the sixth largest city in the EU with almost 2 million people. In 2007, Sibiu, a large city in Transylvania, was chosen as European Capital of Culture.[3] Romania joined NATO on March 29, 2004, and is also a member of the Latin Union, of the Francophonie and of OSCE. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This is a list of European Union member states by area (area inside the Union only). ... This is a list of European Union member states by population. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Image File history File links Ro-BucureÅŸti. ... This list includes the most up-to-date official census figures or census estimates with regards to the population of the largest cities in the European Union. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquarters Paris, France Official languages Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian Membership 37 (plus 3 observers) Leaders  -  General Secretariat Bernardino Osio Establishment 15 May 1954 Website http://www. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Etymology of Romania

The name of Romania (România) comes from Român (Romanian) which is a derivative of the word Romanus ("Roman") from Latin. The fact that Romanians call themselves a derivative of Romanus (Romanian: Român/Rumân) is mentioned as early as the 16th century by many authors among whom were Italian Humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia.[4] [5] [6] [7] The oldest surviving document written in the Romanian language is a 1521 letter (known as "Neacşu's Letter [8] from Câmpulung") which notifies the mayor of Braşov about the imminent attack of the Ottoman Turks. This document is also notable for having the first occurrence of "Rumanian" in a Romanian written text, Wallachia being here named The Rumanian Land - Ţeara Rumânească (Ţeara (Latin Terra = land). In the following centuries, Romanian documents use interchangeably two spelling forms: Român and Rumân.[9] Socio-linguistic evolutions in the late 17th century lead to a process of semantic differentiation: the form "rumân", presumably usual among lower classes, got the meaning of "bondsman", while the form "român" kept an ethno-linguistic meaning.[10] After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the form "rumân" gradually disappears and the spelling definitively stabilises to the form "român", "românesc".[11] The name "România" as common homeland of all Romanians is documented in the early 19th century.[12] Romanians are a people living in Central and South-Eastern Europe speaking a Romance language. ... Motto: (none) Motto of the Kingdom (1866-1947): Nihil Sine Deo Anthem: DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Capital {{{capital}}} Largest city Bucharest Official language(s) Romanian Government President Prime Minister republic Traian Băsescu Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu Independence - Declared - Recognised Romanian War of Independence 10 May 1877 13... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... NeacÅŸus letter is the oldest surviving document written in Romanian NeacÅŸu was a 16th century Wallachian trader. ... Câmpulung (Câmpulung Muscel) is a city in the Arges county, Romania. ... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Romanian is: Of or pertaining to Romania The Romanian people The Romanian language Romanian can also refer to The Romanian Orthodox Church This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Motto: (none) Motto of the Kingdom (1866-1947): Nihil Sine Deo Anthem: DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Capital {{{capital}}} Largest city Bucharest Official language(s) Romanian Government President Prime Minister republic Traian Băsescu Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu Independence - Declared - Recognised Romanian War of Independence 10 May 1877 13...


History

Main article: History of Romania
Outline of the Dacian Kingdom at its greatest extent
Outline of the Dacian Kingdom at its greatest extent

This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... Dacian Kingdom, under the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Made with Xara X - ask User:Bogdangiusca for vectorial Xara-X sources, if you need them. ... Dacian Kingdom, under the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Made with Xara X - ask User:Bogdangiusca for vectorial Xara-X sources, if you need them. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ...

Prehistory and Antiquity

Main articles: Prehistoric Romania and Dacia, and Roman Dacia

In 2002, the oldest modern human (Homo sapiens sapiens) remains in Europe were discovered in the "Cave With Bones" (Peştera cu Oase) near Anina in present day Romania.[13] The remains (the lower jaw) are approximately 42,000 years old and have been nicknamed "John of Anina" (Ion din Anina). As Europe’s oldest remains of Homo sapiens, they may represent the first such people to have entered the continent.[14] The remains are especially interesting because they present a mixture of archaic, early modern human and Neanderthal morphological features.[15] [16] [17] [18] Prehistoric Romania is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area encompassing present-day Romania, which extended through prehistory, and ended when the first written records appeared. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... PeÅŸtera cu Oase (The Cave with Bones) is a system of 12 karstic galleries and chambers located N. 45° 01’; E. 21° 50’ in south-western Romania, where the oldest modern human remains in Europe have been discovered. ... Anina is a town in southwestern Romania (Caras-Severin county); Population: 10,886 (2000). ... In 2002, the oldest modern human remains in Europe were discovered in a cave near Anina, Romania. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ...

The earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of the present-day Romania comes from Herodotus in 513 BC.[19] In one of his books, he writes that the tribal confederation of the Getae were defeated by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great during his campaign against the Scythians.[20] Image File history File links RomansoldiersvsDacianwarriors. ... Image File history File links RomansoldiersvsDacianwarriors. ... Combatants Dacians Roman Empire Commanders Decebal Trajan Strength around 100,000 (based on population estimate) 70,000-80,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) were two short wars between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajans rule. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (todays southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. ... Persia redirects here. ... Darius the Great (c. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ...


Dacians (Lat. Daci, Gr. Dákai) are a branch of Thracians that inhabitanted Dacia (corresponding to modern Romania and Moldova) and parts of Moesia (mostly in northern Bulgaria) in southeastern Europe). The Dacian kingdom reached its maximum expansion during King Burebista. The region came under the scrutiny of Rome when the Roman province, bordering along the Danube, Moesia, was attacked by the Dacians in 87 AD during Emperor Domitian's reign. The Dacians were eventually defeated by the Roman Empire under Emperor Trajan in two campaigns stretching from 101 AD to 106 AD,[21] and the core of their kingdom was turned into the Roman province of Dacia. Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική) is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Burebista,[1] the greatest king of Dacia, ruled between 70 BC and 44 BC. He unified the Thracian population from Hercynia (todays Moravia) in the west, to the Bug River in the east, and from the northern Carpathians to Dionysopolis... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Combatants Dacians Roman Empire Commanders Decebal Trajan Strength around 100,000 (based on population estimate) 70,000-80,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) were two short wars between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajans rule. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ...

Roman Dacia

Because the province was rich in ores, and especially silver and gold ,[22] the Romans heavily colonized the province,[23] brought with them Vulgar Latin and started a period of intense romanization (giving birth to proto-Romanian).[24] [25] But in the 3rd century AD, with the invasions of migratory populations such as Goths, the Roman Empire was forced to pull out of Dacia in 270 AD, thus making it the first province to be abandoned. [26] [27] Image File history File links Roman_Dacia. ... Image File history File links Roman_Dacia. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ...


Middle Ages

In either 271 or 275 the Roman army and administration left Dacia, which was invaded by the Goths[28]. The Goths lived with the local people until the 4th century, when another nomadic people, the Huns, arrived. [29] The Gepids [30] [31] and the Avars and their Slavic subjects [32] ruled Transylvania until the 8th century. It was then invaded by Bulgarians [33], thereafter being incorporated into the First Bulgarian Empire (marking the end of Romania's dark age) where it remained a part until the 11th century. The Pechenegs,[34] the Cumans [35] and Uzes were also mentioned by historic chronicles on the territory of Romania, until the founding of the Romanian principalities of Wallachia by Basarab I around 1310 in the High Middle Ages,[36] and Moldavia by Dragoş around 1352. [37] This article (also known as Romania in the Dark Ages) treats the history of Romania and of the Romanian people, and refers to the time period roughly from the 5th century to the 10th century, that is between the Hunnic invasion, to the last phase of the Age of Migrations. ... // Main article: Romania in the Dark Ages The Dark Ages in what is now Romania ended around the 11th century, following the period in which the Romanian lands had been part of the First Bulgarian Empire (802-1018). ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... Uzès is a picturesque town and commune in the Gard département, Languedoc, about 15 miles north-northeast of Nîmes. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Posada Battle Basarab I was an early ruler of the principality of Wallachia, known as ÃŽntemeietorul (The Founder) (c. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... DragoÅŸ I in a 19th century rendition. ...

The city of Sighisoara first attested in the 12th century, is nowadays famous for its Medieval Festival
The city of Sighisoara first attested in the 12th century, is nowadays famous for its Medieval Festival

Several competing theories have been generated to explain the origin of modern Romanians. Linguistic and geo-historical analyses tend to indicate that Romanians have coallesced as a major ethnic group both South and North of the Danube. [38] For further discussion, see Origin of Romanians. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Sighişoara (Hungarian: Segesvár, German: Schäßburg) is a town in Mureş, Transylvania, Romania. ... The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ...


In the Middle Ages, Romanians lived in three distinct principalities: Wallachia (Romanian: Ţara Românească - "Romanian Land"), Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova) and Transylvania. Transylvania was part of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10-11th century until the 16th century, [39] when it became the independent. Principality of Transylvania [40] until 1711.[41] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: or Erdelj / Ердељ) is a historical region in the center of Romania. ...

Bran Castle built in 1212, is commonly known as Dracula's Castle and is situated in the centre of present-day Romania. In addition to its unique architecture, the castle is famous because of persistent myths that it was once the home of Vlad III Dracula.
Bran Castle built in 1212, is commonly known as Dracula's Castle and is situated in the centre of present-day Romania. In addition to its unique architecture, the castle is famous because of persistent myths that it was once the home of Vlad III Dracula.

Independent Wallachia has been on the border of the Ottoman Empire since the 14th century and slowly fell under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire during 15th. One famous ruler in this period was Vlad III the Impaler (also known as Vlad Dracula or Vlad Ţepeş, IPA: ['tsepeʃ]), Prince of Wallachia in 1448, 1456–62, and 1476.[42] [43] In the English-speaking world, Vlad is best known for the legends of the exceedingly cruel punishments he imposed during his reign and for serving as the primary inspiration for the vampire main character in Bram Stoker's popular Dracula (1897) novel. As king, he maintained an independent policy in relation to the Ottoman Empire, and in Romania he is viewed by many as a prince with a deep sense of justice [44] and a defender of both Wallachia and European Christianity against Ottoman expansionism. Image File history File links Bran_Castle. ... Image File history File links Bran_Castle. ... This article is about Bran Castle, known commonly as Draculas Castle. For the stage show, see Castle Dracula. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Vlad Tepes redirects here. ... Portrait of Vlad III Vlad III Dracula (Also known as Vlad Ţepeş /tsepesh/ in Romanian or Vlad the Impaler) born November/December, 1431 - died December 1476, and reigned as Prince of Wallachia 1448, 1456-1462 and 1476. ... Below is the list of Wallachian rulers, since the first mentioned until the unification with Moldavia in 1859. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... Count Dracula is a fictional character, the titular antagonist of Bram Stokers 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Voroneţ Monastery built in 1488 by Stephen III of Moldavia (Stephen the Great) after his victory at the Battle of Vaslui.

The principality of Moldavia reached its most glorious period under the rule of Stephen the Great between 1457 and 1504. [45] His rule of 47 years was unusually long, especially at that time - only 13 rulers were recorded to have ruled for at least 50 years until the end of 15th century. He was a very successful military leader (winning 47 battles and losing only 2 [46]), and after each victory, he raised a church, managing to build 48 churches or monasteries, [47] some of them with unique and very interesting painting styles. For more information see Painted churches of northern Moldavia listed in UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. Stephen's most prestigious victory was over the Ottoman Empire in 1475 at the Battle of Vaslui for which he raised the Voroneţ Monastery. For this victory, Pope Sixtus IV deemed him verus christianae fidei athleta (true Champion of Christian Faith). However, after his death, Moldavia would also come under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... VoroneÅ£ is a monastery in Romania, found near the town of Gura Humorului. ... Stephen III of Moldavia or Stephen III (c. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul ÃŽnalt) (January 10, 1475) was fought between the Moldavian (Romanian) Prince, Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) and the Ottoman General Suleiman Pasha. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Stephen III of Moldavia or Stephen III (c. ... The list of longest reigning Monarchs of all time details monarchs and lifelong leaders who reigned for more than 50 years, sorted by length of service: Note (1): Pepi II Neferkares length of reign is questionable; some Egyptologists favour a shorter reign length of 64 years given the absence... The painted churches of northern Moldavia are seven Romanian Orthodox churches in Suceava County, Romania in northern Moldavia, built approximately between 1487 and 1532. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul ÃŽnalt) (January 10, 1475) was fought between the Moldavian (Romanian) Prince, Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) and the Ottoman General Suleiman Pasha. ... VoroneÅ£ is a monastery in Romania, found near the town of Gura Humorului. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Michael the Brave (Romanian: Mihai Viteazul) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593-1601), of Transylvania (1599-1600), and of Moldavia (1600). Briefly, during his reign the three principalities largely inhabited by Romanians were for the first time united under a single rule.[48] After his death, as vassal tributary states, Moldova and Wallachia had complete internal autonomy and an external independence, which was finally lost in the 18th century. Engraving of Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazu redirects here. ... List of rulers of Wallachia, since the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube, until the creation of Romania (in 1866, after the union with Moldavia of 1859). ... List of rulers of Transylvania, from the first mention of a ruler in the tenth century, until 1867. ... This is a list of rulers of Moldavia. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...

Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania at the end of the XVIth century
Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania at the end of the XVIth century

Image File history File links Mihai_1600. ... Image File history File links Mihai_1600. ...

Independence and Kingdom

During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania, and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens (or even non-citizens)[49] in a territory where they were forming the majority of the population. [50] [51] In some Transylvanian cities, such as Braşov (at that time the Transylvanian Saxon citadel of Kronstadt), Romanians were not even allowed to reside within the city walls.[52] It has been suggested that Byzantium after Byzantium be merged into this article or section. ... During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens (or even non-citizens) in their own country. ... Combatants Russian Empire Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Carol I of Romania Nikolai Konstantinovich, Grand Duke of Russia Ahmed Muhtar Pasha Casualties 10,000 The Romanian War of Independence was fought in 1877 against the Ottoman Empire. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... First page of the petition, printed in Cluj / Kolosvar Supplex Liberum Valachorum Transsilvaniae (Petition of the Vlachs of Transylvania) was a petition sent in 1791 to Emperor Leopold II of Austria by the Romanian Catholic bishops of Transylvania (Samuil Micu, Petru Maior, Gheorghe Åžincai, Ioan Piuariu-Molnar etc) demanding for... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... The signers of the Memorandum The Transylvanian Memorandum was a petition sent in 1892 by the leaders of the Romanians of Transylvania to the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph, asking for Romanians equal national rights with the Hungarians and demanding the cessation of persecutions and the attempts at denationalization of the...


After the failed 1848 Revolution, the Great Powers did not support the Romanians' expressed desire to officially unite in a single state, forcing Romania to proceed alone against the Turks. The electors in both Moldavia and Wallachia chose in 1859 the same person – Alexandru Ioan Cuza – as prince (Domnitor in Romanian). [53] Thus, Romania was created as a personal union, albeit a Romania that did not include Transylvania, where although Romanian nationalism inevitably ran up against Hungarian nationalism at the end of the 19th century, the upper class and the aristocracy remained mainly Hungarian. As in the previous 900 years, Austria-Hungary, especially under the Dual Monarchy of 1867, kept the Hungarians firmly in control, even in parts of Transylvania where Romanians constituted a local majority. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Alexander John Cuza Alexandru Ioan Cuza (March 20, 1820, GalaÅ£i – May 15, 1873, Heidelberg), more commonly known in English as Alexander John Cuza, was the domnitor (ruler) of the United Principalites of Romania between 1859 and 1866. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Domnitor (pl. ... See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ...

The Palace of Culture in Iaşi was built in 1925 and hosts several museums
The Palace of Culture in Iaşi was built in 1925 and hosts several museums

In a 1866 coup d'etat, Cuza was exiled and replaced by Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who became known as Prince Carol of Romania. During the Russo-Turkish War, Romania fought on the Russian side;[54] in the 1878 Treaty of Berlin,[55] Romania was recognized as an independent state by the Great Powers.[56] In return, Romania ceded three southern districts of Bessarabia to Russia and acquired Dobruja. In 1881, the principality was raised to a kingdom and Prince Carol became King Carol I. Image File history File links Iasi_cultural_palace. ... Image File history File links Iasi_cultural_palace. ... Palace of Culture Palace of Culture (Romanian: Palatul Culturii) is one of the largest buildings of Romania, located in the city of IaÅŸi. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Alexander John (Alexandru Ioan) Cuza Alexandru Ioan Cuza (March 20, 1820, Galaţi - May 15, 1873, Heidelberg), known more commonly in English as Alexander John Cuza, was the ruler (1859-1866) of the United Principalites of Romania. ... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... Flag Motto Latin: (English: ) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1848 Capital Sigmaringen Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Partition of County of     Hohenzollern   1576  - Raised to Principality 1623  - Incorporation into     Kingdom of Prussia   1850 The House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... King Charles (right) and Queen Elizabeth of Romania Carol I, original name Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (April 20, 1839 - October 10, 1914) was elected prince of Romania in April 1866 following the overthrow of Alexander John Cuza, and proclaimed king on March 26, 1881. ...


The 1878-1914 period was one of stability and progress for Romania. During the Second Balkan War, Romania joined Greece, Serbia, Montenegro and Turkey against Bulgaria. In the peace Treaty of Bucharest (1913) Romania gained Southern Dobrudja - the Quadrilateral (the Durostor and Caliacra counties). [57] From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ...

Peleş Castle, retreat of Romanian monarchs
Peleş Castle, retreat of Romanian monarchs

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 1. ... Peleş Castle Peleş Castle A mural in the inner court A royal crest sculpture Peleş Castle (Romanian: Castelul Peleş ) is a romantic castle in Sinaia, Romania, built between 1873 and 1883, and considered by some to be the most beautiful in Europe. ...

World Wars and Greater Romania

In August 1914, when World War I broke out, Romania declared neutrality. Two years later, under the pressure of Allies (especially France desperate to open a new front), on August 14/27 1916 it joined the Allies, for which they were promised support for the accomplishment of national unity, Romania declared war on Austria-Hungary. [58] Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of... Anthem Trăiască Regele Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Constitutional monarchy Head of State  - 1918 - 1927 Ferdinand I of Romania  - 1927 - 1930 - 1930 - 1940 - 1940 - 1947 Michael I of Romania Carol II of Romania Michael I of Romania Legislature Adunarea DeputaÅ£ilor and Senatul Historical era Interbellum Years  - Kingdom... In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Neutral means balanced between two or more opposites. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


The Romanian military campaign ended in disaster for Romania as the Central Powers conquered two-thirds of the country and captured or killed the majority of its army within four months. Nevertheless, Moldova remained in Romanian hands after the invading forces were stopped in 1917 and since by the war's end, Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire had collapsed, Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania were allowed to unite with the Kingdom of Romania in 1918. By the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, Hungary renounced in favour of Romania all the claims of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy over Transylvania.[citation needed] The union of Bucovina and Bessarabia with Romania was ratified in 1920 by the Treaty of Versailles.[citation needed] Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I European military alliances in 1914. ... The Romanian Army (Armata Română) consists of three branches: Romanian Land Forces Romanian Naval Forces Romanian Air Force The term army is used in Romania when referring to the entire military, while land forces deal only with the actual army itself. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Ukraine. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


The Romanian expression România Mare (literal translation "Great Romania", but more commonly rendered "Greater Romania") generally refers to the Romanian state in the interwar period, and by extension, to the territory Romania covered at the time (see map). Romania achieved at that time its greatest territorial extent (almost 300,000 km² [59]), managing to unite all the historic Romanian lands.[citation needed] România Mare (Greater Romania in Romanian language) may have one of the following meanings. ... Interbellum redirects here. ...

Romanian territory during the 20th century: purple indicates the Old Kingdom before 1913, orange indicates Greater Romania areas that joined or were annexed after the Second Balkan War and WWI but were lost after WWII, and rose indicates areas that joined Romania after WWI and remained so after WWII.

During the Second World War, Romania tried again to remain neutral[citation needed] but on June 28, 1940, it received a Soviet ultimatum with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance.[60] . Under pressure from Moscow and Berlin, the Romanian administration and the army were forced to retreat from Bessarabia as well from Northern Bukovina to avoid war.[61][62] This, in combination with other factors, prompted the government to join the Axis. Thereafter, southern Dobruja was awarded to Bulgaria, while Hungary received Northern Transylvania as result of an Axis arbitration.[citation needed] The authoritarian King Carol II abdicated in 1940, succeeded by the National Legionary State, in which power was shared by Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. Within months, Antonescu had crushed the Iron Guard, and the subsequent year Romania entered the war on the side of the Axis powers. During the war, Romania was by far the most important source of oil for Nazi Germany,[citation needed] which attracted multiple bombing raids by the Allies.[citation needed] By means of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania recovered Bessarabia and northern Bukovina from the Soviet Russia, under the leadership of general Ion Antonescu. The Antonescu regime played a major role in the Holocaust,[citation needed] following to a lesser extent the Nazi policy of oppression and massacre of the Jews, and Romas, primarily in the Eastern territories Romania recovered or occupied from the Soviet Union (Transnistria) and in Moldavia.[citation needed] According to Raul Hilberg, “no country, besides Germany, was involved in massacres of Jews on such a scale.”[63] Image File history File links Romania_territory_during_20th_century. ... Image File history File links Romania_territory_during_20th_century. ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The June 1940 Soviet Ultimatum was issued by the Soviet Union to Romania, regarding the Soviet territorial requests. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Ukrainian; Buchenland or Bukowina in German; Bukowina in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Romania and Ukraine. ... The word axis has several meanings: In mathematics, axis can mean: A straight line around which a geometric figure can be rotated. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ... Read carefully- a chauvinist bias included! Romania with Northern Transylvania highlighted in yellow Northern Transylvania is a part of Transylvania which, after separation from Hungary in 1920 by the Trianon (Versailles) Treaty, was awarded by Germany and Italy to Hungary in line with the Vienna Awards of 1940. ... The word axis has several meanings: In mathematics, axis can mean: A straight line around which a geometric figure can be rotated. ... Carol II of Romania, (15 October 1893 – 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September 6, 1940. ... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. ... The National Legionary State (Romanian: Statul NaÅ£ional Legionar) was the Romanian government of September 6, 1940—January 23, 1941. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Romania controlled (August 19 1941 - January 29 1944) the whole Transnistrian region between Dniester, Bug rivers and Black Sea coast. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007 in Williston, Vermont) was one of the best-known and most distinguished of Holocaust historians. ...


In August 1944, Antonescu was toppled and arrested by King Michael I of Romania. Romania changed sides and joined the Allies, but its role in the defeat of Nazi Germany was not recognized by the Paris Peace Conference of 1947.[citation needed] With the Red Army forces still stationed in the country and exerting de facto control, Communists and their allied parties claimed 80% of the vote, through a combination of vote manipulation,[64] elimination, and forced mergers of competing parties, thus establishing themselves as the dominant force. King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


Communist Romania

(1947-1989)
Main article: Communist Romania

In 1947, King Michael I was forced by the Communists to abdicate and leave the country, Romania was proclaimed a republic, and remained under direct military and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's resources were drained by the "SovRom" agreements: mixed Soviet-Romanian companies established to mask the looting of Romania by the Soviet Union.[65][66][67] A large number of people were arbitrarily imprisoned for political, economic or unknown reasons:[68] detainees in prisons or camps, deported, persons under house arrest, and administrative detainees. Political prisoners were also detained as psychiatric patients, estimations vary, from 60,000,[69] to 80,000.[70] There were hundreds of thousands of abuses, deaths and incidents of torture against a large range of people, from political opponents to ordinary citizens.[71] Political prisoners were freed in a series of amnesties between 1962 and 1964. In total, it is estimated that up to two million people have lost their lives directly because of the regime.[72][73] Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The SovRoms were a series of agreements put into place in Romania following its Communist takeover post-WWII, until 1956 when they were dissolved. ...


After the negotiated retreat of Soviet troops in 1958, Romania, under the new leadership of Nicolae Ceauşescu, started to pursue independent policies. Such examples are the condemnation of the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia (being the only Warsaw Pact country not to take part in the invasion),[citation needed] the continuation of diplomatic relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967 (again, the only Warsaw Pact country to do so),[citation needed] the establishment of economic (1963) and diplomatic (1967) relations with the Federal Republic of Germany, and so forth. Also, close ties with the Arab countries (and the PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel-Egypt and Israel-PLO peace processes by intermediating the visit of Sadat in Israel.[74] A short-lived period of relative economic well-being and openness followed in the late 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s.[citation needed] As Romania's foreign debt sharply increased between 1977 and 1981 (from 3 to 10 billion US dollars),[75] the influence of international financial organisations such as the IMF or the World Bank grew, conflicting with Nicolae Ceauşescu's autarchic policies.[citation needed] Ceauşescu eventually initiated a project of total reimbursement of the foreign debt (completed in 1989, shortly before his overthrow).[citation needed] To achieve this goal, he imposed policies that impoverished Romanians and exhausted the Romanian economy.[citation needed] He greatly extended the authority police state[citation needed] and imposed a cult of personality[citation needed]. These lead to a dramatic decrease in Ceauşescu-popularity[citation needed] and culminated in his overthrow and death in the bloody Romanian Revolution of 1989.[citation needed] Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Field Marshal Mohammed Anwar Al Sadat (Arabic:محمد أنورالسادات) in (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian soldier and politician, who served as the third President of Egypt from October 15, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-CeauÅŸescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae CeauÅŸescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the...


Present Romania

Main article: Romania since 1989

After the fall of Ceauşescu, the National Salvation Front (FSN), led by Ion Iliescu, restored civil order and took partial democratic measures.[citation needed] Several major political parties of the pre-war era, such as the National Christian Democrat Peasant's Party (PNŢCD), the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the Romanian Social Democrat Party (PSDR) were resurrected. After several major political rallies (especially in January), in April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of the recently held parliamentary elections began in the University Square, Bucharest. The protesters accused the FSN of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate. The protesters did not recognize the results of the election, which they deemed undemocratic, and were asking for the exclusion from the political life of the former high-ranking Communist Party members. The protest rapidly grew to become an ongoing mass demonstration (known as the Golaniad).[citation needed] The peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence. After the police failed to bring the demonstrators to order, Ion Iliescu called on the "men of good will" to come and defend the Bucharest and State institutions.[citation needed] Coal miners of the Jiu Valley answered the call and arrived in Bucharest on June 14. Their violent intervention is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad.[citation needed] 1989 represented the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. ... The National Salvation Front (in Romanian, Frontul Salvării NaÅ£ionale, FSN) was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, subsequently turned into a political party. ... Ion Iliescu (born March 3, 1930) is a Romanian politician. ... It has been suggested that National Peasants Party be merged into this article or section. ... The Partidul NaÅ£ional Liberal (National Liberal Party) is a liberal party in Romania, and the second largest party in parliament, being edged out only by the Social Democratic Party. ... The Social Democratic Party of Romania (Partidul Social Democrat or PSD) is the governing party of Romania. ... University Square is located in the downtown Bucharest, near the Bucharest University. ... The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ... An anti-communist rally in the University Square of Bucharest, 1990 The Golaniad (Romanian: Golaniada) was a protest in Romania in the University Square, Bucharest. ... Ion Iliescu (born March 3, 1930) is a Romanian politician. ... This article is about the Romanian river Jiu. ... The June 1990 Mineriad was the suppression of the student-led protests (the Golaniad) in 1990 Romania by the miners of Jiu Valley called in by the newly-elected power to Bucharest. ...


The subsequent disintegration of the FSN produced several political parties including the Romanian Democrat Social Party (PDSR, later Social Democratic Party, PSD), the Democratic Party (PD) and the ApR (Alliance for Romania). The PDSR party governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then there have been three democratic changes of government: in 1996, the democratic-liberal opposition and its leader Emil Constantinescu acceded to power; in 2000 the Social Democrats returned to power, with Iliescu once again president; and in 2004 Traian Băsescu was elected president, with an electoral coalition called Justice and Truth Alliance (DA). The government was formed by a larger coalition which also includes the Conservative Party and the ethnic Hungarian party. The Social Democratic Party of Romania (in Romanian, Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) is a major political party of Romania. ... The Democratic Party (Romanian: Partidul Democrat, PD) is a centre-right (formerly social democrat) party of Romania. ... Political parties in Romania lists political parties in Romania. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ion Iliescu (born March 3, 1930) is a Romanian politician. ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... Justice and Truth (in Romanian Dreptate ÅŸi Adevăr, or D.A. for short) is a political alliance comprising two political parties in Romania: the centre-right liberal National Liberal Party (PNL) and the centre-left reformist Democratic Party (PD). ... Its headquarters, on Calea Victoriei This article refers to the current Conservative Party in Romania. ... The Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (Romanian: Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România, UDMR; Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség, RMDSZ) is an ethnically based political party representing ethnic Hungarians in Romania. ...


Post-Cold War Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe, eventually joining NATO in 2004.[citation needed] The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union (EU). It became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a member on January 1, 2007.[citation needed] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Romania
Topographic map of Romania.
Topographic map of Romania.

With a surface area of 238,391 km², Romania is the largest country in southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe. A large part of Romania's border with Serbia and Bulgaria is formed by the Danube. The Danube is joined by the Prut River, which forms the border with the Republic of Moldova. The Danube flows into the Black Sea on Romanian territory, forming the Danube Delta, the largest delta in Europe, which is currently a biosphere reserve and World Heritage-listed site due to its biodiversity. Other important rivers are the Siret, running north-south through Moldavia, the Olt, running from the oriental Carpathian Mountains to Oltenia, and the Mureş, running through Transylvania from East to West. Topographic map of Romania. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x738, 437 KB) Physical map of Romania and surrounding areas, in bitmap format. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x738, 437 KB) Physical map of Romania and surrounding areas, in bitmap format. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... The Siret River is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of the Ukraine, flows southward into Romania for 470 km before it joins Danube. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Olt (Romanian and Hungarian; in German: Alt; in Latin: Aluta) is a river in Romania. ... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... The MureÅŸ (in Romanian, in Hungarian: Maros, in German: Mieresch / Marosch) is an approx. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


Romania's terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountainous, hilly and lowland territories. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of Romania, with fourteen of its mountain ranges reaching above the altitude of 2,000 meters. The highest mountain in Romania is Moldoveanu Peak (2544 m). In south-central Romania, the Carpathians sweeten into hills, towards the Bărăgan Plains. Romania's geographical diversity has led to an accompanying diversity of flora and fauna. Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Moldoveanu Peak is the highest mountain in Romania, being located in the FăgăraÅŸ Mountains of the Southern Carpathians. ... The Baragan Plain is a plain in south-central Romania. ...

Lake Bucura in the Retezat Mountains

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Retezat Mountains, near camp Bucura I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Retezat Mountains, near camp Bucura I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Lake Bucura Lake Bucura and alpine camping site Lake Bucura is a glacier cirque lake, situated in the Retezat Mountains, in Romania. ... The Retezat Mountains seen from atop one of them (Vârfu Mare, The Big Peak) The Retezat Mountains are one of the highest massifs in Romania, being part of the Southern Carpathians. ...

Environment

A high percentage of natural ecosystems (47% of the land area of the country) is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Since almost half of all forests in Romania (13% of the country) have been managed for watershed conservation rather than production, Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe. The integrity of Romanian forest ecosystems is indicated by the presence of the full range of European forest fauna, including 60% and 40% of all European brown bears and wolves, respectively.[76] There are also almost 400 unique species of mammals (of which Carpathian chamois are best known), birds, reptiles and amphibians in Romania. [77] This is a list of protected areas of Romania. ... Binomial name Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a large, goat-like animal that lives in the European Alps and Carpathians. ...


There are almost 10,000 km² (almost 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania.[78] Of these, Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere is the largest and least damaged wetland complex in Europe, covering a total area of 5800 km².[79] The significance of the biodiversity of the Danube Delta has been internationally recognised. It was declared a Biosphere Reserve in September 1990, a Ramsar site in May 1991, and over 50% of its area was placed on the World Heritage List in December 1991. Within its boundaries is one of the most extensive reed bed systems in Europe. Besides the delta, there are two more biosphera reserves: Retezat National Park and Rodna National Park. Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... A reed bed in summer Reed beds are a natural habitat that are found in floodplains, waterlogged depressions and estuaries. ... Retezat National Park, located in Hunedoara county, Romania, was founded in 1935 and has an area of 380 km2. ... Rodna Mountains (MunÅ£ii Rodnei) are a subdivision of the Eastern Carpathians in Northern Romania. ...


Climate

Typical landscape in the Danube Delta
Typical landscape in the Danube Delta
Main article: Climate of Romania

Owing to its distance from the open sea, Romania has a moderate continental climate. Summers are generally very warm to hot, with summer (June to August) average maximum temperatures in Bucharest being around 28 °C,[80] with temperatures over 35 °C fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country. Minima in Bucharest and other lower-lying areas are around 16 °C, but at higher altitudes both maxima and minima decline considerably. On the Romanian seaside the climate is slightly warmer (in annual average) and also less prone to extreme phenomena like summer heatwaves and winter severe cold spells. Winters are cold, with average maxima even in lower-lying areas being no more than 2 °C (36 °F) and below -15 °C (5 °F) in the highest mountains, where some areas of permafrost occur on the highest peaks. Image File history File links Delta_Dunarii_500. ... Image File history File links Delta_Dunarii_500. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... Because of its position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is transitional between temperate and continental. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... While these two men dig in Alaska to study soil, the hard permafrost requires the use of a jackhammer In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years. ...


Precipitations are average over 750 mm per year only on the highest western mountains - much of it falling as snow which allows for an extensive skiing industry. In the south-centern parts of the country (around Bucharest) the level of precipitation drops to around 600 mm,[81] while in the Danube Delta, rainfall levels are very low, and average only around 370 mm.. For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ...


Demographics

According to the 2002 census, Romania has a population of 22,680,974 and, similarly to other countries in the region, is expected to gently decline in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates. Romanians make up 89.5% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities are Hungarians, who make up 6.6% of the population and Roma, or Gypsies, who make up 2% of the population. By the official census 535,250 Roma live in Romania.[82][83] Hungarians, who are a sizeable minority in Transylvania, constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. Ukrainians, Germans, Lipovans, Turks, Tatars, Serbs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Greeks, Russians, Jews, Czechs, Poles, Italians, Armenians, as well as other ethnic groups, account for the remaining 1.4% of the population.[84] The population density of the country as a whole has doubled since 1900 although, in contrast to other central European states, there is still considerable room for further growth. The overall density figures, however, conceal considerable regional variation. Population densities are naturally highest in the towns, with the plains (up to altitudes of some 700 ft) having the next highest density, especially in areas with intensive agriculture or a traditionally high birth rate (e.g., northern Moldavia and the “contact” zone with the Subcarpathians); areas at altitudes of 700 to 2,000 feet (600 m), rich in mineral resources, orchards, vineyards, and pastures, support the lowest densities. The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million. About 89. ... Sub-replacement fertility is a fertility rate that is not high enough to replace an areas population. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require a spell check. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Facts Development region: Centru Historic region: Transylvania Capital city: Miercurea-Ciuc Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 326,222 52/km² Area: 6,639 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO HR RO-HR Telephone code: (+40) x66 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Administrative map of Romania with Covasna county highlighted Covasna (Hungarian: Kovászna) is a county (Judeţ) in Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Sfântu Gheorghe/Sepsiszentgörgy (population: 67,108), known in Hungarian as Sepsiszentgyörgy. ... Lipovans (Russian Old Believers) during a ceremony in front of their church in the Romanian village of Slava Cherkeza in 2004. ... Tatars (Romanian: ) were present on the territory of todays Romania since the 13th century. ... The Serbs are an ethnic minority in Romania. ... The Croats (Hrvati in Croatian, croaÅ£i in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania, numbering 6786 people according to the 2002 census. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Carpathians may refer to: The Carpathian Mountains of Eastern Europe The Carpathians (race) from the Dark Series by Christine Feehan The Carpathian Convention on sustainable development in that region Carpathian (band), an Australian metalcore band Category: ... An orchard is an intentional planting of trees maintained for food production. ... A vineyard A vineyard is a place where grapes are grown for making wine, raisins, or table grapes. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ...


The official language of Romania is Romanian, an Eastern Romance language related to Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan. Romanian is spoken as a first language by 91% of the population, with Hungarian and Romani being the most important minority languages, spoken by 6.7% and 1.1% of the population, respectively.[84] Until the 1990s, there was also a substantial number of German-speaking Transylvanian Saxons, even though many have since emigrated to Germany, leaving only 45,000 native German speakers in Romania. In localities where a given ethnic minority makes up more than 20% of the population, that minority's language can be used in the public administration and justice system, while native-language education and signage is also provided. English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. English is spoken by 5 million Romanians, French is spoken by 4-5 million, and German, Italian and Spanish are each spoken by 1-2 million people.[85] Historically, French was the predominant foreign language spoken in Romania, even though English has since superseded it. Consequently, Romanian English-speakers tend to be younger than Romanian French-speakers. Romania is, however, a full member of La Francophonie, and hosted the Francophonie Summit in 2006. German has been taught predominantly in Transylvania, due to traditions tracing back to the Austro-Hungarian rule in this province. Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Romani (or Romany) relates to: The Roma people, sometimes referred to as Gypsies. Romani language, the language of the Roma. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ...

Timişoara Orthodox Cathedral

Image File history File links Timisoara_cathedral. ... Image File history File links Timisoara_cathedral. ... Orthodox Cathedral of TimiÅŸoara The TimiÅŸoara Orthodox Cathedral located in TimiÅŸoara, Romania was built between 1937 and 1940. ...

Religion

Putna Monastery, the burial site of Stephen the Great is now a famous pilgrimage place
Putna Monastery, the burial site of Stephen the Great is now a famous pilgrimage place

Romania is a secular state, thus having no national religion. The dominant religious body is the Romanian Orthodox Church; its members make up 86.7% of the population according to the 2002 census. Other important religions include Roman Catholicism (4.7%), Protestantism (3.7%), Pentecostal denominations (1.5%) and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church (0.9%).[84] Romania also has a historically significant Muslim minority concentrated in Dobrogea, who are mostly of Turkish ethnicity and number 67,500 people. [86] Based on the 2002 census data, there are also 6,179 Jews, 23,105 people who are of no religion and/or atheist, and 11,734 who refused to answer. On December 27, 2006, a new Law on Religion was approved under which religious denominations can only receive official registration if they have at least 20,000 members, or about 0.1 percent of Romania's total population.[87] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The burial site of Stephen the Great, the famous Moldavian ruler (1457-1504). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 590 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The burial site of Stephen the Great, the famous Moldavian ruler (1457-1504). ... Stephen the Great and Holys tomb at Putna Monastery The Putna monastery is one of the most important cultural, religious and artistic centers of Medieval Moldavia being among with many others monasteries the creation of Prince Stephen the Great ([[Stefan cel Mare]). It was founded on the lands perambulated... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Romania is a secular state, thus having no national religion. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... It has been suggested that Laïcité be merged into this article or section. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Romania is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church, which uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language. ... Tatars (yellow) in Northern Dobruja (1903) Islam in Romania is represented by only 0. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ...


Largest cities

Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania. At the census in 2002, its population was over 1.9 million.[88] The metropolitan area of Bucharest has a population of about 2.2 million. There are several plans the further increase its metropolitan area to about 20 times the area of the city proper.[89][90] List of Romanian Cities (by Population) See also List of cities in Romania (alphabetically) List of cities External link Map Categories: Cities in Romania | Lists of cities ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... The current legislation in Romania reglementates the status of the 265 cities according to their population and regional importance: Rank 0 - Bucharest, the capital of Romania - municipality of European importance Rank I - municipality of national importance, with regional role and potential influlence at European level Rank II - municipality of national... Currently, the metropolitan area of Bucharest has a population of about 2. ... A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or hubs. ...


There are 4 more cities in Romania, with a population of around 310,000 that are also present in EU top 100 most populous cities. These are: Cluj-Napoca, Timişoara, Constanţa and Iaşi. Other cities with a population of at least 200,000 people are Craiova, Galaţi, Braşov, Ploieşti, Brăila and Oradea. There are 25 cities with a population of at least 100,000. Until now, several of the largest cities have a metropolitan area: Constanţa (550,000 people), Braşov, Iaşi (both with around 400,000) and Oradea (260,000) and several others are planned: Timişoara (400,000), Cluj-Napoca (400,000), Galaţi-Braila (600,000), Craiova (370,000), Bacau and Ploieşti.[91] This list includes the most up-to-date official census figures or census estimates with regards to the population of the largest cities in the European Union. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 129. ... County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... County Dolj County Status County capital Mayor Antonie Solomon, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 81. ... County Status County capital Mayor Dumitru Nicolae, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 246. ... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... County Prahova County Status County seat Mayor Emil Calotă, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 58. ... County Status County capital Mayor Constantin Sever Cibu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 33. ... Location of Oradea Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor Petru Filip (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 111. ... The current legislation in Romania reglementates the status of the 265 cities according to their population and regional importance: Rank 0 - Bucharest, the capital of Romania - municipality of European importance Rank I - municipality of national importance, with regional role and potential influlence at European level Rank II - municipality of national... It has been established in 2007 and includes the municipality of Constanta, the 5 cities of Navodari, Ovidiu, Eforie, Basarabi, Techirghiol and 8 communes (Mihail Kogalniceanu, Cumpana, Valu lui Traian, Lumina, Tuzla, Agigea, Corbu and Poarta Alba). ... Image:Harta zona metropolitana bv. ... Image:Zona metro is. ... Oradea metropolitan area includes since 2002 the municipality of Oradea and 8 nearby communes: Biharia, BorÅŸ, Cetariu, Nojorid, OÅŸorhei, Paleu, Sânmartin ÅŸi Sântandrei. ... Territory of metropolitan zone Communes in the metropolitan zone Metropolitan Zone of TimiÅŸoara is an undergoing project for the creation of an administrative unit to integrate TimiÅŸoara with the nearby communes: DumbrăviÅ£a, Ghiroda, MoÅŸniÅ£a Nouă, Giroc, Sânmihaiu Român, Săcălaz, S... The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360,000. ... The Cantemir metropolitan area is formed from the cities of GalaÅ£i and Brăila in Romania. ... County Dolj County Status County capital Mayor Antonie Solomon, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 81. ... . Bacău is the name of a city and county (Bacău county) in Romania. ... County Prahova County Status County seat Mayor Emil Calotă, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 58. ...


Education

Main article: Romanian Educational System

Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian education system has been in a continuous process of reformation that has been both praised and criticized.[92] According to the Law on Education adopted in 1995, the Educational System is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Research. Each level has its own form of organization and is subject to different legislations. Kindergarten is optional between 3 and 6 years old. Schooling starts at age 7 (sometimes 6), and is compulsory until the 10th grade (which usually corresponds to the age of 17 or 16).[93] Primary and secondary education are divided in 12 or 13 grades. Higher education is aligned onto the European higher education area. Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2201 KB) The University - Bucharest File links The following pages link to this file: Bucharest University of Bucharest Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2201 KB) The University - Bucharest File links The following pages link to this file: Bucharest University of Bucharest Categories: GFDL images ... University of Bucharest University of Bucharest is a university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest. ... According to the Law on Education adopted in 1995, the Romanian Educational System is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Research (Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării - MEC)]. Each level has its own form of organization and is subject to different legislations. ... Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-Ceauşescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae Ceauşescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the... Look up reform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ministry of Education and Research of Romania (Romanian: ) is one of the fifteen ministries of the Government of Romania. ... For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is the objective of the Bologna process - to create more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. ...


Aside from the official schooling system, and the recently-added private equivalents, there exists a semi-legal, informal, fully private tutoring system (meditaţii). Tutoring is mostly used during secondary as a preparation for the various examinations, which are notoriously difficult. Tutoring is wide-spread, and it can be considered a part of the Education System. It has subsisted and even prospered during the Communist regime. // In English and Irish Secondary Schools the Form Tutor is similar to an American Home Room Teacher. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


In 2004, some 4.4 million of the population was enrolled in school. Out of these, 650,000 in kindergarten, 3.11 million (14% of population) in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 (3% of population) in tertiary level (universities).[94] In the same year, the adult literacy rate was 97,3% (45th worldwide), while the combined gross enrollment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools was 75% (52nd worldwide).[95] The results of the PISA assessment study in schools for the year 2000 placed Romania on the 34th rank out of 42 participant countries with a general weighted score of 432 representing 85% of the mean OECD score.[96] According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, in 2006 no Romanian university was included in the first 500 top universities world wide.[97] Using similar methodology to these rankings, it was reported that the best placed Romanian university, Bucharest University, attained the half score of the last university in the world top 500.[98] Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... // One of the well known rankings, THES - QS publishes an annual report about world rankings. ... University of Bucharest is a university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexander John Cuza to convert the former St. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Romania
Tower Center International in Bucharest is the tallest building in Romania

With a GDP per capita (PPP) of $10,661[99] estimated for 2007, Romania is considered an upper-middle income economy[100] and has been part of the European Union since January 1, 2007. After the Communist regime was overthrown in late 1989, the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onwards, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterised by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe.[101] Unemployment in Romania was at 3.9% in September 2007[102] which is very low compared to other middle-sized or large European countries such as Poland, France, Germany and Spain. Foreign debt is also comparatively low, at 20.3% of GDP.[103] Exports have increased substantially in the past few years, with a 25% year-on-year rise in exports in the first quarter of 2006. Romania's main exports are clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, cars, military equipment, software, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Trade is mostly centred on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The country, however, maintains a large trade deficit, importing 37% more goods than it exports.[citation needed] Romania is the largest, upper-middle-income[6] economy of central-eastern Europe, the 12th largest in European Union by total nominal GDP and the 8th largest based on purchasing power parity. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (2770 × 1853 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (2770 × 1853 pixel, file size: 2. ... Tower Center International is an class A office building in Bucharest. ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-CeauÅŸescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae CeauÅŸescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the... Macroeconomics is the study of the entire economy in terms of the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, and the general behavior of prices. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... The National Institute of Statistics (Romanian: ) is a Romanian government agency which is responsible for collecting national statistics, in fields such as geography, the economy, demographics and society. ...


After a series of privatisations and reforms in the late 1990s and early 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat lower than in other European economies.[104] In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, resulting in the country having the lowest fiscal burden in the European Union,[105] a factor which has contributed to the growth of the private sector. The economy is predominantly based on services, which account for 55% of GDP, even though industry and agriculture also have significant contributions, making up 35% and 10% of GDP, respectively. Additionally, 32% of the Romanian population is employed in agriculture and primary production, one of the highest rates in Europe.[103] Since 2000, Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment, becoming the single largest investment destination in Southeastern and Central Europe. Foreign direct investment was valued at €8.3 billion in 2006.[106] According to a 2006 World Bank report, Romania currently ranks 49th out of 175 economies in the ease of doing business, scoring higher than other countries in the region such as Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic.[107] Additionally, the same study judged it to be the world's second-fastest economic reformer in 2006.[108] The average gross wage per month in Romania is 1411 lei as of September 2007,[109] equating to €403.3 (US$597.3) based on international exchange rates, and $1001.1 based on purchasing power parity.[110] The percentage of computers connected to the internet in the country reaches almost 70% and more than 50% have broadband connections reaching a 4 Mbit/s (megabits per sec) average. From this aspect, Romania is the 10th country in the world with a bigger percentage of people connected to the internet than the USA.[111] Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A progressive tax is a tax imposed so that the effective... A flat tax, also called a proportional tax, is a system that taxes all entities in a class (typically either citizens or corporations) at the same rate (as a proportion on income), as opposed to a graduated, or progressive, scheme. ... This article is about economics. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...

Image File history File links Romania-drumuri. ... Image File history File links Romania-drumuri. ... Romanias Road Network Public roads in Romania are ranked according to importance and traffic as follows: motorways (autostradă - pl. ...

Transportation

Main article: Transport in Romania

Due to its location, Romania is a major crossroad for international economic exchange in Europe. However, because of insufficient investment, maintenance and repair, the transport infrastructure does not meet the current needs of a market economy and lags behind Western Europe. Nevertheless, these conditions are rapidly improving and catching up with the standards of Trans-European transport networks. Several projects have been started with funding from grants from ISPA and several loans from International Financial Institutions (World Bank, IMF, etc.) guaranteed by the state, to upgrade the main road corridors. Also, the Government is actively pursuing new external financing or public-private partnerships to further upgrade the main roads, and especially the country's motorway network. // The national railway operator is Căile Ferate Române. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Trans-European transport networks (TEN-T) were created by European Union legislation in the 1980s. ... Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession (ISPA) is one of the three financial instruments of the European Union (along with Phare and Sapard) to assist the candidate countries in the preparation for accession. ... The global financial system (GFS) refers to those financial institutions and regulations that act on the international level, as opposed to those that act on a national or regional level. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... The ten Pan-European transport corridors were defined at the second Pan-European transport Conference in Crete, March 1994, as routes in Central and Eastern Europe that required major investment over the next ten to fifteen years. ... Romanias Road Network Public roads in Romania are ranked according to importance and traffic as follows: motorways (autostradă - pl. ...


World Bank estimates that the railway network in Romania comprised in 2004 22,298 km of track, which would make it the fourth largest railroad network in Europe. [112] The railway transport experienced a dramatic fall in freight and passenger volumes from the peak volumes recorded in 1989 mainly due to the decline in GDP and competition from road transport. In 2004, the railways carried 8.64 billion passenger-km in 99 million passenger journeys, and 73 million metric tones, or 17 billion ton-km of freight. [113] The combined total transportation by rail constituted around 45% of all passenger and freight movement in the country. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... CFR can refer to: Code of Federal Regulations of the United States. ...


Bucharest is the only city in Romania which has an underground railway system. The Bucharest Metro was only opened in 1979. Now is one of the most accessed systems of the Bucharest public transport network with an average ridership of 600,000 [114] passengers during the workweek. Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... A Bucharest Metro train at Pipera station The Bucharest Metro (Metroul BucureÅŸti in Romanian) is an underground urban railway network that serves the capital of Romania, Bucharest. ... A Bucharest Metro trainset Bucharest boasts the largest transport network in Romania, and one of the largest in Europe. ...


Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Romania
The official logo of Romania, used to promote the tourist attractions in the country

Tourism focuses on the country's natural landscapes and its rich history and is a significant contributor to the Romania's economy. In 2006, the domestic and international tourism generated about 4.8% of gross domestic product and 5.8% of the total jobs (about half a million jobs).[115] Following commerce, tourism is the second largest component of the services sector. Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors of the economy of Romania and characterized by a huge potential for development. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council Romania is the fourth fastest growing country in the world in terms of travel and tourism total demand with a yearly potential growth of 8% from 2007-2016.[116] Number of tourists grew from 4.8 million in 2002 to 6.6 million in 2004. Similarly, the revenues grew from 400 million in 2002 to 607 in 2004.[117] In 2006, Romania registered 20 million overnight stays by international tourists, an all-time record,[118] but the number for 2007 is expected to increase even more.[119] Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005.[120] The official logo of Romania, used to promote the tourist attractions in the country Tourism in Romania focuses on the countrys natural landscapes and its rich history. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tourist redirects here. ... // The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) is a global forum comprising the presidents, chairpersons and CEOs of companies involved in the travel and tourism industry. ...

Mamaia, at the Black Sea shore
Mamaia, at the Black Sea shore

Over the last years, Romania has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans (more than 60% of the foreign visitors were from EU countries[121]), thus attempting to compete with Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and Spain. Romania destinations such as Mangalia, Saturn, Venus, Neptun, Olimp, Constanta and Mamaia (sometimes called the Romanian Riviera) and are among the most popular attraction during summer.[citation needed] During winter the skiing resorts along the Valea Prahovei and Poiana Braşov are booming with visitors. Several cities in Transylvania (such as Sibiu, Braşov, Sighişoara, Cluj-Napoca and several others) have become important touristic attractions for foreign tourists - especially for their medieval atmosphere and castles.[citation needed] Rural tourism focused on folklore and traditions, has become a major issue for the authorities recently,[citation needed] and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the Painted churches of Northern Moldavia, the Wooden churches of Maramureş, or the Merry Cemetery in Maramureş County. There are several major natural attractions in Romania - such as Danube Delta, Iron Gates (Danube Gorge), Scărişoara Cave and several other caves in the Apuseni Mountains - that have not received great attention from the authorities and whose potential has not been fully tapped.[citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mamaia is the biggest resort on the Romanian Black Sea shore. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Location of Mangalia Coordinates: , Country County Status Municipality Government  - Mayor Paul Eduard (Independent) Area  - Municipality 62. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Olimp is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 7 km (4. ... Constanţa (old names: Kustendji, Kustendja, Köstence, Constantza) is a seaport on the Black Sea and the capital of Constanţa county, Romania. ... Mamaia is the biggest resort on the Romanian Black Sea shore. ... The Romanian Black Sea Riviera stretches from Danube Delta in north down to the Bulgarian border in south, along 60 km of coastline. ... Valea Prahovei (Prahovas valley) is a touristic region situated in central Romania, about 100 km north of the capital city of Bucharest. ... Poiana BraÅŸov (Hungarian: Brassópojána) is a Romanian ski resort preferred by some tourists because it is relatively inexpensive compared to ski resorts in Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland and other European states. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... County MureÅŸ County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Dorin DăneÅŸan, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 32,287 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... Transylvania region of Romania is known for its many castles and fortresses. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Draculas Castle may refer to either: The Draculas CastleWeb site since 1997 The Bran Castle which is a tourist attraction in Transylvania The Castle Dracula which is a Universal Studios show Category: ... The painted churches of northern Moldavia are seven Romanian Orthodox churches in Suceava County, Romania in northern Moldavia, built approximately between 1487 and 1532. ... The MaramureÅŸ wooden churches in Northern Transylvania are a selection of eight examples of different architectural solutions from different periods and areas. ... Cimitirul Vesel The Merry Cemetery (Romanian: Cimitirul Vesel) is a cemetery in the village of SăpânÅ£a, MaramureÅŸ county, Romania that is famous for its colourful tombstones with the native paintings that represent scenes from the life of the buried persons and even poetry in which those persons... Facts Development region: Nord-Vest Historic region: Transylvania Capital city: Baia Mare Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 510,110 81/km² Area: 6,304 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO MM RO-MM Telephone code: (+40) x62 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... The Iron Gate upstream The Iron Gate (Romanian: Porţile de Fier, Serbian: Gvozdena Vrata, Hungarian: Vaskapu, German: Eisernes Tor) is a gorge on the Danube River. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... ScăriÅŸoara Cave (Romanian: PeÅŸtera ScăriÅŸoara) is one of the biggest ice caves in the Romanian part of Carpathians, more specifically in the Apuseni Mountains. ... The Apuseni Mountains is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians. ...

Medieval city of Sibiu, European Capital of Culture in 2007
Medieval city of Sibiu, European Capital of Culture in 2007

Image File history File links Sibiuphoto. ... Image File history File links Sibiuphoto. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...

Culture

Main article: Culture of Romania

Romania has its unique culture, which is the product of its geography and of its distinct historical evolution. Like Romanians themselves, it is fundamentally defined as the meeting point of three regions: Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and the Balkans, but cannot be truly included in any of them.[citation needed] The Romanian identity formed on a substratum of mixed Roman[citation needed] and quite possibly Dacian elements (although the latter is controversial),[citation needed] with many other influences. During late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, the major influences came from the Slavic peoples who migrated and settled in nearby Bulgaria, Serbia, Ukraine and eventually Russia;[citation needed] from medieval Greeks and the Byzantine Empire;[citation needed] from a long domination by the Ottoman Empire;[citation needed] from the Hungarians;[citation needed] and from the Germans living in Transylvania. Modern Romanian culture emerged and developed over roughly the last 250 years under a strong influence from Western culture, particularly French[citation needed] and German culture.[citation needed] The culture of Romania is rich and varied. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Balkan redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Arts

Main articles: Literature of Romania, Music of Romania, and List of Romanian Artists

The older classics of Romanian literature remain very little known outside Romania. Mihai Eminescu, a famous 19th century Romanian poet is still very much loved in Romania (especially his poems), along with several other classics like George Coşbuc and Ioan Slavici. The revolutionary year 1848 had its echoes in the Romanian principalities and in Transylvania, and a new elite from the middle of the 19th century emerged from the revolutions: Mihail Kogălniceanu (writer, politician and the first prime minister of Romania), Vasile Alecsandri (politician, playwright and poet), Andrei Mureşanu (publicist and the writer of the current Romanian National Anthem) and Nicolae Bălcescu (historian, writer and revolutionary). Other classic Romanian writers whose works are still widely read in their native country are playwright Ion Luca Caragiale (the National Theatre Bucharest is officially named in his honor) and Ion Creangă (best known for his children's stories). Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Romanian literature is literature written by Romanian authors, although the term may also be used to refer to all literature written in the Romanian language. ... Romania is a European country whose population consists mainly (approx. ... The art of Romania describes the artists and artistic movements in Romania. ... ŞMihai Eminescu The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... ŞMihai Eminescu The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) (January 15, 1850 – June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, the best-known and most influential Romanian poet celebrated in both Romania and Moldova. ... Many nations have adopted a poet who is perceived to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of their culture. ... Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) (January 15, 1850 – June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, the best-known and most influential Romanian poet celebrated in both Romania and Moldova. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... George CoÅŸbuc (1866-1918) was a Romanian poet best known for his verses describing, praising and eulogizing rural life, its many travails but also its occasions for joy. ... Ioan Slavici (18 January 1848 – 17 August 1925) was a Romanian writer from Transylvania. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mihail Kogălniceanu Mihail Kogălniceanu (September 6, 1817, Iasi - July 1, 1891, Paris) was a Romanian statesman, historian and publicist, he became the first Prime minister of Romania October 11, 1863, after the union of Moldavian and Wallachian principalities. ... Vasile Alecsandri Vasile Alecsandri, (21 July 1821-22 August 1890) was a Romanian poet, playwright, politician, and diplomat. ... Andrei MureÅŸanu (16 November 1816-12 October 1863) was a Romanian poet and revolutionary of Transylvania. ... DeÅŸteaptă-te, române (variously translated as Awaken thee, Romanian!, Awaken, Romanian!, or Wake Up, Romanian!) is Romanias national anthem. ... Nicolae Bălcescu Nicolae Bălcescu (1819-1852) was a Romanian historian, writer, and revolutionary. ... The statue of Ion Luca Caragiale in front of the Bucharest National Theatre Ion Luca Caragiale (January 30, 1852 - July 9, 1912) was a Romanian playwright, novelist, and short story writer. ... National Theatre I. L. Caragiale, Bucharest The front of the Bucharest Novotel, under construction in Calea Victoriei 2006, replicates the exterior of the old Romanian National Theatre approximately in its original location The National Theatre Bucharest (Romanian: ) is the national theatre of Romania, located in the capital Bucharest. ... Ion Creangă Ion Creangă (March 1 or June 10, 1837—1889) was a Romanian childrens writer and memoirist. ...


In the period between the two world wars, authors like Tudor Arghezi, Lucian Blaga or Ion Barbu made efforts to synchronize Romanian literature with the European literature of the time. Gellu Naum was the leader of the surrealist movement in Romania. In the Communist era, valuable writers like Nichita Stănescu, Marin Sorescu or Marin Preda managed to escape censorship, broke with "socialist realism" and were the leaders of a small "Renaissance" in Romanian literature. Tudor Arghezi (May 21, 1880-1967) was a notable Romanian poet and childrens author. ... Lucian Blaga (May 9, 1895 - May 6, 1961) Romanian poet, playwright, and philosopher. ... Ion Barbu (pen name of Dan Barbilian) (1885-1961) was a distinguished Romanian mathematician and poet of Armenian descent. ... Gellu Naum (1915-2001) was a prominent Romanian Surrealist poet. ... Max Ernst. ... Nichita Stănescu (born Nichita Hristea Stănescu) (March 31, 1933, PloieÅŸti—December 13, 1983, Bucharest) was a Romanian poet and essayist. ... Marin Sorescu (1936-1997) was a Romanian poet, writer, and novelist. ... Marin Preda (5 August 1922-16 May 1980) was a Romanian novelist, often considered the best post-WWII Romanian novelist. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ...

Brancusi's Endless Column in Targu Jiu
Brancusi's Endless Column in Targu Jiu

Romanian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Romania (mostly through translations into German, French and English).[citation needed] Some modern Romanian authors became increasingly popular in Germany, France and Italy, especially Eugen Ionescu, Mircea Eliade, Emil Cioran, Constantin Noica, Tristan Tzara and Mircea Cărtărescu. Other literary figures who enjoy broad acclaim outside of the country include poet Paul Celan and Nobel laureate Elie Wiesel, both survivors of the Holocaust. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3456 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3456 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Endless Column as restored after 2000 The Endless Column (Romanian: Coloana fără sfârÅŸit or Coloana infinitului) is a sculpture created by Constantin BrâncuÅŸi and inaugurated in Târgu Jiu, Romania on 27 October 1938. ... T rgu Jiu is a town in the Gorj county, Oltenia, Romania. ... Eugène Ionesco (Romanian spelling: Eugen Ionescu) (November 26, 1912 - March 28, 1994) was one of the foremost playwrights of the theater of the absurd. ... Mircea Eliade (March 13 [O.S. February 28] 1907 – April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago. ... Emil Cioran Emil Cioran (April 8, 1911 – June 20, 1995) was a Romanian philosopher and essayist. ... Constantin Noica Constantin Noica (July 12/25 1909, Vităneşti - December 4, 1987, Păltiniş) was a Romanian philosopher and essayist. ... Tristan Tzara () (April 16, 1896 – December 25, 1963) was a Romanian poet and essayist. ... Mircea Cărtărescu, BucureÅŸti, 2003 Mircea Cărtărescu (b. ... Paul Celan Paul Celan (November 23, 1920 – approximately April 20, 1970) was the most frequently used pseudonym of Paul Antschel, one of the major poets of the post-World War II era. ... Elie Wiesel KBE (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30, 1928) [1] is a Romanian-French-Jewish novelist, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. ...


Probably the best known Romanian musician George Enescu,[citation needed] a 20th century composer, violinist, pianist, conductor, teacher, and one of the greatest performers of his time.[citation needed] George Enescu Festival, an annual classical music festival held in Bucharest, is named after him. Other Romanian musicians are Ciprian Porumbescu, a 19th century composer, Gheorghe Zamfir, a virtuoso of the pan flute that is reported to have sold over 120 million albums worldwide [122][123], and the folk artist Tudor Gheorghe. George Enescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ; known in France as Georges Enesco) (August 19, 1881, Liveni – May 4, 1955, Paris) was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher, proeminent Romanian musician of the 20th century, and one of the greatest performers of his time. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A violinist is an instrumentalist who plays the violin. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... The George Enescu International Festival and Competition is a cultural event (music festival and contest) held every two years (until 2001, it was held every three years) in Bucharest, between the 1st and the 23rd of September. ... Ciprian Porumbescu (October 14, 1853 - July 6, 1883) was a Romanian composer born in Sipote, the former Austrian colony Bukovina. ... Gheorghe Zamfir (born April 6, 1941, in Găeşti, Romania) is a musician who is a virtuoso of the pan flute. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tudor Gheorghe is a Romanian singer and actor. ...


Constantin Brâncuşi is an internationally renowned Romanian sculptor, whose sculptures blend simplicity and sophistication that led the way for modernist sculptors.[citation needed] As a testimony to his skill, one of his pieces, "Bird in Space" , was sold in an auction for $27.5 million in 2005, a record for any sculpture.[124] [125] [126] Constantin BrâncuÅŸi Constantin BrâncuÅŸi, or Brancusi, (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957, pronounced ), was an internationally renowned Romanian sculptor, born in HobiÅ£a, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, whose sculptures blend simplicity and sophistication that led the way for modernist sculptors. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Bird in Space by Brancusi Bird in Space sculptures by Constantin Brancusi, a romanion sculptor. ...

Further information: Cinematography in Romania

The cinema of Romania is the art of motion-picture making within the nation of Romania or by Romanian filmmakers abroad. ...

Traditions

Main articles: Folklore of Romania and Romanian cuisine
Hunyadi Castle, 1419, with its impressive size and architectural beauty sets it among the most precious monuments of medieval art. It was the home of one of the greatest Hungarian kings, Matthias Corvinus (reigned from 1458-1490), son of the Romanian Iancu de Hunedoara.
Hunyadi Castle, 1419, with its impressive size and architectural beauty sets it among the most precious monuments of medieval art. It was the home of one of the greatest Hungarian kings, Matthias Corvinus (reigned from 1458-1490), son of the Romanian Iancu de Hunedoara.

A feature of Romanian culture is the special relationship between folklore and the learned culture, determined by two factors. First, the rural character of the Romanian communities resulted in an exceptionally vital and creative traditional culture. Folk creations (the best known is the ballad Mioriţa) were the main literary genre until the 18th century. They were both a source of inspiration for cultivated creators and a structural model. Second, for a long time learned culture was governed by official and social commands and developed around courts of princes and boyars, as well as in monasteries. A traditional house in the Village Museum The most striking thing about Romanian culture is the strong folk traditions which have survived to this day due to the rural character of the Romanian communities, which has resulted in an exceptionally vital and creative traditional culture. ... Romanian cuisine is diverse, blending the dishes of the several traditions which it has come into contact with, as well as maintaining its own character. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1224 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romania Hunedoara Hunyad Castle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1224 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romania Hunedoara Hunyad Castle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The Hunyad Castle (Romanian: Castelul Huniazilor) is a castle in Hunedoara, Romania, which used to be the residence of the Hunyadi family. ... This is a list of all rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary since Árpád. ... Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... MioriÅ£a (The Little Ewe) is an old Romanian pastoral balad and considered one of the most important pieces of the Romanian folklore. ...


Monuments

See also: List of castles in Romania, List of religious buildings in Romania, and UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Romania

The UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites includes Romanian sites such as the Saxon villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Painted churches of northern Moldavia with their fine exterior and interior frescoes, the Wooden Churches of Maramures unique examples that combine Gothic style with traditional timber construction, the citadel of Sighişoara and the Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains. Also, in 2007, the city of Sibiu famous for its Brukenthal National Museum is the European Capital of Culture alongside the city of Luxembourg. This is a list of castles in Romania. ... This is a list of religious buildings in Romania comprising cathedrals, churches and monasteries. ... UNESCO has included up until now, 7 sites in Romania on the list of World Heritage Sites. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Transylvanian villages with fortified churches are villages located in Southern Transylvania having the particularity of being organised around a fortified church. ... The painted churches of northern Moldavia are seven Romanian Orthodox churches in Suceava County, Romania in northern Moldavia, built approximately between 1487 and 1532. ... Maramureş wooden churches The Maramureş wooden churches in Northern Transylvania are a selection of eight examples of different architectural solutions from different periods and areas. ... County MureÅŸ County Status Municipality Mayor Ioan Dorin DăneÅŸan, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 32,287 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Built in murus dacicus style, the six Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains, in Romania, were created in the 1st centuries BC and AD as protection against Roman conquest. ... County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121. ... The Brukenthal National Museum (Romanian: Muzeul NaÅ£ional Brukenthal) is a museum in Sibiu, Romania, housed in the palace of Samuel von Brukenthal — who was Habsburg governor of Transylvania and who established its first collections around 1790. ... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...


Government

Politics

Main article: Politics of Romania
The Palace of the Parliament , the seat of Romania's bicameral parliament. Built in 1984, it is the largest building in Europe and the world's second largest administrative building by surface area of its floors, just behind the Pentagon and 10% larger by volume than the Great Pyramid of Giza.
The Palace of the Parliament , the seat of Romania's bicameral parliament. Built in 1984, it is the largest building in Europe and the world's second largest administrative building by surface area of its floors, just behind the Pentagon[127] and 10% larger by volume than the Great Pyramid of Giza.[128]

Romania is a semi-presidential democratic republic where executive functions are shared between the president and the prime minister.[citation needed] The president is elected by popular vote, and resides at Cotroceni Palace. Since the constitutional amendment of 2003, the president's term is five years (previously it was four).[citation needed] The Romanian Government, which is based at Victoria Palace, is headed by a prime minister, who appoints the other members of his or her cabinet and who is nearly always the head of the party or coalition that holds a majority in the parliament. If, however, none of the parties hold 50% + 1 of the total seats in parliament, the president will appoint the prime minister. Before beginning its term, the government is subject to a parliamentary vote of approval.[citation needed] Politics of Romania takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Romania is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2269x1338, 700 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2269x1338, 700 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Palace of the Parliament Night view of the Palace of the Parliament Night view from the Union Boulevard Palace from Union Boulevard Inside the palace Inside the palace View from the building towards the Union Boulevard The Palace of the Parliament from above The Palace of the Parliament (Romanian: Palatul... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the United States military building. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... This is a list of Presidents of Romania: Note: The official function of President of Romania did not exist until March 1974. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Romanian history | Romanian Prime Ministers ... Cotroceni Palace is a palace of Bucharest which is the residence of the President of Romania. ... The Government of Romania (Romanian: Guvernul României) is the executive branch of Romania. ... Victoria Palace is a palace of Bucharest which is the residence of the Prime Minister of Romania and his cabinet. ... Categories: Lists of office-holders | Romanian history | Romanian Prime Ministers ...


The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (Parlamentul României), consists of two chambers – the Senate (Senat), which has 137 members, and the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaţilor), which has 332 members. The members of both chambers are elected every four years under a system of party-list proportional representation. Type Bicameral Houses Senatul Camera DeputaÅ£ilor President of the Senate Nicolae Văcăroiu, PSD since 2004 President of the Chamber of Deputies Bogdan Olteanu, PNL since 2006 Members 469 137 senators 332 deputies Political groups (as of 2004 elections) Senate: PSD, PNL, PD,PRM, UDMR, PC, Independents Chamber... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... Coat of Arms of The Senate of Romania The Senate of Romania (Romanian: Senat) is the upper house in Romanias bicameral parliament. ... Type Lower house President (Speaker) Bogdan Olteanu, PNL, since 2006 Number of members 332 Political groups (as of 2006 elections) PSD, PNL, PD, PRM, UDMR, PC, National minorities, Independents Meeting place Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest Web site www. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ...


The justice system is independent of the other branches of government, and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts culminating in the High Court of Cassation and Justice, which is the supreme court of Romania. There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model,[citation needed] considering that it is based on civil law and is inquisitorial in nature. The Constitutional Court (Curtea Constituţională) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations to the Romanian Constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country. The constitution, which was introduced in 1991, can only be amended by a public referendum; the last amendment was in 2003. The Romanian Constitutional Court structure is based on the Constitutional Council of France, being made up of nine judges who serve nine-year, non-renewable terms.[citation needed] Following the 2003 constitutional amendment, the court's decisions cannot be overruled by any majority of the parliament. The High Court of Cassation and Justice (Romanian: ÃŽnalta Curte de CasaÅ£ie ÅŸi JustiÅ£ie) is Romanias supreme Court of justice. ... In academic terms, French law can be divided into two areas: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular, civil law (droit civil) and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular, administrative law (droit administratif) and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel). However... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in determining the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is solely that of an impartial referee between parties. ... The Constitutional Court of Romania (Curtea ConstituÅ£ională in Romanian) is the institution which rules on whether the laws, decrees or other bills enacted by the Romanian authorities are conform to the Constitution. ... The Romanian Constitution is the fundamental law that establishes the structure of the government of Romania, the rights and obligations of the countrys citizens, and its mode of passing laws. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ...


The country's entry into the European Union in 2007 has been a significant influence on its domestic policy. As part of the process, Romania has instituted reforms including judicial reform, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption. Nevertheless, in 2006 Brussels report, Romania along with Bulgaria were described as the two most corrupt countries in the EU.[129] // Recent decades have seen a surge in the birth of “supraterritorial institutions and associations” (Steger, 64), that have been gathered by their enactment of common law and practices. ...


Counties

Romania is divided into forty-one counties (judeţe), as well as the municipality of Bucharest (Bucureşti) - which is its own administrative unit. Each county is administered by a county council (consiliu judeţean), responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect, who is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party. Romanias administration is relatively centralised and administrative subdivisions are therefore fairly simplified. ... Administrative map of Romania. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ...


Alongside the county structure, Romania is also divided into four NUTS-1 level divisions (Romanian:Macroregiunea) and eight development regions corresponding to NUTS-2 divisions in the European Union.[130] These divisions have no administrative capacity and are instead used for co-ordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes. The NUTS-3 level divisions reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure, and correspond to the 41 counties and the Bucharest municipality. The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Map of development regions The development regions of Romania refer to the regional divisions created in Romania in 1998 in order to better co-ordinate regional development as Romania progressed towards accession to the European Union. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Originally, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count (in Great Britain, an earl, though the original earldoms covered larger areas) by reason of that office. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ...

Map of the 8 development regions. The 41 local administrative units are also highlighted.
Map of the 8 development regions. The 41 local administrative units are also highlighted.
  • Macroregiunea 1:
    • Nord-Vest (6 counties)
    • Centru (6 counties)
  • Macroregiunea 2:
    • Nord-Est (6 counties)
    • Sud-Est (6 counties)
  • Macroregiunea 3:
    • Sud-Muntenia (7 counties)
    • Bucureşti-Ilfov (1 county and Bucharest)
  • Macroregiunea 4:
    • Sud-Vest Oltenia (5 counties)
    • Vest (4 counties)

The country is further subdivided into 2686 communes, which are rural localities, and 265 towns. Communes and towns have their own local councils and are headed by a mayor (primar). Out of these, 103 of the larger and more urbanised towns have the status of municipality, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. Image File history File links Romanian development regions. ... Image File history File links Romanian development regions. ... Map of development regions The development regions of Romania refer to the regional divisions created in Romania in 1998 in order to better co-ordinate regional development as Romania progressed towards accession to the European Union. ... Nord-Vest (North West) is a development region in Romania, created in 1998. ... Centru (Centre) is a development region in Romania. ... Nord-Est (North East) is a development region in Romania. ... Sud-Est (South East) is a development region in Romania. ... Sud (South) is a development region in Romania. ... The Bucharest-Ilfov development region is a development region in Romania, encompassing the national capital, Bucharest, as well as the surrounding Ilfov County. ... Sud-Vest (South West) is a development region in Romania. ... Vest (West) is a development region in Romania. ... A commune (comună in Romanian) is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. ... Cities in Romania can be found in the Romanian pages of wikipedia (ro. ... A municipality (municipiu in Romanian) is a level of administrative subdivision in Romania. ...


Foreign relations

Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union.[citation needed] It joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) on March 29, 2004, the European Union (EU) on January 1, 2007, and the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a member of the World Trade Organization. // Priorities Since December 1989, Romania has actively pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... IMF redirects here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... WTO redirects here. ...


The current government has stated its goal of strengthening ties with and helping other Eastern European countries (in particular Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia) with the process of integration with the West.[citation needed] Romania has also made clear over the past 10 years that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.[citation needed] Romania also declared its public support for Turkey, Croatia and Moldova joining the European Union.[citation needed] With Turkey, Romania shares a privileged economic relation.[citation needed] Because it has a large Hungarian minority, Romania has also developed strong relations with Hungary - the latter playing a key role in supporting Romania's bid to join the EU.[citation needed] Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country.[citation needed] Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...


Relations with Moldova are rather special, considering that the two countries practically share the same language, and a fairly common historical background. Signs in the early 1990s that Romania and Moldova might unite after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule, quickly faded away when a pro-Russian government was formed in Moldova. Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs, but the two countries have been unable even to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty; Romania is insistent (against determined Moldovan resistance) that such a treaty would have to refer to Romania and Moldova's 'special relationship'. For more information see Movement for unification of Romania and Moldova. Moldova and Romania have experienced many ups and downs in their relationship since Moldovas independence in 1991. ... Map of a unified Romanian-Moldovan state as advocated by the Unionist Movement. ...


Science and technology

Main article: Science and technology in Romania
Traian Vuia 1, world's first fully self-propelled aircraft flew in March 1906.
Traian Vuia 1, world's first fully self-propelled aircraft flew in March 1906.

On May 14, 1981 Romania became the 11th country in the world to have an astronaut in space. That astronaut, Dumitru Prunariu is today's president of Romanian Space Agency. On March 18, 1906 Traian Vuia became the first person to have flown a self-propelling, heavier-than-air aircraft - he is also only the second person to have taken off with a powered airplane.[131] His flight was performed in Montesson near Paris and was about 12 meters long.[132] Henri Coandă was another Romanian inventor and pioneer of aviation. He built the world's first jet powered aircraft, the Coanda-1910,[133] and brought it at the Second International Aeronautical Exhibition in Paris around October 1910. Traian Vuia 1, worlds first fully self-propelled aircraft flew in March 1906. ... Image File history File links Wikitext. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Traian Vuias flying machine (March 18, 1906) Traian Vuia (August 17, 1872 - September 3, 1950) was a Romanian inventor, designed and built a self-propelling heavier-than-air aircraft. ... There are conflicting views as to what was the first flying machine. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Map of countries whose citizens have flown in space Since the first spaceflight by the Soviet Union, astronauts who were citizens of 35 countries have flown into space. ... Dumitru Dorin Prunariu (born September 27, 1952) is a Romanian cosmonaut. ... Romanian Space Agency logo The Romanian Space Agency (ROSA, in Romanian: AgenÅ£ia SpaÅ£ială Română - or ASR) is the Romanian national coordinator regarding space-related technology, activities and programs. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Traian Vuias flying machine (March 18, 1906) Traian Vuia (August 17, 1872 - September 3, 1950) was a Romanian inventor, designed and built a self-propelling heavier-than-air aircraft. ... Montesson is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Henri Marie Coandă (June 7, 1886 – November 25, 1972) (IPA: /ɐʁi maʁi kwandÉ™/) was a Romanian inventor, aerodynamics pioneer and the builder of worlds first jet powered aircraft, the Coanda-1910. ... The Coanda-1910 was an aircraft built by Romanian inventor Henri Coanda and exhibited by him at the Second International Aeronautical Exhibition in Paris around October 1910. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

Coanda-1910, world's first jet-propelled aircraft built by Henri Coanda
Coanda-1910, world's first jet-propelled aircraft built by Henri Coanda

George Emil Palade is a Romanian cell biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974[134] for his study of internal organization of such cell structures as mitochondria, chloroplasts, the Golgi apparatus, and for the discovery of the ribosomes.[135] He also won the National Medal of Science in 1986. better quality image (taken from Romanian wikipedia) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... better quality image (taken from Romanian wikipedia) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Coanda-1910 was an aircraft built by Romanian inventor Henri Coanda and exhibited by him at the Second International Aeronautical Exhibition in Paris around October 1910. ... Henri Marie Coandă (June 7, 1886 - November 25, 1972) was a Romanian inventor, aerodynamics pioneer and the parent of the modern jet aircraft. ... Dr. Palade won the Nobel Prize in 1974. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics. ...


At the beginning of the 2000s, there was a boom in Romania in the number of computer programmers. Romania is reported to be among the countries with the highest number of computer programmers in the world.[136] Some examples of successful software include RAV (Romanian AntiVirus) which was bought in 2003 by Microsoft for use in their development of Windows Defender;[137] or BitDefender which is considered the number one antivirus software and internet security software at TopTenReviews. [138] In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows Defender, previously known as Microsoft AntiSpyware, is a software product from Microsoft designed to prevent, remove and quarantine spyware on Microsofts Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista operating systems. ... BitDefender is the name of a popular antivirus engine, made by SOFTWIN. BitDefender is among the most widely used antivirus programs, with over 50 million users from 100 countries. ...


Sports

Main article: Sport in Romania

In the 1976 Summer Olympics, the gymnast Nadia Comăneci became the first gymnast ever to score a perfect "ten". She also won three gold medals, one silver and one bronze, all at the age of fifteen.[139] Her success continued in the 1980 Summer Olympics, where she was awarded two gold medals and two silver medals. The Romanian national sport is football (soccer). ... Image File history File links Wikitext. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nadia Elena Comaneci (originally Comăneci ; born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian gymnast, winner of five Olympic gold medals, and the first gymnast to be awarded a perfect score of 10 in an Olympic gymnastic event. ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ...


Football (soccer) is popular in Romania, the most internationally known player being Gheorghe Hagi, who played for Steaua Bucureşti (Romania), Real Madrid, FC Barcelona (Spain) and Galatasaray (Turkey), among others. In 1986, the Romanian soccer club Steaua Bucureşti became the first Eastern European club ever, and only one of the two (the other being Red Star Belgrade) to win the prestigious European Champions Cup title. In 1989, it played the final again, but lost to AC Milan. Other important Romanian football clubs are Dinamo Bucureşti, Rapid Bucureşti, FC Progresul Bucureşti, FCU Politehnica Timişoara, FC Universitatea Craiova, CFR 1907 Cluj-Napoca, FC Oţelul Galaţi, Sportul Studenţesc, FC Farul Constanţa, etc. Romanian National Football Team has taken part 7 times in the Football World Cup, and it had a very successful period through the 1990s, reaching the quarter-finals in the 1994 World Cup in USA, when the "Golden Generation" was at its best. Soccer redirects here. ... Gheorghe Hagi , (born February 5, 1965 in Săcele, ConstanÅ£a), is a Romanian former football player of Aromanian descent. ... FC Steaua BucureÅŸti is a Romanian football club based at Ghencea Stadium, Bucharest, Romania. ... Real Madrid redirects here. ... Futbol Club Barcelona, known familiarly as Barça (IPA: baɾ.sÉ™), is a sports club based in Barcelona, Catalonia. ... For other uses of Galatasaray, see Galatasaray (disambiguation) Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (in English: Galatasaray Sports Club) or Galatasaray SK is a Turkish sports club based in Istanbul which is famous for its football section. ... The name Crvena zvezda can also be applied to KK Crvena zvezda, VK Crvena zvezda, RK Crvena zvezda. ... Champions League Logo The UEFA Champions League is an annual international inter-club football competition between Europes most successful clubs, regarded as the most prestigious club trophy in the sport. ... AC Milan is an Italian football club. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fotbal Club Rapid BucureÅŸti is a football club of Bucharest, Romania. ... FC Progresul BucureÅŸti is a Romanian football club playing in Liga II. Despite having long resided in the shadow of the three big Bucharest teams (Steaua, Dinamo and Rapid), the club has recently achieved some good results, having thrice finished runners up in the top league (in 1996, 97... FCU Politehnica TimiÅŸoara is a Romanian football club which was established in 1921 and is currently playing in Romanias top league, Liga 1. ... // Sport Club Universitatea Craiova was created in 1948. ... Clubs insignia CFR Cluj is a Romanian football club that is currently playing in the top Romanian league, Divizia A, and which finished 11th in the 2004/2005 season. ... FC OÅ£elul GalaÅ£i is a Romanian football club, playing in GalaÅ£i. ... Sportul StudenÅ£esc is a Romanian football club that was established in 1916 (making it one of the oldest Romanian clubs still active). ... Farul ConstanÅ£a is a Romanian football club which was established in 1949 and is currently competing in the top Divizia A. The club has yet to win a Romanian title, but the 2004/2005 season saw the club enjoying some very good results, enabling it to finish 5th in... First international Yugoslavia 1 - 2 Romania (Belgrade, Yugoslavia; 8 June 1922) Biggest win Romania 9 - 0 Finland (Bucharest, Romania; 14 October 1973) Biggest defeat Hungary 9 - 0 Romania (Budapest, Hungary; 6 June 1948) World Cup Appearances 7 (First in 1930) Best result Quarterfinals, 1994 European Championship Appearances 3 (First in... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... -1...


Ilie Năstase, the tennis player, is another internationally known Romanian sports star. He won several Grand Slam titles and dozens of other tournaments and was the first player to be ranked as number 1 by ATP from 1973 to 1974; he also was a successful doubles player. Romania has also reached the Davis Cup finals three times. Virginia Ruzici was a successful tennis player in the 1970s. Ilie Năstase (born July 19, 1946, in Bucharest) is a former Romanian professional tennis player and one of the top players of the 1970s. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ... One redirects here. ... ATP may refer to: Chemistry/Biochemistry Adenosine triphosphate, the universal energy currency of all known living organisms Companies Alberta Theatre Projects, a major Canadian theatre company. ... The great Australians Lew Hoad and Ken Rosewall with the Cup in 1953 The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in mens tennis. ... Virginia Ruzici (January 31, 1955) is a Romanian professional female tennis player. ...


Though maybe not the force they once were, the Romanian national rugby team has so far competed at every Rugby World Cup. First international  Romania 0–21 United States  (1 July 1919) Largest win  Bulgaria 0–100 Romania  (21 September 1976) Worst defeat  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) World Cup Appearances 5 (First in 1987) Best result One win, 1987, 1991, 1999 and 2003 The Romania national rugby union team... This article lists the début of national teams that have so far qualified for the Rugby World Cup and their number of appearances. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ...


Maybe slightly surprising for a country of its size, Romania has been one of the most successful countries in the history of Summer Olympic Games (15th overall) with a total of 283 medals won throughout the years, 82 of which are gold medals.[140] Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... An all-time medal count for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2006, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games and a combined total of both, is tabulated below. ...


References

  • Much of the material in these articles comes from the CIA World Factbook 2006 and the 2005 U.S. Department of State website.
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  74. ^ "countrystudies.us: Middle East policies in Communist Romania"
  75. ^ Deletant, Dennis, New Evidence on Romania and the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1989, Cold War International History Project e-Dossier Series, <http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?topic_id=1409&fuseaction=topics.publications&doc_id=16367&group_id=13349>
  76. ^ State of the Environment in Romania 1998: Biodiversity, Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection, <http://www.envir.ee/programmid/pharecd/soes/romania/html/biodiversity/index.htm>
  77. ^ "EarthTrends:Biodiversity and Protected Areas - Romania"
  78. ^ Protected Areas in Romania, Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection, <http://www.envir.ee/programmid/pharecd/soes/romania/html/biodiversity/ariiprot/protarea.htm>
  79. ^ Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere, Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection, <http://www.envir.ee/programmid/pharecd/soes/romania/html/biodiversity/ariiprot/delta.htm>
  80. ^ WorldTravels on the monthly average climate parameters in Bucharest
  81. ^ (Romanian) The 2004 yearbook of Romanian National Institute of Statistics
  82. ^ 2002 census data, based on Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in the West and Turkish in Dobruja) for fear of discrimination. Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards. International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank, International Association for Official Statistics).
  83. ^ usatoday: European effort spotlights plight of the Roma
  84. ^ a b c Official site of the results of the 2002 Census
  85. ^ (Romanian)Outsourcing IT în România, Owners Association of the Software and Service Industry, retrieved 13 November 2005
  86. ^ (Romanian) Romanian Census Website with population by religion
  87. ^ Romania President Approves Europe's "Worst Religion Law"
  88. ^ Gazetteer: Population of the largest cities and towns in Romania
  89. ^ (Romanian) "Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest will be ready in 10 years"
  90. ^ (Romanian)"Official site of Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest Project"
  91. ^ (Romanian) "Map of Romanian municipalities that can have metorpolitan areas in maroon"
  92. ^ UNESCO report on Romania: The Romanian Educational Policy in Transition
  93. ^ UNESCO report on Romania: The Romanian Educational Policy in Transition
  94. ^ (Romanian) Romanian Institute of Statistics Yearbook - Chapter 8
  95. ^ UN Human Development Report 2006
  96. ^ (Romanian) OECD International Program for Evaluation of Students, National Report, Bucureşti, 2002 p. 10 - 15
  97. ^ "Academic Ranking World University 2006: Top 500 World University"
  98. ^ (Romanian) Răzvan Florian, Romanian Universities and the Shanghai rankings Cluj-Napoca, România, p. 7-9
  99. ^ GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity Economic Indicators for Romania, 2004-2007, IMF World Economic Outlook, April 2007
  100. ^ World Bank Country Classification Groups, 2005
  101. ^ (Romanian) GDP in 2006, National Institute of Statistics, Romania
  102. ^ (Romanian) Main Macroeconomic Indicators, September 2007, National Institute of Statistics, Romania
  103. ^ a b "Romania CIA World Factbook 2006"
  104. ^ Index of Economic Freedom: Romania
  105. ^ Taxation trends in the EU, Eurostat, 26 June 2007
  106. ^ Romania: FDI reached over EUR 8.3 bn
  107. ^ Economy Ranking, Doing Business 2007 Report, World Bank
  108. ^ Doing Business 2007 Report, World Bank
  109. ^ (Romanian) Average wage in September 2007, National Institute of Statistics, Romania
  110. ^ Implied PPP conversion rate for Romania, IMF, 2006
  111. ^ (Romanian)"Românaşul High-Tech" A C.U.R.S. poll published in the Jurnalul Naţional newaspaper:
  112. ^ Romanian Railways Purchases More Than $1 Million in RAD’s MAP and Last Mile Products
  113. ^ "Romania". Europaworld Yearbook. (2007). europaworld.com. 
  114. ^ (Romanian)Metrorex ridership in Financial Week newspaper April 23, 2007
  115. ^ World Economic Forum - Country/Economy Profiles: Romania, Travel&Tourism
  116. ^ WTTC spells out policy recommendations for Romania to tap travel and tourism potential
  117. ^ The Europa World Year Book 2007, 48th edition, volume II, published by Routledge, London 2007, page 3746
  118. ^ 20 million overnight stays by international tourists
  119. ^ Romanian National Institute of Statistics published a report for the first 9 months of 2007 showing an increase from the previous year of 8.7% to 16.5 million (for first 9 months)
  120. ^ (Romanian)Archive from Gandul Newspaper - Tourism attracted in 2005 investments worth 400 million euros
  121. ^ Romanian National Institute of Statistics published a report for the first 9 months of 2007 showing 94.0% of visitors coming from European countries and 61.7% from EU
  122. ^ Sounds Like Canada feat. Gheorghe Zamfir
  123. ^ Gheorghe Zamfir, master of the pan pipe
  124. ^ Brancusi's 'Bird in Space' soars to new auction record
  125. ^ Brancusi's 'Bird in Space' Sets World Auction Record for Sculpture at $27,456,000
  126. ^ The price record for a Brancusi masterpiece was set up in 2005 when “Bird in Space” was sold for USD 27.5 M
  127. ^ The Palace of the Parliament
  128. ^ The building of Parliament Bucharest International Conference Center - Description
  129. ^ Romania will be EU's most corrupt new member
  130. ^ Hierarchical list of the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics - NUTS and the Statistical regions of Europe
  131. ^ Hargrave - The Pioneers: An Anthology: Traian Vuia (1872-1950)
  132. ^ Traian I. Vuia at earlyaviators.com
  133. ^ Jet aircraft of the Belle Époque
  134. ^ George E. Palade - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974 at Nobelprize.org
  135. ^ Nicole Kresge, Robert D. Simoni, and Robert L. Hill George Emil Palade: How Sucrose and Electron Microscopy Led to the Birth of Cell Biology J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 280, Issue 22, 19, June 3, 2005
  136. ^ Townsend, Eileen (2002), Global IT IQ Report, Brainbench, Inc., <http://www.brainbench.com/pdf/globalitiq.pdf>
  137. ^ Microsoft to Acquire Antivirus Technology From GeCAD Software
  138. ^ 2008 Internet Security Suite Report
  139. ^ "Gymnast Posts Perfect Mark" Robin Herman, New York Times, March 28, 1976
  140. ^ Medal Standings, 1896-2004

World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... Ienăchiţă Văcărescu (1740-1797) Romanian poet and boyar of Phanariote origin. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... “Tombstone” redirects here. ... Gheorghe Lazăr, 5 June 1779 - 17 September 1821 was a romanian scholar, the founder of the first romanian speaking school in Bucharest in 1818. ... Avrig (Hungarian: Felek, German: Freck) is a city in the Romania, close to the F&#259;g&#259;ra&#351; Mountains. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos (the Purple-born) (905 – November 9, 959) was the son of Byzantine emperor Leo VI and nephew of Alexander III. He earned his nickname as the legitimate (or more accurately legitimized) son of Leo, as opposed to the others who claimed the... University of Bucharest University of Bucharest is a university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest. ... Adrian Mihai Cioroianu (b. ... Serviciul Român de InformaÅ£ii (SRI) is the Romanian domestic intelligence service. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Institute of Statistics may refer to one of the following Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas National Institute of Statistics and Census  Peru: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática  Portugal: National Institute of Statistics (Portugal)  Romania: National Institute of Statistics (Romania)  Spain: National Institute of Statistics (Spain) Category... National Institute of Statistics may refer to one of the following Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas National Institute of Statistics and Census  Peru: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática  Portugal: National Institute of Statistics (Portugal)  Romania: National Institute of Statistics (Romania)  Spain: National Institute of Statistics (Spain) Category... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Jurnalul NaÅ£ional is a Romanian newspaper, part of a media group led by Dan Voiculescu, which also includes the popular TV station Antena 1. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

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Find more information on Romania by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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Overviews Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ...

  • BBC News Country Profile - Romania
  • US Department of State - Romania
  • CIA World Factbook - Romania

Travel guides

  • Romania travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Romania Travel
  • Romania, Terra Incognita - reveals the hidden beauties of Romania
  • The Spirit of Romania - Journals, stories, travel photography
  • 1st portal about Romania estd. 1996

Economy and law links Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Culture and history links Categories: Romania-related stubs | Romanian economy | Central banks ...

  • Treasures of the national library of Romania
  • Chronology of Romania from the World History Database
Geographic locale
International membership

Image File history File links from en:Latin Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Latin Europe ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Romania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5175 words)
The union of Transylvania with Romania was ratified in the Treaty of Trianon in 1920.
Romania now has one of the most liberal taxation systems in Europe, and it is expected that this, along with increased foreign investment, will boost economic growth in the coming years, as well as lower corruption and bring to light the grey economy.
Romania is a member of the Organisation de la Francophonie, with Bucharest being the host of the Summit of Francophony in 2006.
Romania national football team - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (225 words)
Romania was one of only four countries (with Brazil, France, and Belgium) to participate in the first three World Cups.
Romania then had a solid run through the 1990s, advancing to Round 2 or better in three consecutive World Cups.
The period was highlighted by the 1994 World Cup where Romania, led by Gheorghe Hagi, made the quarterfinals and upset Argentina 3-2 before losing to Sweden on penalty kicks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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