FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Rainbow" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rainbow
Semi-circle double rainbow (second one, barely discernible) in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, Alaska.
Semi-circle double rainbow (second one, barely discernible) in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, Alaska.

Rainbows are optical and meteorological phenomena that cause a spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines onto droplets of moisture in the Earth's atmosphere. They take the form of a multicoloured arc, with red on the outer part of the arch and violet on the inner section of the arch. More rarely, a secondary rainbow is seen, which is a second, fainter arc, outside the primary arc, with colours in the opposite order, that is, with violet on the outside and red on the inside. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A rainbow is an optical or meteorological phenomenon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x538, 460 KB) Summary Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x538, 460 KB) Summary Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Wrangell-St. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... The visible spectrum is the portion of the optical spectrum (light or electromagnetic spectrum) that is visible to the human eye. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sky (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... Air redirects here. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... In Euclidean geometry, an arc is a closed segment of a differentiable curve in the two-dimensional plane; for example, a circular arc is a segment of a circle. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... Violet (named after the flower violet) is used in two senses: first, referring to the color of light at the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum, approximately 380–420 nanometres (this is a spectral color). ...

A rainbow spans a continuous spectrum of colours. Traditionally, however, the sequence is quantised. The most commonly cited and remembered sequence, in English, is Newton's sevenfold red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. "Roy G. Biv" and "Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain" are popular mnemonics. Quantized signal Digital signal In digital signal processing, quantization is the process of approximating a continuous range of values (or a very large set of possible discrete values) by a relatively-small set of discrete symbols or integer values. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... See also Orange (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word. ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... This article is about the colour. ... Indigo is the color on the spectrum between about 450 and 420 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ... Violet (named after the flower violet) is used in two senses: first, referring to the color of light at the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum, approximately 380–420 nanometres (this is a spectral color). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: English mnemonics#Science Roy G. Biv is a traditional mnemonic for the sequence of hues in the visible spectrum, in simple rainbows, and in order from longest to shortest wavelength: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet The colors are arranged in... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... A mnemonic (AmE [] or BrE []) is a memory aid. ...


Rainbows can be caused by other forms of water than rain, including mist, spray, dew, fog, and ice. Moreover, rainbows can have shapes other than a bow (arc), including stripes, circles, or even flames. (See circumhorizontal arc). Circumhorizontal Arc photographed in Coeur dAlene, Idaho on June 3, 2006 A circumhorizontal arc, also known as a fire rainbow, is an optical phenomenon similar in appearance to a rainbow, caused by the refraction of light through the ice crystals in cirrus clouds. ...

Contents

Visibility

Rainbows may also form in mist, such as that of a waterfall
Rainbows may also form in mist, such as that of a waterfall
Rainbows may also form in the spray created by waves (called spray bows).
Rainbows may also form in the spray created by waves (called spray bows).

Rainbows can be observed whenever there are water drops in the air and sunlight shining from behind a person at a low altitude angle (on the ground). The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half of the sky is still dark with draining clouds and the observer is at a spot with clear sky in the direction of the Sun. The result is a luminous rainbow that contrasts with the darkened background. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1667 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1667 pixel, file size: 2. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Water dropping from a faucet A drop is a small volume of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ...


The rainbow effect is also commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. Rainbow fringes can sometimes be seen at the edges of backlit clouds[1] and as vertical bands in distant rain or virga. The effect can also be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. Rarely, a moonbow, lunar rainbow or night-time rainbow, can be seen on strongly moonlit nights. As human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are often perceived to be white.[1] For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons... This article is about precipitation. ... Nimbostratus virga In meteorology, virga is precipitation that falls from a cloud but evaporates before reaching the ground. ... Photograph of a Moonbow (Lunar Rainbow) A moonbow (also known as a lunar rainbow or white rainbow) is a rainbow that occurs at night. ... This article is about the time of day. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from visible light reaching the eyes. ...


You can create your own rainbow by facing 180 degrees from the sun and spraying mist from a garden hose in front of you in a circular motion, outlining a 360 degree "rainbow".


It is difficult to photograph the complete arc of a rainbow, as this would require an angle of view of 84°. For a 35 mm camera, a lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required, whilst most photographers are only likely to have a 28 mm wide-angle lens. From an aeroplane, one has the opportunity to see the whole circle of the rainbow, with the plane's shadow in the centre. This phenomenon can be confused with the glory, but a glory is usually much smaller, covering only 5°–20°. A cameras angle of view can be measured horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. ... 135 Film Size, Kodak Tri-X 400 speed 135 (ISO 1007) is a film format for still photography. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... One of Canons most popular wide-angle lenses - 17-40 mm f/4 L retrofocus zoom lens. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... NASA photo Glory with aircraft shadow in the center. ...


Scientific explanation

The rainbow's appearance is caused by dispersion of sunlight as it goes through raindrops. The light is first refracted as it enters the surface of the raindrop, reflected off the back of the drop, and again refracted as it leaves the drop. The overall effect is that the incoming light is reflected back over a wide range of angles, with the most intense light at an angle of 40°–42°. The angle is independent of the size of the drop, but does depend on its refractive index. Seawater has a higher refractive index than rain water, so the radius of a 'rain'bow in sea spray is smaller than a true rainbow. This is visible to the naked eye by a misalignment of these bows.[2] Dispersion of a light beam in a prism. ... For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ...


The amount by which light is refracted depends upon its wavelength, and hence its colour. Blue light (shorter wavelength) is refracted at a greater angle than red light, but because the area of the back of the droplet has a focal point inside the droplet, the spectrum crosses itself, and therefore the red light appears higher in the sky, and forms the outer colour of the rainbow. Contrary to popular belief, the light at the back of the raindrop does not undergo total internal reflection and some light does emerge from the back. However, light coming out the back of the raindrop does not create a rainbow between the observer and the sun because spectra emitted from the back of the raindrop do not have a maximum of intensity, as the other visible rainbows do, and thus the colours blend together rather than forming a rainbow. For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... This article is about the colour. ... Child – 5:16 All I Need – 3:55 Drifting – 6:43 Hold On – 4:40 Open Me – 3:35 Beautiful – 5:44 Look In – 4:14 Without You – 4:55 Live It – 7:23 Dont Walk Away – 3:04 Lead Me On – 5:34 Rest – 5:06 Child [Piano... This article deals with the general meaning of spectrum and the history of its use. ... Critical angle redirects here. ...

Light rays enter a raindrop from one direction (typically a straight line from the Sun), reflect off the back of the raindrop, and fan out as they leave the raindrop. The light leaving the rainbow is spread over a wide angle, with a maximum intensity of 40.6°–42°.
Light rays enter a raindrop from one direction (typically a straight line from the Sun), reflect off the back of the raindrop, and fan out as they leave the raindrop. The light leaving the rainbow is spread over a wide angle, with a maximum intensity of 40.6°–42°.
White light separates into different colours (wavelengths) on entering the raindrop because red light is refracted by a lesser angle than blue light. On leaving the raindrop, the red rays have turned through a smaller angle than the blue rays, producing a rainbow.
White light separates into different colours (wavelengths) on entering the raindrop because red light is refracted by a lesser angle than blue light. On leaving the raindrop, the red rays have turned through a smaller angle than the blue rays, producing a rainbow.

A rainbow does not actually exist at a particular location in the sky. It is an optical illusion whose apparent position depends on the observer's location and the position of the sun. All raindrops refract and reflect the sunlight in the same way, but only the light from some raindrops reaches the observer's eye. This light is what constitutes the rainbow for that observer. The position of a rainbow in the sky is always in the opposite direction of the Sun with respect to the observer, and the interior is always slightly brighter than the exterior. The bow is centred on the shadow of the observer's head, or more exactly at the antisolar point (which is below the horizon during the daytime), appearing at an angle of 40°–42° to the line between the observer's head and its shadow. As a result, if the Sun is higher than 42°, then the rainbow is below the horizon and cannot be seen as there are not usually sufficient raindrops between the horizon (that is: eye height) and the ground, to contribute. Exceptions occur when the observer is high above the ground, for example in an aeroplane (see above), on top of a mountain, or above a waterfall. A rainbow can be generated using a garden sprinkler but to get sufficient drops they must be very small. Plot of rays in a primary rainbow File links The following pages link to this file: Rainbow Categories: Images with unknown source ... Plot of rays in a primary rainbow File links The following pages link to this file: Rainbow Categories: Images with unknown source ... Water dropping from a faucet A drop is a small volume of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces. ... Sol redirects here. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... Refraction and reflection in a raindrop, producing a rainbow. ... Refraction and reflection in a raindrop, producing a rainbow. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... An optical illusion. ... The antisolar point is the imaginary point on the celestial sphere exactly opposite the sun. ... Horizon. ...


Variations

Some light reflects twice inside the raindrop before exiting to the viewer. When the incident light is very bright, this can be seen as a secondary rainbow, brightest at 50°–53°.
Some light reflects twice inside the raindrop before exiting to the viewer. When the incident light is very bright, this can be seen as a secondary rainbow, brightest at 50°–53°.
A double rainbow features reversed colours in the outer (secondary) bow, with the dark Alexander's band between the bows.
A double rainbow features reversed colours in the outer (secondary) bow, with the dark Alexander's band between the bows.

Occasionally, a second, dimmer, and thicker secondary rainbow is seen outside the primary bow. Secondary rainbows are caused by a double reflection of sunlight inside the raindrops, and appear at an angle of 50°–53°. As a result of the second reflection, the colours of a secondary rainbow are inverted compared to the primary bow, with blue on the outside and red on the inside. The dark area of unlit sky lying between the primary and secondary bows is called Alexander's band, after Alexander of Aphrodisias who first described it. Plot of rays in a secondary rainbow File links The following pages link to this file: Rainbow Categories: Images with unknown source ... Plot of rays in a secondary rainbow File links The following pages link to this file: Rainbow Categories: Images with unknown source ... Image File history File links Regenbogen_(NASA). ... Image File history File links Regenbogen_(NASA). ... Not to be confused with Alexanders Ragtime Band. ... Not to be confused with Alexanders Ragtime Band. ... Alexander of Aphrodisias, a pupil of Aristocles of Messene, was the most celebrated of the Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle. ...


A third, or tertiary, rainbow can be seen on rare occasions, and a few observers have reported seeing quadruple rainbows in which a dim outermost arc had a rippling and pulsating appearance. These rainbows would appear on the same side of the sky as the Sun, making them hard to spot. One type of tertiary rainbow carries with it the appearance of a secondary rainbow immediately outside the primary bow. The closely spaced outer bow has been observed to form dynamically at the same time that the outermost (tertiary) rainbow disappears. During this change, the two remaining rainbows have been observed to merge into a band of white light with a blue inner and red outer band. This particular form of doubled rainbow is not like the classic double rainbow due to both spacing of the two bows and that the two bows share identical normal colour positioning before merging. With both bows, the inner colour is blue and the outer colour is red.


Higher-order rainbows were described by Felix Billet (1808-1882) who depicted angular positions up to the 19th-order rainbow. A pattern he called “rose” [2]. In the laboratory, it is possible to observe higher-order rainbows by using extremely bright and well collimated light produced by lasers. A sixth-order rainbow was first observed by K. Sassan in 1979 using a HeNe laser beam and a pendant water drop[3]. Up to the 200th-order rainbow was reported by Ng et al. in 1998 using a similar method but an argon ion laser beam [4]. Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... A helium-neon laser, usually called a HeNe laser, is a small gas laser of a type often used in laboratory demonstrations of optics. ...

A contrast-enhanced photograph of a supernumerary rainbow, with additional green and purple arcs inside the primary bow.
A contrast-enhanced photograph of a supernumerary rainbow, with additional green and purple arcs inside the primary bow.
Primary and secondary rainbows are visible, as well as a reflected primary and a faintly visible reflected secondary.
Primary and secondary rainbows are visible, as well as a reflected primary and a faintly visible reflected secondary.

Image File history File links Supernumerary_rainbow_03_contrast. ... Image File history File links Supernumerary_rainbow_03_contrast. ... Download high resolution version (1784x1188, 1089 KB)Public domain. ... Download high resolution version (1784x1188, 1089 KB)Public domain. ...

Supernumerary rainbows

A supernumerary rainbow is an infrequent phenomenon, consisting of several faint rainbows on the inner side of the primary rainbow, and very rarely also outside the secondary rainbow. Supernumerary rainbows are slightly detached and have pastel colour bands that do not fit the usual pattern.


It is not possible to explain their existence using classical geometric optics. The alternating faint rainbows are caused by interference between rays of light following slightly different paths with slightly varying lengths within the raindrops. Some rays are in phase, reinforcing each other through constructive interference, creating a bright band; others are out of phase by up to half a wavelength, cancelling each other out through destructive interference, and creating a gap. Given the different angles of refraction for rays of different colours, the patterns of interference are slightly different for rays of different colours, so each bright band is differentiated in colour, creating a miniature rainbow. Supernumerary rainbows are clearest when raindrops are small and of similar size. The very existence of supernumerary rainbows was historically a first indication of the wave nature of light, and the first explanation was provided by Thomas Young in 1804. For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... For other uses, see Interference (disambiguation). ... This article is about a portion of a periodic process. ... Interference of two circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers distance (increasing to the right). ... Interference of two circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers distance (increasing to the right). ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773-May 10, 1829) was an English polymath, contributing to the scientific understanding of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, and Egyptology. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Reflection rainbows, reflected rainbows, fire rainbows

Primary and reflection rainbow at sunset
Primary and reflection rainbow at sunset

Other rainbow variants are produced when sunlight reflects off a body of water. Where sunlight reflects off water before reaching the raindrops, it produces a reflection rainbow. Such a rainbow shares the same endpoints as a normal rainbow but encompasses a far greater arc when all of it is visible. Both primary and secondary reflection rainbows can be observed. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1360 × 2048 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Example of a reflection rainbow (contrast enhanced) over Skagit Bay, Whidbey Is. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1360 × 2048 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Example of a reflection rainbow (contrast enhanced) over Skagit Bay, Whidbey Is. ...


A reflected rainbow is produced when light that has first been reflected off a larger body of water then reflects inside raindrops before reaching the observer. [See http://www.eo.ucar.edu/rainbows/rnbw8.gif]


Another rainbow-like variant is produced when sunlight is reflected off clouds. The fire rainbow or circumhorizontal arc can sometimes be seen in cirrus clouds with ice crystals (normally at least 6 km above sea level) and with the sun at least 58° above the horizon. Circumhorizontal Arc photographed in Coeur dAlene, Idaho on June 3, 2006 A circumhorizontal arc, also known as a fire rainbow, is an optical phenomenon similar in appearance to a rainbow, caused by the refraction of light through the ice crystals in cirrus clouds. ...


Scientific history

In Song Dynasty China (960–1279), a polymathic scholar-official named Shen Kuo (1031–1095) hypothesized—as a certain Sun Sikong (1015–1076) did before him—that rainbows were formed by a phenomenon of sunlight encountering droplets of rain in the air.[5] Paul Dong writes that Shen's explanation of the rainbow as a phenomenon of atmospheric refraction "is basically in accord with modern scientific principles."[6] For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of altitude. ...


The Persian astronomer, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) gave a fairly accurate explanation for the rainbow phenomenon. This was elaborated on by his student, Kamal al-Din al-Farisi (1260–1320), who gave a more mathematically satisfactory explanation of the rainbow.[7] This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ... Kamal al-Din Abul-Hasan Muhammad Al-Farisi (1260-1320) (Arabic: ) (Tabriz, Iran) was a prominent Persian Muslim mathematician and physicist. ...


In Europe, the work of Robert Grosseteste on light was continued by Roger Bacon, who wrote in his Opus Majus of 1268 about experiments with light shining through crystals and water droplets showing the colours of the rainbow.[8] Theodoric of Freiberg is also known to have given an accurate theoretical explanation of both the primary and secondary rainbows in 1307. He explained the primary rainbow, noting that "when sunlight falls on individual drops of moisture, the rays undergo two refractions (upon ingress and egress) and one reflection (at the back of the drop) before transmission into the eye of the observer".[9] He explained the secondary rainbow through a similar analysis involving two refractions and two reflections. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A 13th century portrait of Grosseteste. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... Bacons optic studies, from Opus Majus The Opus Majus was a work written by Roger Bacon during the Middle Ages and was his most and important book. ... Theodoric of Freiberg (* ca. ...

René Descartes' sketch of how primary and secondary rainbows are formed
René Descartes' sketch of how primary and secondary rainbows are formed

Descartes 1637 treatise, Discourse on Method, further advanced this explanation. Knowing that the size of raindrops did not appear to affect the observed rainbow, he experimented with passing rays of light through a large glass sphere filled with water. By measuring the angles that the rays emerged, he concluded that the primary bow was caused by a single internal reflection inside the raindrop and that a secondary bow could be caused by two internal reflections. He supported this conclusion with a derivation of the law of refraction (subsequently, but independently of, Snell) and correctly calculated the angles for both bows. His explanation of the colours, however, was based on a mechanical version of the traditional theory that colours were produced by a modification of white light.[10][11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (744x662, 945 KB)Renee Descartes sketch of how a rainbow is formed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (744x662, 945 KB)Renee Descartes sketch of how a rainbow is formed. ... Descartes redirects here. ... The Discourse on Method is a philosophical and mathematical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637. ... For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2 > n1. ...


Isaac Newton was the first to demonstrate that white light was composed of the light of all the colours of the rainbow, which a glass prism could separate into the full spectrum of colours, rejecting the theory that the colours were produced by a modification of white light. He also showed that red light gets refracted less than blue light, which led to the first scientific explanation of the major features of the rainbow.[12] Newton's corpuscular theory of light was unable to explain supernumary rainbows, and a satisfactory explanation was not found until Thomas Young realised that light behaves as a wave under certain conditions, and can interfere with itself. Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ... Thomas Young, English scientist Thomas Young (June 13, 1773-May 10, 1829) was an English polymath, contributing to the scientific understanding of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, and Egyptology. ... For other uses, see Interference (disambiguation). ...


Young's work was refined in the 1820s by George Biddell Airy, who explained the dependence of the strength of the colours of the rainbow on the size of the water droplets. Modern physical descriptions of the rainbow are based on Mie scattering, work published by Gustav Mie in 1908. Advances in computational methods and optical theory continue to lead to a fuller understanding of rainbows. For example, Nussenzveig provides a modern overview.[13] George Biddell Airy Sir George Biddell Airy FRS (July 27, 1801–January 2, 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881. ... The Mie theory also called Lorenz-Mie theory is a complete mathematical-physical theory of the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by spherical particles, developed by Gustav Mie in 1908. ... Gustav Adolf Feodor Wilhelm Ludwig Mie (September 29, 1869 Rostock – February 13, 1957 Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German physicist. ...


Culture

Religion and mythology

The end of a rainbow.
The end of a rainbow.
Main article: Rainbows in mythology

The rainbow has a place in legend owing to its beauty and the historical difficulty in explaining the phenomenon. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1360x2048, 1687 KB) Taken by Wing-Chi Poon on 1st July 2005 in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada (along Yellowhead Highway 16 between intersection to Malign Valley Road and intersection to Snaring River Campground, overlooking Colin Range in the south). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1360x2048, 1687 KB) Taken by Wing-Chi Poon on 1st July 2005 in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada (along Yellowhead Highway 16 between intersection to Malign Valley Road and intersection to Snaring River Campground, overlooking Colin Range in the south). ... The rainbow, a natural phenomenon noted for its beauty and inexplicability, has been a favorite component of mythology throughout history. ...


In Greek mythology, the rainbow was considered to be a path made by a messenger (Iris) between Earth and Heaven. In Chinese mythology, the rainbow was a slit in the sky sealed by Goddess Nüwa using stones of five different colours. In Hindu mythology, the rainbow is called Indradhanush, meaning the bow of Indra, the God of lightning and thunder. In Norse Mythology, a rainbow called the Bifröst Bridge connects the realms of Ásgard and Midgard, homes of the gods and humans, respectively. The Irish leprechaun's secret hiding place for his pot of gold is usually said to be at the end of the rainbow. This place is impossible to reach, because the rainbow is an optical effect which depends on the location of the viewer. When walking towards the end of a rainbow, it will move further away. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Iris, by Luca Giordano In Greek mythology, Iris is the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. ... Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... For the character Nu Wa in the Chinese novel Fengshen Yanyi, see Nu Wa Niang Niang Nüwa iconograph in Shan Hai Jing In Chinese mythology, Nüwa (Traditional Chinese: 女媧; Simplified Chinese: 女娲; Pinyin: nÇšwā) is mythological character best known for reproducing people after a great calamity. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... For other uses, see Thunder (disambiguation). ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... In Norse Mythology, Bifröst is the bridge leading from the realm of the mortals Midgard to the realm of the gods Asgard, which the gods travel daily to hold their councils under the shade of the tree Yggdrasill. ... Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr) is the realm of the gods, the Aesir, in Norse mythology, thought to be separate from the realm of the mortals, Midgard. ... For other uses, see Midgard (disambiguation). ... This article is about the creature in Irish mythology. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


In the Bible after Noah's Deluge, the rainbow becomes the sign of God's promise that terrestrial life would never again be destroyed by flood (Genesis 9.13-15[14]): For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Noah or Nóach (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ Nóaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew נֹחַ Nōªḥ; Arabic نوح Nūḥ), son of Lamech and the grandson of Methuselah, built an ark to save his family and a selection of the worlds animals from the Deluge. ...

I have set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. When I bring clouds over the earth and the bow is seen in the clouds, I will remember my covenant that is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall never again become a flood to destroy all flesh.

Another ancient and accurate portrayal of the rainbow is given in the Epic of Gilgamesh: the rainbow is the literal “jeweled necklace of the Great Mother Ishtar” that she lifts into the sky as a promise that she “will never forget these days of the great flood” that destroyed her children. This is an accurate portrayal, as each life-giving droplet of rain could be interpreted as a precious diamond, and when sunlight is refracted through each of these millions of “diamond” prisms, a rainbow is formed. (The Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet Eleven) The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... Look up prism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian The Epic of Gilgamesh is from Babylonia, dating from long after the time that king Gilgamesh was supposed to have ruled. ...

Then Ishtar arrived. She lifted up the necklace of great jewels that her father, Anu, had created to please her and said, "Heavenly gods, as surely as this jeweled necklace hangs upon my neck, I will never forget these days of the great flood. Let all of the gods except Enlil come to the offering. Enlil may not come, for without reason he brought forth the flood that destroyed my people."

Art

The rainbow occurs often in paintings. Frequently these have a symbolic or programmatic significance (for example, Albrecht Dürer's Melancholia I). In particular, the rainbow appears regularly in religious art (for example, Joseph Anton Koch's Noah's Thanksoffering). Romantic landscape painters such as Turner and Constable were more concerned with recording fleeting effects of light (for example, Constable's Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows). Other notable examples appear in work by Hans Memling, Caspar David Friedrich, and Peter Paul Rubens. Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Melencolia I, often known as Melancholia I (using the modern spelling) is an engraving by the German Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows was painted by John Constable in 1829, one year after his wife’s death. ... St Ursula Shrine by Hans Memling (1489) Gilded and painted wood, 87 x 33 x 91 cm Memlingmuseum, Sint-Janshospitaal, Bruges Hans Memling (Memlinc) (c. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ...

The Blind Girl, oil painting (1856) by John Everett Millais. The rainbow – one of the beauties of nature that the blind girl cannot experience – is used to underline the pathos of her condition.
The Blind Girl, oil painting (1856) by John Everett Millais. The rainbow – one of the beauties of nature that the blind girl cannot experience – is used to underline the pathos of her condition.
Noah's Thanksoffering (c.1803) by Joseph Anton Koch. Noah builds an altar to the Lord after being delivered from the Flood; God sends the rainbow as a sign of his covenant (Genesis 8-9).
Noah's Thanksoffering (c.1803) by Joseph Anton Koch. Noah builds an altar to the Lord after being delivered from the Flood; God sends the rainbow as a sign of his covenant (Genesis 8-9).

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1067x1600, 360 KB) Summary John Everett Millais: The Blind Girl / Die junge Blinde / La fille aveugle 1856 City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Blindness Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1067x1600, 360 KB) Summary John Everett Millais: The Blind Girl / Die junge Blinde / La fille aveugle 1856 City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Blindness Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixel Image in higher resolution (2536 × 1890 pixel, file size: 517 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rainbow Portal:Bible... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixel Image in higher resolution (2536 × 1890 pixel, file size: 517 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rainbow Portal:Bible... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...

Literature

The rainbow inspires metaphor and simile. Virginia Woolf in To the Lighthouse highlights the transience of life and Man's mortality through Mrs Ramsey's thought, For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... To the Lighthouse (5 May 1927) is a novel by Virginia Woolf. ...

"it was all as ephemeral as a rainbow"

Wordsworth's 1802 poem "My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold The Rainbow" begins: Wordsworth redirects here. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

My heart leaps up when I behold
A rainbow in the sky:
So was it when my life began;
So is it now I am a man;
So be it when I shall grow old,
Or let me die!…

The Newtonian deconstruction of the rainbow is said to have provoked John Keats to lament in his 1820 poem "Lamia": Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Keats redirects here. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Do not all charms fly
At the mere touch of cold philosophy?
There was an awful rainbow once in heaven:
We know her woof, her texture; she is given
In the dull catalogue of common things.
Philosophy will clip an Angel's wings,
Conquer all mysteries by rule and line,
Empty the haunted air, and gnomed mine –
Unweave a rainbow

In contrast to this is Richard Dawkins; talking about his book Unweaving the Rainbow: Science, Delusion and the Appetite for Wonder: Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Unweaving the Rainbow (subtitled Science, Delusion and the Appetite for Wonder) is a book by Richard Dawkins, published in 1998 discussing the relationship between science and arts from the perspective of a scientist. ...

"My title is from Keats, who believed that Newton had destroyed all the poetry of the rainbow by reducing it to the prismatic colours. Keats could hardly have been more wrong, and my aim is to guide all who are tempted by a similar view, towards the opposite conclusion. Science is, or ought to be, the inspiration for great poetry."

The family name Keats, a surname of England is believed to be descended originally from the Anglo Saxon race from old English word cyta or cyte which has been used to describe a worker at the shed, outhouse for animals, hence herdsman. ... For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation). ...

Flags

Main article: Rainbow flag

Historically, a rainbow flag was used in the German Peasants' War in the 16th century as a sign of a new era, of hope and of social change. Rainbow flags have also been used as a symbol of the Cooperative movement; as a symbol of peace, especially in Italy; to represent the Tawantin Suyu, or Inca territory, in Peru and Ecuador; by some Druze communities in the Middle east; and by the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. The rainbow appears on the Gay pride flag, designed by Gilbert Baker for the 1978 San Francisco's Gay Freedom Celebration and today it is often used to represent LGBT-friendly businesses or districts. The actual rainbow colors in the PACE flag (Italian for peace) A rainbow flag is a multi-colored flag consisting of stripes in the colors of the rainbow. ... Peasants War map. ... Co-op redirects here. ... Peace sign redirects here. ... A view of Machu Picchu, the Lost City of the Incas, now an archaeological site. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... , Capital Birobidzhan Area - total - % water Ranked 61st - 36,000 km² - no data Population - Total - Density Ranked 80th - est. ... The pride flag typically refers to one of the three flags representing parts of the LGBT movement: Rainbow flag - representing Lesbians and Gay Men. ...


The place of indigo

All the Roy G. Biv mnemonics follow the tradition of including the colour indigo between blue and violet. Newton originally (1672) named only five primary colours: red, yellow, green, blue and violet. Only later did he introduce orange and indigo, giving seven colours by analogy to the number of notes in a musical scale.[15] Some sources now omit indigo, because it is a tertiary color and partly due to the poor ability of humans to distinguish colours in the blue portion of the visual spectrum.[16] Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: English mnemonics#Science Roy G. Biv is a traditional mnemonic for the sequence of hues in the visible spectrum, in simple rainbows, and in order from longest to shortest wavelength: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet The colors are arranged in... Indigo is the color on the spectrum between about 450 and 420 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ... This article is about the colour. ... Violet (named after the flower violet) is used in two senses: first, referring to the color of light at the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum, approximately 380–420 nanometres (this is a spectral color). ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... This article is about the colour. ... Violet (named after the flower violet) is used in two senses: first, referring to the color of light at the short-wavelength end of the visible spectrum, approximately 380–420 nanometres (this is a spectral color). ...


There is also some evidence that Newton's use of the terms blue and indigo map to the modern hues cyan and blue respectively. [3] Cyan (from Greek κυανοs, meaning blue) may be used as the name of any of a number of a range of colors in the blue/green part of the spectrum. ...


Since rainbows are composed of a nearly continuous spectrum, different people, most notably across different cultures[who?], identify different numbers of colours in rainbows.


See also

Photograph of a Moonbow (Lunar Rainbow) A moonbow (also known as a lunar rainbow or white rainbow) is a rainbow that occurs at night. ... Circumhorizontal Arc photographed in Coeur dAlene, Idaho on June 3, 2006 A circumhorizontal arc, also known as a fire rainbow, is an optical phenomenon similar in appearance to a rainbow, caused by the refraction of light through the ice crystals in cirrus clouds. ... A fog bow, solar glory and Brocken spectre observed at the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. ... It has been suggested that Moon dog be merged into this article or section. ... An unusually pronounced sundog produced by sunlight passing through thin cirrus clouds. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Walklet, Keith S. (2006). Lunar Rainbows - When to View and How to Photograph a "Moonbow". The Ansel Adams Gallery. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  2. ^ Anonymous. Sea Water Rainbow. Atmospheric Optics. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  3. ^ K. Sassen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69 (1979) 1083.
  4. ^ P. H. Ng, M. Y. Tse, and W. K. Lee, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15 (1998) 2782
  5. ^ Sivin, Nathan (1995). Science in Ancient China: Researches and Reflections. Brookfield, Vermont: VARIORUM, Ashgate Publishing. III, Page 24.
  6. ^ Dong, Paul. (2000). China's Major Mysteries: Paranormal Phenomena and the Unexplained in the People's Republic. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals, Inc. ISBN 0835126765. Page 72.
  7. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (November 1999). Kamal al-Din Abu'l Hasan Muhammad Al-Farisi. University of St. Andrews. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  8. ^ Davidson, Michael W. (August 1, 2003). Roger Bacon (1214-1294). Florida State University.. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  9. ^ Lindberg, David C (Summer, 1966). "Roger Bacon's Theory of the Rainbow: Progress or Regress?". Isis 57 (2): 235. Retrieved on 2007-06-07. 
  10. ^ Boyer, Carl B. (1952). "Descartes and the Radius of the Rainbow". Isis 43 (2): 95-98. 
  11. ^ Gedzelman, Stanley David (1989). "Did Kepler's Supplement to Witelo Inspire Descartes' Theory of the Rainbow?". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 70 (7): 750. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. 
  12. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (January 2000). Sir Isaac Newton. University of St. Andrews. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  13. ^ Nussenzveig, H. Moyses, "The Theory of the Rainbow," Scientific American 236 (1977), 116.
  14. ^ Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version. Reference Edition (with Old and New Testaments) (1990). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Bible Publishers.
  15. ^ Mills, A. A., (August 1981). "Roger Bacon's Theory of the Rainbow: Progress or Regress?". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 36 (1): 13-36. Retrieved on 2007-06-07. 
  16. ^ Bleicher, Steven (2004). Contemporary Color: Theory & Use. Thomson Delmar Learning. ISBN 1-4018-3740-9. : "However, most people can only discern six of these hues; they have trouble telling the difference between indigo and violet."

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David C. Lindberg is an American historian of science. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of the Bible, released in 1989, is a thorough revision of the Revised Standard Version (RSV). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Greenler, Robert (1980). Rainbows, Halos, and Glories. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0195218337. 
  • Lee, Raymond L. and Alastair B. Fraser (2001). The Rainbow Bridge: Rainbows in Art, Myth and Science. New York: Pennsylvania State University Press and SPIE Press. ISBN 0-271-01977-8. 
  • Lynch, David K.; Livingston, William (2001). Color and Light in Nature, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77504-3. 
  • Minnaert, Marcel G. J. (1993). Light and Color in the Outdoors. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97935-2. 
  • Minnaert, Marcel G. J. (1973). The Nature of Light and Color in the Open Air. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20196-1. 
  • Naylor, John (2002). Out of the Blue: A 24-Hour Skywatcher's Guide. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80925-8. 
  • Boyer, Carl B. (1987). The Rainbow, From Myth to Mathematics. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08457-2. 

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rainbow

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rainbow Play Systems swing sets for every budget and yard size. (273 words)
Rainbow Play Systems swing sets for every budget and yard size.
The creators and designers at Rainbow Play Systems make sure the fun and flight of imagination is firmly grounded with quality construction and safety, giving you a wood swing set you can trust and your kids can enjoy for years.
It's not our 20+ years of experience, our lifetime warranty, our solid wood craftsmanship, our professional installation, our trusted tradition of quality and safety or the fact that we have the largest product selection in the industry that makes us the preferred swing set creator.
Rainbow - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3220 words)
A rainbow is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that causes a nearly continuous spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines onto droplets of moisture in the Earth's atmosphere.
The rainbow's appearance is caused by dispersion of sunlight as it is refracted by (approximately spherical) raindrops.
Rainbow flags have also been used as a symbol of the Cooperative movement; as a symbol of peace, especially in Italy; to represent the Tawantin Suyu, or Inca territory, in Peru and Ecuador; by some Druze communities in the Middle east; and by the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m