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Encyclopedia > Pollution
Air pollution
Pollution
v  d  e
Air pollution
Acid rainAir Quality IndexAtmospheric dispersion modelingChlorofluorocarbonGlobal dimmingGlobal warming • Haze • Indoor air qualityOzone depletionParticulateSmog
Water pollution
EutrophicationHypoxiaMarine pollutionOcean acidificationOil spillShip pollutionSurface runoffThermal pollutionWastewaterWaterborne diseasesWater qualityWater stagnation
Soil contamination
Bioremediation • Herbicide • PesticideSoil Guideline Values (SGVs)
Radioactive contamination
Actinides in the environmentEnvironmental radioactivityFission productNuclear falloutPlutonium in the environmentRadiation poisoningradium in the environmentUranium in the environment
Other types of pollution
Invasive speciesLight pollutionNoise pollutionRadio spectrum pollutionVisual pollution
Inter-government treaties
Montreal ProtocolNitrogen Oxide ProtocolKyoto Protocol • CLRTAP
Major organizations
DEFRAEPAGlobal Atmosphere WatchGreenpeaceNational Ambient Air Quality Standards
Related topics
Natural environment

Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment.[1] Image File history File links AirPollutionSource. ... Image File history File links AirPollutionSource. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes 14 distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Subsequent to an Oil Spill An oil spill is the unintentional release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Standing water redirects here. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The environmental radioactivity page is devoted to the subject of radioactive materials in man and his environment. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... // Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case which involved a product called Radithor this contained 1 mCi of 226Ra and 1 mCi of 228Ra per bottle. ... Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2000 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Protocol (disambiguation). ... Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, opened for signature on 31 October 1988 and entered into force on 14 February 1991, was to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides and... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... note - abbreviated as Air Pollution opened for signature - 13 November 1979 entered into force - 16 March 1983 objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution parties - (48) Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... EPA redirects here. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ...

Contents

Pollution control

Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution controls the undesirable waste products from human consumption, industrial production, agricultural activities, mining, transportation and other sources will accumulate or disperse and degrade the natural environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimisation are more desirable than pollution control. Started at Winter Semester 1999/00, the main aim is to create a medium(see Fachhochschule Lübeck) for the next generation in Lübeck City to understand and explore the Environmental awareness in Environmental Protection and Environmental Management, and also to provide a strong education background and constructive knowledge... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... Effluent is an outflowing of water from a natural body of water, or from a man-made structure. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Pollution prevention (P2) is a term used to describe a series of techniques that are used to reduce the amount of pollution generated. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...


Pollution control devices

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Cyclone Separator Cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air (or gas) stream without the use of filters. ... An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The word scrubber can mean:- The part of a rebreather breathing set which absorbs the carbon dioxide which the individual using the breathing set breathes out. ... Figure 1 - Baffle spray scrubber Baffle spray scrubbers are a technology for air pollution control. ... Figure 1 - Irrigated cyclone scrubber Cyclonic spray scrubbers are an air pollution control technology. ... Figure 1 - Ejector venturi scrubber This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. ... Figure 1 -Centrifugal fan scrubber Mechanically aided scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... Figure 1 - Countercurrent-flow spray tower Spray towers, or chambers, are constructed very simply - consisting of empty cylindrical vessels made of steel or plastic and nozzles that spray liquid into the vessels. ... Figure 1 - Venturi scrubber with mist eliminator Wet scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ... An API oil-water separator is a device designed to separate gross amounts of oil and suspended solids from the wastewater effluents of oil refineries, petrochemical plants, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewaters (or other waters) by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids. ... Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using living material to filter or chemically process pollutants. ... Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT) is a wastewater technology in which powdered activated carbon is added to an anaerobic or aerobic treatment system. ... Vapor (or vapour) recovery is the process of recovering the vapors of gasoline or other fuels, so that they do not escape into the atmosphere. ...

Major forms of pollution and major polluted areas

Water pollution

The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to each of them: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 450 KB) Sediment-Water Interactions in Urban Water Bodies: Salford Quays, UK. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 450 KB) Sediment-Water Interactions in Urban Water Bodies: Salford Quays, UK. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

The Blacksmith Institute issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and Zambia. Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Excavation of leaking undergound storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration to the natural soil environment. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... It has been suggested that Chlorocarbon be merged into this article or section. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ... Aircraft noise is defined as sound produced by any aircraft on run-up, taxiing, take off, over flying or landing. ... Traditionally, workplace noise has been a hazard linked to heavy industries such as ship-building and associated only with noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... Power line redirects here. ... Billboard redirects here. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. ... Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore by first removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it. ... “Municipal waste” redirects here. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The Blacksmith Institute, founded in 1999, is a New York City based organization supporting pollution-related environmental projects. ...


Sources and causes

Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution.[5][6][7] China, United States, Russia, Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions; however, Canada is the number two country, ranked per capita. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries,[3] petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. A Chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures chemicals, usually on a large scale. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ...


Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH), heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium--found in rechargeable batteries, and lead--found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline), MTBE, zinc, arsenic and benzene. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater), emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U.S. or EU. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, commonly called dioxins for simplicity, such as TCDD.[8] Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a broad class of organic chemicals used mainly as solvents but also with many other uses. ... A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and pronounced nye-cad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys using the metals nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) as the active chemicals. ... This article is about the metal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An aviation fuel truck. ... Petrol redirects here. ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins are a group of halogenated organic compounds which are significant because they act as environmental pollutants. ... TCDD may refer to any of the following: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin — a type of dioxin. ...


Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. For example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. Some sources of pollution, such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur. This article is about weather phenomena. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... Natural gas drilling rig A drilling rig or oil rig is a structure housing equipment used to drill for and extract oil or natural gas from underground reservoirs. ... A refinery is composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations used for refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ...


In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide. Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ...


Effects

Human health

Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized index of the air quality in a given location, given in parts per billion. ... Diseases of the mammalian Respiratory system are classified physiologically into obstructive (i. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... Hearing impairment or deafness is decreased or absent ability to perceive auditory information. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... A sleep disorder (somnipathy) is a disorder in the sleep patterns of a person or animal. ...


Ecosystems

  • Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen can cause acid rain which reduces the pH value of soil.
  • Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web.
  • Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis.
  • Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness.
  • Biomagnification describes a situation where toxins may be pass through trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process.

Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... Figure 1. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Casuarina equisetifolia litter completely suppresses germination of understory plants as shown here despite the relative openess of the canopy and ample rainfall (>120 cm/yr) at the location The term allelopathy denotes the production of specific biomolecules by one plant that can induce suffering in, or give benefit to, another... Biomagnification is a similar but distinct concept from bioaccumulation. ...

Regulation and monitoring

To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


United States

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established threshold standards for air pollutants to protect human health on January 1, 1970. One of the ratings chemicals are given is carcinogenicity. In addition to the classification "unknown", designated levels range from non-carcinogen, to likely and known carcinogen. Some scientists have said that the concentrations which most of these levels indicate are far too high and the exposure of people should be less. In 1999, the United States EPA replaced the Pollution Standards Index (PSI) with the Air Quality Index (AQI) to incorporate new PM2.5 and Ozone standards. EPA redirects here. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ...


The United States Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1963 to legislate the reduction of smog and atmospheric pollution in general. That legislation has subsequently been amended and extended in 1966, 1970, 1977 and 1990. Numerous state and local governments have enacted similar legislation either implementing or filling in locally important gaps in the national program. The national Clean Air Act and similar state legislative acts have led to the widespread use of atmospheric dispersion modeling[9] in order to analyze the air quality impacts of proposed major actions. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ...


Passage of the Clean Water Act amendments of 1977 required strict permitting for any contaminant discharge to navigable waters, and also required use of best management practices for a wide range of other water discharges including thermal pollution. The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ... A river or canal is Navigatable if the water is deep and wide enough, and not flowing too fast. ...


Passage of the Noise Control Act established mechanisms of setting emission standards for virtually every source of noise including motor vehicles, aircraft, certain types of HVAC equipment and major appliances. It also put local government on notice as to their responsibilities in land use planning to address noise mitigation. This noise regulation framework comprised a broad data base detailing the extent of noise health effects. The Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972 (or Noise Control Act of 1972, 92-574, 86 Stat. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... Land use is the pattern of construction and activity land is used for. ... Noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce unwanted environmental sound. ... Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ...


The state of California's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has maintained an independent list of substances with product labeling requirements as part of Proposition 65 since 1986. Proposition 65 is a law in California created to promote clean drinking water and keep toxic substances that cause cancer and birth defects out of consumer products. ...


The U.S. has a maximum fine of US$25,000 for dumping toxic waste. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Toxic waste is waste material, often in chemical form, that can cause death or injury to living creatures. ...


Europe

Further information: Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, Law of the European Union and European Union regulation

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a European Union regulation, regulation 2006/1907 of 18 December 2006. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... A regulation is a legislative act of the European Union which becomes immediately enforceable as law in all member states simultaneously. ...

The United Kingdom

In the 1840s, the United Kingdom brought onto the statute books legislation to control water pollution. It was extended to all rivers and coastal water by 1961. However, currently the clean up of historic contamination is controlled under a specific statutory scheme found in Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (Part IIA), as inserted by the Environment Act 1995, and other ‘rules’ found in regulations and statutory guidance. The Act came into force in England in April 2000.


Within the current regulatory framework, Pollution Prevention and Control (PPC) is a regime for controlling pollution from certain industrial activities. The regime introduces the concept of Best Available Techniques ("BAT") to environmental regulations. Operators must use the BAT to control pollution from their industrial activities to prevent, and where that is not practicable, to reduce to acceptable levels, pollution to air, land and water from industrial activities. The Best Available Techniques also aim to balance the cost to the operator against benefits to the environment. The system of Pollution Prevention and Control is replacing that of Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) (which was established by the Environmental Protection Act 1990) and is taking effect between 2000 and 2007. The Pollution Prevention and Control regime implements the European Directive (EC/96/61) on integrated pollution prevention and control. Best Available Technology (or just BAT) is a term applied with regulations on limiting pollutant discharges with regard to the abatement strategy. ...


China

China's rapid industrialization has substantially increased pollution. China has some relevant regulations: the 1979 Environmental Protection Law, which was largely modelled on U.S. legislation. But the environment continues to deteriorate.[10] Twelve years after the law, only one Chinese city was making an effort to clean up its water discharges.[11] This indicates that China is about 30 years behind the U.S. schedule of environmental regulation and 10 to 20 years behind Europe. In July 2007, it was reported that the World Bank reluctantly censored a report revealing that 750,000 people in China die every year as a result of pollution-related diseases. China's State Environment Protection Agency and the Health Ministry asked the World Bank to cut the calculations of premature deaths from the report fearing the revelation would provoke "social unrest".[12] The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Ministry of Health may refer to:  Poland: Ministry of Health  Japan: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare  Czech Republic: Ministry of Health Service  Singapore: Ministry of Health  Peoples Republic of China: Ministry of Health  New Zealand: Ministry of Health (ManatÅ« Hauora)  Peru: Ministry of Health  Romania: Ministry of Health...


International

The Kyoto Protocol[13] is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty on global warming. It also reaffirms sections of the UNFCCC. Countries which ratify this protocol commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases.[13] A total of 141 countries have ratified the agreement. Notable exceptions include the United States and Australia, who have signed but not ratified the agreement. The stated reason for the United States not ratifying is the exemption of large emitters of greenhouse gases who are also developing countries, like China and India.[14] Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... UNFCCC logo. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ... In international law and international relations, a protocol is a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Greenhouse gases are gaseous components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ...


History

Prehistory

Humankind has some effect upon the natural environment since the Paleolithic era during which the ability to generate fire was acquired. In the Iron Age, the use of tooling led to the practice of metal grinding on a small scale and resulted in minor accumulations of discarded material probably easily dispersed without too much impact. Human wastes would have polluted rivers or water sources to some degree. However, these effects could be expected predominantly to be dwarfed by the natural world. // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ...


Ancient cultures

The first advanced civilizations of India, China, Egypt, Persia, Greece and Rome increased the use of water for their manufacture of goods, increasingly forged metal and created fires of wood and peat for more elaborate purposes (for example, bathing, heating). Still, at this time the scale of higher activity did not disrupt ecosystems or greatly alter air or water quality. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Middle Ages

The dark ages and early Middle Ages were a great boon for the environment, in that industrial activity fell, and population levels did not grow rapidly. Toward the end of the Middle Ages populations grew and concentrated more within cities, creating pockets of readily evident contamination. In certain places air pollution levels were recognizable as health issues, and water pollution in population centers was a serious medium for disease transmission from untreated human waste. Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Human waste is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as faeces and urine. ...


Since travel and widespread information were less common, there did not exist a more general context than that of local consequences in which to consider pollution. Foul air would have been considered a nuissance and wood, or eventually, coal burning produced smoke, which in sufficient concentrations could be a health hazard in proximity to living quarters. Septic contamination or poisoning of a clean drinking water source was very easily fatal to those who depended on it, especially if such a resource was rare. Superstitions predominated and the extent of such concerns would probably have been little more than a sense of moderation and an avoidance of obvious extremes. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Official acknowledgement

But gradually increasing populations and the proliferation of basic industrial processes saw the emergence of a civilization that began to have a much greater collective impact on its surroundings. It was to be expected that the beginnings of environmental awareness would occur in the more developed cultures, particularly in the densest urban centers. The first medium warranting official policy measures in the emerging western world would be the most basic: the air we breathe.


King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke had become a problem.[15][16] But the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Air pollution would continue to be a problem there, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952. This same city also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Great Smog also referred to as the Big Smoke, befell London starting on 5 December 1952, and lasted until 9 December 1952. ... The Great Stink or The Big Stink was a time in the summer of 1858 during which the smell of untreated sewage almost overwhelmed people in central London. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... The new Abbey Mills Pumping Station The original Abbey Mills pumping station The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London. ...


It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal and other fossil fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder.[17] A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Donora is a borough in Washington County, Pennsylvania, USA, 20 miles (32 km) south of Pittsburgh on the Monongahela river. ...


Modern awareness

Early Soviet poster, before the modern awareness: "The smoke of chimneys is the breath of Soviet Russia"

Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x760, 112 KB) Summary Source: [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Pollution History of the Soviet Union (1927-1953) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x760, 112 KB) Summary Source: [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Pollution History of the Soviet Union (1927-1953) ... The Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972 (or Noise Control Act of 1972, 92-574, 86 Stat. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ...


Bad bouts of local pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. Long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 became a national news story in 1978 and led to the Superfund legislation of 1980. Legal proceedings in the 1990s helped bring to light Chromium-6 releases in California--the champions of whose victims became famous. The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning. DDT was banned in most of the developed world after the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. “PCB” redirects here. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... EPA redirects here. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, United States of America (USA). ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... A Hexavalent chromium compound: Chromium(VI)-oxide Hexavalent chromium or Cr(VI) compounds are those which contain the element chromium in the +6 oxidation state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... In town planning, brownfield land is an area of land previously used or built upon, as opposed to industry or mining and therefore may be contaminated by hazardous waste or pollution. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ...


The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Karachay, named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted spot" on earth, served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union thoroughout the 1950s and 1960s. Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War, sometimes near inhabited areas, especially in the earlier stages of their development. The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power. Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter of public mistrust. One legacy of nuclear testing before most forms were banned has been significantly raised levels of background radiation. The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... Lake Karachay (Russian: ), sometimes spelled Karachai is a small lake in the southern Ural mountains in eastern Russia. ... The Worldwatch Institute is an environmental research organisation in the United States. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consists of two nuclear reactors, each with its own containment building and cooling towers. ... This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... There are two treaties that have been referred to as the Test Ban Treaty: the Partial Test Ban Treaty, adopted in 1963, and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, adopted in 1996 This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Background radiation is the ionizing radiation emitted from a variety of natural and artificial radiation sources: sources in the Earth and from those sources that are incorporated in our food and water, which are incorporated in our body, and in building materials and other products that incorporate those radioactive sources...


International catastrophes such as the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz oil tanker off the coast of Brittany in 1978 and the Bhopal industrial disaster in 1984 have demonstrated the universality of such events and the scale on which efforts to address them needed to engage. The borderless nature of the atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication of pollution on a planetary level with the issue of global warming. Most recently the term persistent organic pollutant (POP) has come to describe a group of chemicals such as PBDEs and PFCs among others. Though their effects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack of experimental data, they have been detected in various ecological habitats far removed from industrial activity such as the Arctic, demonstrating diffusion and bioaccumulation after only a relatively brief period of widespread use. The Amoco Cadiz was a supertanker, owned by Amoco, that split in two after running aground on Portsall Rocks, three miles off the coast of Brittany, in March 16, 1978, resulting in the 5th-largest oil spill in history. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. ... PDBE, or polybrominated diphenyl ether is a flame-retardant of the brominated flame-retardant group rated as a Persistent Organic Pollutant. ... PFC can be an acronym/initialism for Protein Fractionation Centre Peshawar Flying Club PRIDE Fighting Championships Parallel Flange Channel perfluorocarbon Private First Class Passenger Facility Charge, an FAA-regulated tax that some U.S. airports charge passengers to fund airport improvements (see also the FAAs overview). ...


Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment. For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ...


Philosophical recognition

Throughout history from Ancient Greece to Andalusia, Ancient China, central Europe during the Renaissance until today, philosophers ranging from Aristotle, Al-Farabi, Al-Ghazali, Averroes, Buddha, Confucius, Dante, Hegel, Avicenna, Lao Tse, Maimonedes, Montesquieu, Nussbaum, Plato, Socrates and Sun Tzu wrote about the pollution of the body as well as the mind and soul. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... ... Moses Maimonides (March 30, 1135 Córdoba, Spain – December 13, 1204 Fostat, Egypt) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Andalusia, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Nussbaum or Nußbaum may refer to: Adam Nussbaum (born 1955), U.S. jazz drummer. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


Perspectives

The earliest precursor of pollution generated by life forms would have been a natural function of their existence. The attendant consequences on viability and population levels fell within the sphere of natural selection. These would have included the demise of a population locally or ultimately, species extinction. Processes that were untenable would have resulted in a new balance brought about by changes and adaptations. At the extremes, for any form of life, consideration of pollution is superseded by that of survival. For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


For mankind, the factor of technology is a distinguishing and critical consideration, both as an enabler and an additional source of byproducts. Short of survival, human concerns include the range from quality of life to health hazards. Since science holds experimental demonstration to be definitive, modern treatment of toxicity or environmental harm involves defining a level at which an effect is observable. Common examples of fields where practical measurement is crucial include automobile emissions control, industrial exposure (eg Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) PELs), toxicology (eg LD50), and medicine (eg medication and radiation doses). Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... PEL or pel may refer to: pel, an abbreviation for pixel Permissible Exposure Limit, a legal limit defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States PEL, an abbreviation for Peak of Eternal Light, a location within the Solar System that is almost constantly bathed in sunlight. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionising radiation. ...


"The solution to pollution is dilution", is a dictum which summarizes a traditional approach to pollution management whereby sufficiently diluted pollution is not harmful.[18][19] It is well-suited to some other modern, locally-scoped applications such as laboratory safety procedure and hazardous material release emergency management. But it assumes that the dilutant is in virtually unlimited supply for the application or that resulting dilutions are acceptable in all cases. A hazardous material (HAZMAT) is any solid, liquid, or gas that can cause harm to humans, other living organisms, or the environment due to being radioactive, flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, a biohazard, an oxidizer, an asphyxiant, or capable of causing severe allergic reactions. ...


Such simple treatment for environmental pollution on a wider scale might have had greater merit in earlier centuries when physical survival was often the highest imperative, human population and densities were lower, technologies were simpler and their byproducts more benign. But these are often no longer the case. Furthermore, advances have enabled measurement of concentrations not possible before. The use of statistical methods in evaluating outcomes has given currency to the principle of probable harm in cases where assessment is warranted but resorting to deterministic models is impractical or unfeasible. In addition, consideration of the environment beyond direct impact on human beings has gained prominence.


Yet in the absence of a superseding principle, this older approach predominates practices throughout the world. It is the basis by which to gauge concentrations of effluent for legal release, exceeding which penalties are assessed or restrictions applied. The regressive cases are those where a controlled level of release is too high or, if enforceable, is neglected. Migration from pollution dilution to elimination in many cases is confronted by challenging economical and technological barriers.


Controversies

Industry and concerned citizens have battled for decades over the significance of various forms of pollution. Salient parameters of these disputes are whether:

  • a given pollutant affects all people or simply a genetically vulnerable set.
  • an effect is only specific to certain species.
  • whether the effect is simple, or whether it causes linked secondary and tertiary effects, especially on biodiversity
  • an effect will only be apparent in the future and is presently negligible.
  • the threshold for harm is present.
  • the pollutant is of direct harm or is a precursor.
  • employment or economic prosperity will suffer if the pollutant is abated.

Blooms of algae and the resultant eutrophication of lakes and coastal ocean is considered pollution when it is caused by nutrients from industrial, agricultural, or residential runoff in either point source or nonpoint source form (see the article on eutrophication for more information). Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Point source (sound), Point source (light), Point source (heat), Point source (radio) and Point source (fluid) (Discuss) A point source of pollution is a single identifiable localized source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution. ... Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) does not come from a single source like point source pollution. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ...


Heavy metals such as lead and mercury have a role in geochemical cycles and they occur naturally. These metals may also be mined and, depending on their processing, may be released disruptively in large concentrations into an environment they had previously been absent from. Just as the effect of anthropogenic release of these metals into the environment may be considered 'polluting', similar environmental impacts could also occur in some areas due to either autochthonous or historically 'natural' geochemical activity.


Carbon dioxide

Historical and projected CO2 emissions by country.
Source: Energy Information Administration.[20][21]

Carbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, is sometimes referred to as pollution, because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere may affect the Earth's climate. See global warming for an extensive discussion of this topic. Disruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately, such as those of water and air. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical increases in the acidity of ocean waters, and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (902x615, 8 KB) author: Source: Energy Information Administration. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (902x615, 8 KB) author: Source: Energy Information Administration. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ...


See also

Ecology Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. ... Over the last two centuries many atmospheric chemical observations have been made from a variety of ground-based, airborne, and orbital platforms and deposited in databases. ... Dutch Standard reference values for environmental investigation, clean up and remediation. ... Earth Day Flag. ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... In economics, an externality is an impact (positive or negative) on anyone not party to a given economic transaction. ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... This is a list of topics related (in whole or in part) to (a) phenomena in the natural environment which have a definite or significantly possible connection with human activity or (b) features of human activity which have a definite or significantly possible connection with the natural environment, even if... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This page has a list of waste management topics. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Lists of Superfund sites in the United States designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) environmental law. ... A turtle is trapped in a ghost net, an abandoned fishing net Marine debris usually applies to floating waste such as bottles, cans, styrofoam, cruise ship waste, offshore oil and gas exploration and production facilities pollution, and fishing paraphanalia from professional and recreational boaters. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... Particle (ecology) is the term for small objects of nonbiological kind. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Stormwater is a term used to describe water that originates during precipitation events. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... The timeline of environmental events is a historical account of events that have shaped humanitys perspective on the environment. ... 1947 - Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District created; first air pollution agency in the US. 1948 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act 1955 - National Air Pollution Control Act 1959 - California Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board created to test automobile emissions and set standards. ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Wastewater quality indicators such as the Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the Chemical oxygen demand (COD) are essentially laboratory test measures of the amount of oxygen in a wastewater. ... The Wise use movement in the United States is a loose-knit coalition of groups promoting private property rights and use of the natural environment as a natural part of human survival. ...

References

  1. ^ Definition of Pollution (from course by Visiting Fellow (from University of Bern, Switzerland) Dr. K.P. Peiry at University of New South Wales, Australia and referenced to the OECD 1974)
  2. ^ American Petroleum Institute (API) (February 1990). Management of Water Discharges: Design and Operations of Oil-Water Separators, 1st Edition, American Petroleum Institute. 
  3. ^ a b Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons. LCCN 67019834. 
  4. ^ Concerns about MTBE from U.S. EPA website
  5. ^ Environmental Performance Report 2001 (Transport, Canada website page)
  6. ^ State of the Environment, Issue: Air Quality (Australian Government website page)
  7. ^ Pollution and Society Marisa Buchanan and Carl Horwitz, University of Michigan
  8. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (January 1987). "A data base for dioxin and furan emissions from refuse incinerators". Atmospheric Environment 21 (1): 29-36. ISSN 0004-6981. 
  9. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (2005). Fundamentals of Stack Gas Dispersion, 4th Edition, author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.  www.air-dispersion.com
  10. ^ Ma, Xiaoying and Ortalano, Leonard (2000). Environmental Regulation in China: institutions, enforcement and compliance. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-9398-8. 
  11. ^ Sinkule, Barbara J. and Ortolana, Leonard (1995). Implementing Environmental Policy in China. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94980-X. 
  12. ^ China covers up pollution deaths
  13. ^ a b Kyoto Protocol To The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  14. ^ President Bush Discusses Global Climate Change (Transcription of speech) (2001-06-11). Retrieved on 2006-04-09.
  15. ^ David Urbinato (Summer 1994). London's Historic "Pea-Soupers". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
  16. ^ Deadly Smog. PBS (2003-01-17). Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
  17. ^ James R. Fleming; Bethany R. Knorr of Colby College. History of the Clean Air Act. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2006-02-14.
  18. ^ Gershon Cohen Ph.D.. The 'Solution' to Pollution Is Still 'Dilution'. Earth Island Institute. Retrieved on 2006-02-14.
  19. ^ What is required. Clean Ocean Foundation (2001). Retrieved on 2006-02-14.
  20. ^ World Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Table 1, Report DOE/EIA-0573, 2004, Energy Information Administration)
  21. ^ Carbon dioxide emissions chart (graph on Mongabay website page based on Energy Information Administration's tabulated data)

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Air Pollution, Heart Disease and Stroke (1384 words)
A person’s relative risk due to air pollution is small compared with the impact of established cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, obesity, or high blood pressure.  However, this is a serious public health problem because an enormous number of people are exposed over an entire lifetime.
Recently published data from the American Cancer Society cohort suggested that long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution at levels that occur in North America is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular mortality by 12 percent for every 10 micrometers of particulate matter within 1 cubic meter of air.
Short-term exposure to elevated levels of particle pollution is associated with a higher risk of death due to a cardiovascular event.
ScienceDaily: Pollution Articles (561 words)
Smog is a kind of air pollution, originally named for the mixture of smoke and fog in the air.
Air pollution is a broad term applied to any chemical, physical (particulate matter), or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere.
Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater) caused by human activities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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