FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Platypus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Platypus
Platypus[1]

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Monotremata
Family: Ornithorhynchidae
Genus: Ornithorhynchus
Blumenbach, 1800
Species: O. anatinus
Binomial name
Ornithorhynchus anatinus
(Shaw, 1799)
Platypus range (indicated by darker shading)
Platypus range (indicated by darker shading)[3]

The Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is a semi-aquatic mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania. Together with the four species of echidna, it is one of the five extant species of monotremes, the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. It is the sole living representative of its family (Ornithorhynchidae) and genus (Ornithorhynchus), though a number of related species have been found in the fossil record. A Platypus is a monotreme that is endemic to Australia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Kollikodontidae (extinct) Ornithorhynchidae - Platypus Tachyglossidae - Echidnas Steropodontidae (extinct) Monotremes are mammals that are best known for laying eggs, instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... Genera Obdurodon (extinct) Ornithorhynchus Ornithorhyncidae is one of two families in the order Monotremata, and contains all species of platypus. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... George Shaw. ... Image File history File links Platypus_Distribution. ... Animal environments are classified as either aquatic (water), terrestrial (land), or amphibious (water and land). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... The Eastern states of Australia are the states adjoining the east coast of Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... For other senses of this word, see echidna (disambiguation). ... Families †Kollikodontidae Ornithorhynchidae Tachyglossidae †Steropodontidae Monotremes (monos, single + trema, hole; refers to the cloaca) are mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Obdurodon (extinct) Ornithorhynchus Ornithorhyncidae is one of two families in the order Monotremata, and contains all species of platypus. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Families †Kollikodontidae Ornithorhynchidae Tachyglossidae †Steropodontidae Monotremes (monos, single + trema, hole; refers to the cloaca) are mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ...


The bizarre appearance of this egg-laying, venomous, duck-billed, beaver-tailed, otter-footed mammal baffled European naturalists when they first encountered it, with some considering it an elaborate fraud. It is one of the few venomous mammals; the male Platypus has a spur on the hind foot that delivers a venom capable of causing severe pain to humans. The unique features of the Platypus make it an important subject in the study of evolutionary biology and a recognizable and iconic symbol of Australia; it has appeared as a mascot at national events and is featured on the reverse of the Australian 20 cent coin. Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... This article is about the carnivorous mammals. ... Reptiles (e. ... The term obverse, and its opposite, reverse, describe the two sides of units of currency and many other kinds of two-sided objects, most often in reference to coins, but also to medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art. ... The 20 cent coin of the Australian decimal currency system was issued with conversion to decimal currency on 14 February 1966. ...


Until the early 20th century it was hunted for its fur, but it is now protected throughout its range. Although captive breeding programs have had only limited success and the Platypus is vulnerable to the effects of pollution, it is not under any immediate threat.

Contents

Taxonomy and etymology

When the Platypus was first discovered by Europeans in 1798, a pelt and sketch were sent back to the United Kingdom by Captain John Hunter, the second Governor of New South Wales.[4] The British scientists were at first convinced that the attributes must have been a hoax.[3] George Shaw, who produced the first description of the animal in the Naturalist's Miscellany in 1799 stated that it was impossible not to entertain doubts as to its genuine nature, and Robert Knox believed it may have been produced by some Asian taxidermist.[5] It was thought that somebody had sewn a duck's beak onto the body of a beaver-like animal. Shaw even took a pair of scissors to the dried skin to check for stitches.[3] In mammals, pelage is the hair, fur, or wool that covers the animal. ... John Hunter, Naval pioneer and colonial governor Captain John Hunter (1737– to 1821) was a British naval officer and colonial administrator who succeeded Arthur Phillip as the second governor of New South Wales, Australia from 1795 to 1800. ... NSW redirects here. ... George Shaw. ... Robert Knox (4 September 1791 — 20 December 1862) was a doctor, natural scientist and traveller. ... A mounted snow leopard. ...


The common name, Platypus, is Latin derived from the Greek words πλατύς ("platys", flat, broad) and πους ("pous", foot), meaning "flat foot".[6] Shaw assigned it as a Linnaean genus name when he initially described it, but the term was quickly discovered to already belong to the wood-boring ambrosia beetle (genus Platypus).[7] It was independently described as Ornithorhynchus paradoxus by Johann Blumenbach in 1800 (from a specimen given to him by Sir Joseph Banks)[8] and following the rules of priority of nomenclature it was later officially recognised as Ornithorhynchus anatinus.[7] The scientific name Ornithorhynchus is derived from ορνιθόρυνχος ("ornithorhynkhos"), which literally means "bird snout" in Greek, and anatinus which means "duck-like" in Latin. Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ... Species many Wikispecies has information related to: Platypodinae Ambrosia beetles are beetles of the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Banks (February 13, 1743 - June 19, 1820) was the British naturalist and botanist on Cooks first great voyage (1768-1771) and some 75 species bear Banks name. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


There is no universally agreed upon plural of "platypus" in the English language. Scientists generally use "platypuses" or simply "platypus". Colloquially, "platypi" is also used for the plural, although this is pseudo-Latin.[3] Early British settlers called it by many names, such as watermole, duckbill, and duckmole.[3] The name "Platypus" is often prefixed with the adjective "duck-billed" to form Duck-billed Platypus, despite there being only one species of Platypus.[9] The phrase Dog Latin refers to the creation of a phrase or jargon in imitation of Latin, often by directly translating English words into Latin without conjugation or declension. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ...


Description

The body and the broad, flat tail of the Platypus are covered with dense brown fur that traps a layer of insulating air to keep the animal warm.[3][7] The Platypus uses its tail for storage of fat reserves (an adaptation also found in animals such as the Tasmanian Devil[10] and fat-tailed sheep). It has webbed feet and a large, rubbery snout; these are features that appear closer to those of a duck than to those of any known mammal. The webbing is more significant on the front feet and is folded back when walking on land.[7] Unlike a bird's beak (in which both the upper and lower parts of the beak separate to reveal its mouth), the snout of the Platypus is a sensory organ with the mouth on the underside. The nostrils are located on the dorsal surface of the snout while the eyes and ears are located in a groove set just back from it; this groove is closed when swimming.[7] Platypuses have been heard to emit a low growl when disturbed and a range of other vocalisations have been reported in captive specimens.[3] For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tasmanian Devil (disambiguation). ... The fat-tailed sheep is a category of domestic sheep that comprise approximately 25% of world sheep population (Davidson, 1999). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ...

A colour print of platypuses from 1863
A colour print of platypuses from 1863

Weight varies considerably from 700 g (1.54 lb) to 2.4 kg (5.3 lb) with males being larger than females: males average 50 cm (20 in) total length while females average 43 cm (17 in).[7] There is substantial variation in average size from one region to another, and this pattern does not seem to follow any particular climatic rule and may be due to other environmental factors such as predation and human encroachment.[11] Image File history File links Platypus-sketch. ... Image File history File links Platypus-sketch. ...


The Platypus has an average body temperature of 31–32 °C (88–90 °F) rather than the 37 °C (100 °F) typical of placental mammals.[12] Research suggests this has been a gradual adaptation to harsh environmental conditions on the part of the small number of surviving monotreme species rather than a historical characteristic of monotremes.[13][14] Orders Superorder Xenarthra: Pilosa Cingulata Infraclass Epitheria: Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Golden mole and tenrec) Macroscelidea (Elephant shrew) Tubulidentata (Aardvark) Hyracoidea (Hyrax) Proboscidea (Elephant) Sirenia (Manatee, Dugong) Superorder Laurasiatheria: Chiroptera (Bats) Insectivora (Shrews, Moles) Cetacea (Whale, dolphin) Artiodactyla (Ruminants et al) Perissodactyla(Horse et al. ...


Modern Platypus young have three-cusped molars which they lose before or just after leaving the breeding burrow;[15][16] adults have heavily keratinised pads in their place.[7] The Platypus jaw is constructed differently from that of other mammals, and the jaw opening muscle is different.[7] As in all true mammals, the tiny bones that conduct sound in the middle ear are fully incorporated into the skull, rather than lying in the jaw as in cynodonts and other pre-mammalian synapsids. However, the external opening of the ear still lies at the base of the jaw.[7] The Platypus has extra bones in the shoulder girdle, including an interclavicle, which is not found in other mammals.[7] It has a reptilian gait, with legs that are on the sides of the body, rather than underneath.[7] Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ... Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta, or dog teeth, were one of the most diverse groups of therapsids. ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... An interclavicle is a bone which, in most tetrapods, is located between the clavicles. ... Reptilia redirects here. ...


Venom

Main article: Platypus venom
The calcaneus spur found on the male's hind limb is used to deliver venom.
The calcaneus spur found on the male's hind limb is used to deliver venom.

The male Platypus has ankle spurs which produce a cocktail of venom, composed largely of defensin-like proteins (DLPs), which is unique to the Platypus.[17] Although powerful enough to kill smaller animals,[17] the venom is not lethal to humans, but is so excruciating that the victim may be incapacitated. Oedema rapidly develops around the wound and gradually spreads throughout the affected limb. Information obtained from case histories and anecdotal evidence indicates that the pain develops into a long-lasting hyperalgesia that persists for days or even months.[18][19] Venom is produced in the crural glands of the male, which are kidney-shaped alveolar glands connected by a thin-walled duct to a calcaneus spur on each hind limb. The female Platypus, in common with echidnas, has rudimentary spur buds which do not develop (dropping off before the end of their first year) and lack functional crural glands.[7] The poison-delivering spur is found only on the males hind limbs. ... Image File history File links Copyright (c) 1995 E.Lonnon. ... Image File history File links Copyright (c) 1995 E.Lonnon. ... Defensins are small (30-35 residue) cysteine rich cationic proteins found in vertebrate phagocytes (notably the azurophil granules of neutrophils) and active against bacteria, fungi and enveloped viruses. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This page is about the condition called edema. ... Case studies involve a particular method of research. ... Hyperalgesia is an extreme sensitivity to pain, which in one form is caused by damage to nociceptors in the bodys soft tissues. ... In contrast to tubular glands, in the second main variety of gland, the secretory portion is enlarged and the lumen variously increased in size. ...


The venom appears to have a different function from those produced by non-mammalian species: its effects are non-life threatening but nevertheless powerful enough to seriously impair the victim. Since only males produce venom and production rises during the breeding season it is theorized that it is used as an offensive weapon to assert dominance during this period.[17]


Electrolocation

Monotremes are the only mammals known to have a sense of electroreception: they locate their prey in part by detecting electric fields generated by muscular contractions. The Platypus' electroreception is the most sensitive of any monotreme.[20] Electroreception, sometimes written as electroception, is the biological ability to receive and make use of electrical impulses. ...


The electroreceptors are located in rostro-caudal rows in the skin of the bill, while mechanoreceptors (which detect touch) are uniformly distributed across the bill. The electrosensory area of the cerebral cortex is contained within the tactile somatosensory area, and some cortical cells receive input from both electroreceptors and mechanoreceptors, suggesting a close association between the tactile and electric senses. Both electroreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the bill dominate the somatotopic map of the platypus brain, in the same way human hands dominate the Panfield homunculus map.[21][22] Electroreception, sometimes written as electroception, is the biological ability to receive and make use of electrical impulses. ... A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... The somatosensory system is the sensory system of somatic sensation. ... Somatotopic arrangement is the maintenance of spatial organisation within the central nervous system. ... Basic Definition Specifically: A physical representation of the primary sensorimotor cortex, i. ...


The Platypus can determine the direction of an electric source, perhaps by comparing differences in signal strength across the sheet of electroreceptors. This would explain the animal's characteristic side-to-side motion of its head while hunting. The cortical convergence of electrosensory and tactile inputs suggests a mechanism for determining the distance of prey items which, when they move, emit both electrical signals and mechanical pressure pulses, which would also allow for computation of distance from the difference in time of arrival of the two signals.[20] In telecommunications, and particularly in radio, signal strength transmitted signal is being received, measured, or predicted, at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. ...


The Platypus feeds by digging in the bottom of streams with its bill. The electroreceptors could be used to distinguish animate and inanimate objects in this situation (in which the mechanoreceptors would be continuously stimulated).[20] When disturbed, its prey would generate tiny electrical currents in their muscular contractions which the sensitive electroreceptors of the Platypus could detect. Experiments have shown that the Platypus will even react to an 'artificial shrimp' if a small electrical current is passed through it.[23]


Ecology and behaviour

The platypus is very difficult to spot even on the surface of a river.
The platypus is very difficult to spot even on the surface of a river.

The Platypus is semi-aquatic, inhabiting small streams and rivers over an extensive range from the cold highlands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps to the tropical rainforests of coastal Queensland as far north as the base of the Cape York Peninsula.[24] Inland, its distribution is not well known: it is extinct in South Australia (barring an introduced population on Kangaroo Island)[25] and is no longer found in the main part of the Murray-Darling Basin, possibly due to the declining water quality brought about by extensive land clearing and irrigation schemes.[26] Along the coastal river systems, its distribution is unpredictable; it appears to be absent from some relatively healthy rivers, and yet maintains a presence in others that are quite degraded (the lower Maribyrnong, for example).[27] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1073x531, 73 KB) Опис файлу Platipus is very hard to spot in the wild even where supposedly abundant. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1073x531, 73 KB) Опис файлу Platipus is very hard to spot in the wild even where supposedly abundant. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Looking across everlastings on Mt Hotham to Mt Feathertop; during winter these mountains are blanketed in snow The Australian Alps The Australian Alps are the highest mountain ranges of mainland Australia. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Peru Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... This article is about the peninsula located in the Australian state of Queensland; it should not be confused with either Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, or Cape York, Greenland. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Kangaroo Island is Australias third largest island - after Tasmania and Melville Island. ... Semi-arid grazing country near Burra Creek, South Australia The Murray-Darling Basin being 3430km long, drains one-seventh of the Australian land mass and is currently by far the most significant agricultural area in Australia. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Maribyrnong river at West Essendon The Maribyrnong River rises about 50 km north of Melbourne Victoria (Australia), near Mount Macedon. ...


In captivity Platypuses have survived to seventeen years of age and wild specimens have been recaptured at eleven years old. Mortality rates for adults in the wild appear to be low.[7] Natural predators include snakes, water rats, goannas, hawks, owls and eagles. Low Platypus numbers in northern Australia are possibly due to predation by crocodiles.[28] The introduction of red foxes as a predator for rabbits may have had some impact on its numbers on the mainland.[11] The Platypus is generally regarded as nocturnal and crepuscular, but individuals are also active during the day, particularly when the sky is overcast.[29][30] Its habitat bridges rivers and the riparian zone for both a food supply of prey species and banks where it can dig resting and nesting burrows.[30] It may have a range of up to 7 km (4.4 mi) with male's home ranges overlapping with those of 3 or 4 females.[31] Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hydromys chrysogaster (Geoffroy, 1804) The water rat (Hydromys chrysogaster) is an Australian native rodent, which is one of only two amphibious mammals found in Australia (the other being the platypus). ... For other uses, see Goanna (disambiguation). ... Genera Accipiter Micronisus Melierax Urotriorchis Erythrotriorchis The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses: Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Genera Several, see text. ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A waterfall on the Ova da Fedoz, Switzerland A river is a large natural waterway. ... A well preserved Riparian strip on a tributary to Lake Erie. ...


The Platypus is an excellent swimmer and spends much of its time in the water foraging for food. When swimming it can be distinguished from other Australian mammals by the absence of visible ears.[32] Uniquely among mammals it propels itself when swimming by alternate rowing motion with the front two feet; although all four feet of the Platypus are webbed, the hind feet (which are held against the body) do not assist in propulsion, but are used for steering in combination with the tail.[33] The species is endothermic, maintaining its low body temperature, even while foraging for hours in water below 5 °C (41 °F).[7] A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down...


Dives normally last around 30 seconds, but can last longer although few exceed the estimated aerobic limit of 40 seconds. 10 to 20 seconds are commonly spent in recovery at the surface.[34][35] The Platypus is a carnivore: it feeds on annelid worms and insect larvae, freshwater shrimps, and yabbies (freshwater crayfish) that it digs out of the riverbed with its snout or catches while swimming. It utilizes cheek-pouches to carry prey to the surface where they are eaten.[32] The Platypus needs to eat about 20% of its own weight each day. This requires the Platypus to spend an average of 12 hours each day looking for food.[34] When not in the water, the Platypus retires to a short, straight resting burrow of oval cross-section, nearly always in the riverbank not far above water level, and often hidden under a protective tangle of roots.[32] Carnivorism redirects here. ... For the characters from System Shock 2, see The Many. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... The word crayfish or crawfish can mean:- Sea crayfish, also called spiny lobster. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ...


Reproduction

When the Platypus was first discovered scientists were divided over whether the female laid eggs. This was not confirmed until 1884 when W.H. Caldwell was sent to Australia where, after extensive searching assisted by a team of 150 Aborigines, he managed to discover a few eggs.[7][17] Mindful of the high cost of wiring England based on the cost per word, Caldwell famously but tersely wired London, "Monotremes oviparous, ovum meroblastic." That is, monotremes lay eggs, and the eggs are similar to those of reptiles in that only part of the egg divides as it develops. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The species exhibits a single breeding season, with mating occurring between June and October, with some local variation taking place in populations across the extent of its range.[28] Historical observation, mark and recapture studies and preliminary investigations of population genetics indicate the possibility of resident and transient members of populations and suggest a polygynous mating system.[36] Females are thought likely to become sexually mature in their second year, with breeding confirmed to still take place in animals over nine years old.[36] Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ...


Outside the mating season, the Platypus lives in a simple ground burrow whose entrance is about 30 cm (1 ft) above the water level. After mating, the female constructs a deeper, more elaborate burrow up to 20 m (66 ft) long and blocked with plugs at intervals (which may act as a safeguard against rising waters or predators, or as a method of regulating humidity and temperature).[37] The male takes no part in caring for its young, and retreats to its yearlong burrow. The female softens the ground in the burrow with dead, folded, wet leaves and she fills the nest at the end of the tunnel with fallen leaves and reeds for bedding material. This material is dragged to the nest by tucking it underneath her curled tail.[3]


The female Platypus has a pair of ovaries but only the left one is functional.[29] It lays one to three (usually two) small, leathery eggs (similar to those of reptiles), that are about 11 mm (7/16 inches) in diameter and slightly rounder than bird eggs.[38] The eggs develop in utero for about 28 days with only about 10 days of external incubation (in contrast to a chicken egg which spends about 1 day in tract and 21 days externally).[29] After laying her eggs, the female curls around them. The incubation period is separated into three parts. In the first, the embryo has no functional organs and relies on the yolk sac for sustenance. The yolk is absorbed by the developing young.[39]During the second, the digits develop, and in the last, the egg tooth appears.[40] // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation. ... An egg tooth is not a true tooth, but a small horny protruberance on the beak or nose of vertebrates that are hatched from eggs, ie: birds and reptiles. ...


The newly hatched young are vulnerable, blind, and hairless, and are fed by the mother's milk. Although possessing mammary glands, the Platypus lacks teats. Instead, milk is released through pores in the skin. There are grooves on her abdomen that form pools of milk, allowing the young to lap it up.[3][28] After they hatch, the offspring are suckled for three to four months. During incubation and weaning, the mother initially only leaves the burrow for short periods to forage. When doing so, she creates a number of thin soil plugs along the length of burrow possibly to protect the young from predators; pushing past these on her return forces water from her fur and allows the burrow to remain dry.[41] After about five weeks, the mother begins to spend more time away from her young and at around four months the young emerge from the burrow.[28] Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ...


In mammalian evolution

Platypus skeleton
Platypus skeleton

The Platypus and other monotremes were very poorly understood and some of the 19th century myths that grew up around them, for example, that the monotremes were "inferior" or quasi-reptilian, still endure.[42] In fact, modern monotremes are the survivors of an early branching of the mammal tree; a later branching is thought to have led to the marsupial and placental groups.[43][42] Although in 1947, William King Gregory had theorized that placental mammals and marsupials may have diverged earlier with a subsequent branching dividing the monotremes and marsupials, later research and fossil discoveries have suggested this is incorrect.[42][44] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1566x705, 330 KB) Summary Platypus skeleton at Melbourne Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1566x705, 330 KB) Summary Platypus skeleton at Melbourne Museum. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... This article is about mammals. ... William King Gregory (19 May 1876 – 29 December 1970) was a US zoologist, renowned as a primatologist, paleontologist, and functional and comparative morphologist. ...


The oldest discovered fossil of the modern Platypus dates back to about 100,000 years ago, during the Quaternary period. The extinct monotremes (Teinolophos and Steropodon) were closely related to the modern Platypus.[44] The fossilised Steropodon was discovered in New South Wales and is composed of an opalised lower jawbone with three molar teeth (whereas the adult contemporary Platypus is toothless). The molar teeth were initially thought to be tribosphenic which would have supported a variation of Gregory's theory, but later research has suggested while they have three cusps they evolved under a separate process.[15] The fossil is thought to be about 110 million years old, which means that the Platypus-like animal was alive during the Cretaceous period, making it the oldest mammal fossil found in Australia. Monotrematum sudamericanum, another fossil relative of the Platypus has been found in Argentina, indicating that monotremes were present in the supercontinent of Gondwana when the continents of South America and Australia were joined via Antarctica (up to about 167 million years ago).[15][45] The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... Binomial name Rich et al. ... Binomial name Archer, Flannery, Ritchie, & Molnar, 1985 Steropodon galmani was a prehistoric species of monotreme, or egg-laying mammal, that lived during the middle Albian stage, in the Lower Cretaceous period. ... NSW redirects here. ... The molar design that is considered one of the most important characteristics of mammals is a three-cusped shape called a tribosphenic molar. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Species Obdurodon dicksoni Obdurodon insignis Monotrematum sudamericanum Obdurodon is an extinct genus of platypus containing three species. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Because of the early divergence from the therian mammals and the low numbers of extant monotreme species, it is a frequent subject of research in evolutionary biology. In 2004, researchers at the Australian National University discovered the Platypus has ten sex chromosomes, compared with two (XY) in most other mammals (for instance, a male Platypus is always XYXYXYXYXY). Furthermore, one of the Platypus' Y chromosomes shares genes with the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes found in birds. This news further pronounced the individuality of the Platypus in the animal kingdom.[46] However it lacks the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY, meaning that the process of sex determination in the Platypus remains unknown.[47] Infraclasses Metatheria Eutheria This article is about the subclass of mammals. ... This article is about the concept. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ... A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the SRY gene. ...


Conservation status

Except for its loss from the state of South Australia, the Platypus occupies the same general distribution as it did prior to European settlement of Australia. However, local changes and fragmentation of distribution due to human modification of its habitat are documented. Its current and historical abundance, however, is less well known and it has probably declined in numbers, although still being considered as common over most of its current range.[30] The species was extensively hunted for its fur until the early years of the 20th century and, although protected throughout Australia in 1905,[41] up until about 1950 it was still at risk of drowning in the nets of inland fisheries.[26] The Platypus does not appear to be in immediate danger of extinction thanks to conservation measures, but it could be impacted by habitat disruption caused by dams, irrigation, pollution, netting and trapping.[2] The IUCN lists the Platypus on its Red List as Least Concern.[2] The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. ...

A depiction of a Platypus from a book for children published in Germany in 1798
A depiction of a Platypus from a book for children published in Germany in 1798


Platypuses generally suffer from few diseases in the wild, however there is widespread public concern in Tasmania about the potential impacts of a disease caused by the fungus Mucor amphibiorum. The disease (termed Mucormycosis) only affects Tasmanian platypuses; it has not been observed in platypuses in mainland Australia. Affected platypuses can develop ugly skin lesions or ulcers on various parts of the body including their backs, tails and legs. Mucormycosis can kill platypuses, with death arising from secondary infection and by affecting the animals’ ability to maintain body temperature and forage efficiency. The Biodiversity Conservation Branch at the Department of Primary Industries and Water are collaborating with NRM north and University of Tasmania researchers to determine the impacts of the disease on Tasmanian Platypus, as well as the mechanism of transmission and current spread of the disease.[48] Until recently the introduced Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) was confined to mainland Australia, but growing evidence now indicates that it is present in low numbers in Tasmania.[49] This efficient, adaptable predator is recognised in Australia as the single most devastating introduced pest and threat to Australia's native land animals. It would be a disaster to native biodiveristy if it was allowed to establish in Tasmania. Tasmania arguably represents the best habitat for platypus in Australia and probably has the highest numbers of platypus of any state. Fungal disease and fox predation may represent significant challenges to these iconic animals. Image File history File links Platypus-plate. ... Image File history File links Platypus-plate. ... Mucormycosis is a fungal infection that is quite rare but frequently fatal. ... Centenary Building, Sandy Bay campus The University of Tasmania (also abbreviated as UTAS, UTas or Tas Uni) is an Australian university, with three campuses in Tasmania. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ...


Much of the world was introduced to the Platypus in 1939 when National Geographic Magazine published an article on the Platypus and the efforts to study and raise it in captivity. This is a difficult task, and only a few young have been successfully raised since — notably at Healesville Sanctuary in Victoria. The leading figure in these efforts was David Fleay who established a platypussary — a simulated stream in a tank — at the Healesville Sanctuary and had a successful breeding in 1943. In 1972, he found a dead baby of about 50 days old, which had presumably been born in captivity, at his wildlife park at Burleigh Heads on the Gold Coast, Queensland.[50] Healesville repeated its success in 1998 and again in 2000 with a similar stream tank. Taronga Zoo in Sydney bred twins in 2003, and had another birth in 2006.[51] The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. ... Healesville Sanctuary is a zoo specializing in native Australian animals. ... VIC redirects here. ... David Howells Fleay (6 January 1907 Ballarat, Victoria – 7 August 1993) was an Australian naturalist who pioneered the captive breeding of endangered species, and was the first person to captive breed the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). ... The David Fleay Wildlife Park is located in Burleigh Heads, a suburb of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. ... ca 1939 1990s September 2006 Burleigh Heads is a suburb of the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. ... Gold Coast redirects here. ... Giraffes in front of Sydneys skyline. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


Cultural references

The Australian 20 cent coin features a Platypus
The Australian 20 cent coin features a Platypus

The Platypus is sometimes jokingly referred to as proof that God has a sense of humour (at the beginning of the film Dogma for example). Its unusual appearance has led to it featuring in many media, particularly in its native Australia. The Platypus is featured on the Australian 20 cent coin, and has also been used several times as a mascot. ImageMetadata File history File links Oz20cent. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Oz20cent. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Humour (disambiguation). ... Dogma is a 1999 comedy film, written and directed by Kevin Smith, who stars in the film along with Ben Affleck, Matt Damon, Linda Fiorentino, Alan Rickman, Bud Cort, Salma Hayek, Chris Rock, Jason Lee, Jason Mewes, George Carlin, Janeane Garofalo, and Alanis Morissette. ...


"Expo Oz" the Platypus was the mascot for Expo '88 which was held in Brisbane in 1988.[52] Expo 88 - as seen from the Brisbane River (photo taken from Victoria Bridge) Expo 88 - showing a globe of the world (photo taken from Victoria Bridge) Expo 88 at night (photo taken from Victoria Bridge) Expo 88 was a Worlds Fair held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia between April 30... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ...


"Syd" the Platypus was one of the three mascots chosen for the Sydney 2000 Olympics (the other two mascots were an echidna and a kookaburra).[53] The 2000 Summer Olympics or the Millennium Games/Games of the New Millennium, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were the Summer Olympic Games held in 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... For other senses of this word, see echidna (disambiguation). ... Species Dacelo gaudichaud Dacelo leachii Dacelo novaeguineae Dacelo tyro For other uses, see Kookaburra (disambiguation). ...


Hexley the Platypus is the mascot for Darwin, the BSD-based operating system used for Apple Computer's Mac OS X.[54]
The Standard Hexley Design Hexley is the mascot of the open source operating system Darwin, which is the core of Apple Computers Mac OS X operating system. ... Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... Apple Inc. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


"Perry the Platypus" is a recurring character on the Disney Channel animated series Phineas and Ferb. For Disney Channel in other countries, see Disney Channel around the world. ... Phineas and Ferb is a Disney Channel animated television series that centers on two stepbrothers and their adventures in their backyard during summer vacation. ...


See also

Australia is unusual because the animal population evolved largely out of contact with the other continents. ... Here is a list of venomous mammals: Northern Short-tailed Shrew Eurasian Water Shrew Platypus (males only) Slow loris Solenodon Bisonalveus browni (extinct) Categories: Mammals ... Henry Burrell (19 January 1873 — 29 July 1945) was an Australian naturalist who specialised in the study of monotremes. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c Australasian Marsupial & Monotreme Specialist Group (1996). Ornithorhynchus anatinus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 09 May 2006. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Platypus facts file. Australian Platypus Conservancy. Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  4. ^ Brian K. Hall (1999-03). "The Paradoxical Platypus". BioScience 49 (3): 211–218. American Institute of Biological Sciences.
  5. ^ Duck-billed Platypus. Museum of hoaxes. Retrieved on 14 September 2006.
  6. ^ Liddell & Scott (1980). Greek-English Lexicon, Abridged Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o J.R.Grant. Fauna of Australia chap.16 vol.1b. Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  8. ^ Platypus Paradoxes. National Library of Australia (2001–08). Retrieved on 14 September 2006.
  9. ^ The Platypus. Department of Anatomy & Physiology, University of Tasmania (1997-07-03). Retrieved on 14 September 2006.
  10. ^ Guiler, E.R. (1983). "Tasmanian Devil", in R. Strahan Ed.: The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals. Angus & Robertson, 27–28. ISBN 0-207-14454-0. 
  11. ^ a b Sarah Munks and Stewart Nicol (1999–05). Current research on the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus in Tasmania: Abstracts from the 1999 ‘Tasmanian Platypus WORKSHOP’. University of Tasmania. Retrieved on 23 October 2006.
  12. ^ Thermal Biology of the Platypus. Davidson College (1999). Retrieved on 14 September 2006.
  13. ^ J.M. Watson and J.A.M. Graves (1988). "Monotreme Cell-Cycles and the Evolution of Homeothermy". Australian Journal of Zoology 36 (5): 573–584. CSIRO.
  14. ^ T.J. Dawson, T.R. Grant and D. Fanning (1979). "Standard Metabolism of Monotremes and the Evolution of Homeothermy". Australian Journal of Zoology 27 (4): 511–515. CSIRO.
  15. ^ a b c Pascual, R., Goin, F.J., Balarino, L., and Udrizar Sauthier, D.E. (2002). "New data on the Paleocene monotreme Monotrematum sudamericanum, and the convergent evolution of triangulate molars". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (3): 487–492.
  16. ^ Hugh Race. Living mammals are placentals (eutheria), marsupials, and monotremes. Geowords. Retrieved on 19 September 2006.
  17. ^ a b c d Gerritsen, Vivienne Baillie (2002-12). "Platypus poison". Protein Spotlight (29). Retrieved on 14 September 2006.
  18. ^ G. M. de Plater, P. J. Milburn and R. L. Martin (2001-3). "Venom From the Platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, Induces a Calcium-Dependent Current in Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglion Cells". Journal of Neurophysiology 85 (3): 1340–1345. American Physiological Society.
  19. ^ The venom of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  20. ^ a b c Pettigrew, John D. (1999). "Electroreception in Monotremes". The Journal of Experimental Biology (202): 1447–1454. Retrieved on 19 September 2006.
  21. ^ Pettigrew, John D.; P R Manger, and S L Fine (1998). "The sensory world of the platypus". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (353): 1199-1210. Retrieved on 8 August 2007.
  22. ^ Dawkins, Richard (2004). "The Duckbill's Tale", The Ancestor's Tale, A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-00583-8. 
  23. ^ Manning, A & Dawkins, M.S. (1998). An Introduction to Animal Behaviour Fifth Edition. Cambridge University Press. 
  24. ^ Platypus. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania (2006-08-31). Retrieved on 12 October 2006.
  25. ^ Research on Kangaroo Island. University of Adelaide (2006-07-04). Retrieved on 23 October 2006.
  26. ^ a b Anthony Scott and Tom Grant (1997-11). Impacts of water management in the Murray-Darling Basin on the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the water rat (Hydromus chrysogaster). CSIRO Australia. Retrieved on 23 October 2006.
  27. ^ Platypus in Country Areas. Australian Platypus Conservancy. Retrieved on 23 October 2006.
  28. ^ a b c d Platypus. Environmental Protection Agency/Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (2006). Retrieved on 24 October 2006.
  29. ^ a b c Erica Cromer (2004-04-14). Monotreme Reproductive Biology and Behavior. Iowa State University. Retrieved on 23 October 2006.
  30. ^ a b c T.G. Grant and P. D. Temple-Smith (1998-07-29). "Field Biology of the Platypus (Ornithorhynchus Anatinus): Historical and Current Perspectives". Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 353 (1372): 1081–1091. The Royal Society.
  31. ^ J.L. Gardner and M. Serena (1995). "Spatial-Organization and Movement Patterns of Adult Male Platypus, Ornithorhynchus-Anatinus (Monotremata, Ornithorhynchidae)". Australian Journal of Zoology 43 (1): 91–103. CSIRO.
  32. ^ a b c Platypus. Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania (2003-12). Retrieved on 23 October 2006.
  33. ^ F.E. Fish, R.V. Baudinette, P.B. Frappell, and M.P. Sarre (1997-07-28). "Energetics of Swimming by the Platypus Ornithorhynchus Anatinus: Metabolic Effort Associated with Rowing". The Journal of Experimental Biology 200 (20): 2647–2652. The Company of Biologists Limited.
  34. ^ a b Philip Bethge (2002-04). Energetics and foraging behaviour of the platypus. University of Tasmania. Retrieved on 23 October 2006.
  35. ^ H. Kruuk (1993). "The Diving Behaviour of the Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Waters with Different Trophic Status". The Journal of Applied Ecology 30 (4): 592–598.
  36. ^ a b T.R. Grant, M. Griffiths and R.M.C. Leckie. "Aspects of Lactation in the Platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata), in Waters of Eastern New South Wales". Australian Journal of Zoology 31 (6): 881–889. 1983.
  37. ^ Anna Bess Sorin and Phil Myers (2001). Family Ornithorhynchidae (platypus). University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  38. ^ R. L. Hughes and L. S. Hall (1998-07-29). "Early development and embryology of the platypus". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 353 (1372): 1101–1114. The Royal Society.
  39. ^ Ockhams Razor. The Puzzling Platypus. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  40. ^ Paul R. Manger, Leslie S. Hall, John D. Pettigrew (1998-07-29). "The Development of the External Features of the Platypus (Ornithorhynchus Anatinus)". Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 353 (1372): 1115–1125. The Royal Society.
  41. ^ a b Egg-laying mammals. Queensland Museum (2000-11). Retrieved on 24 October 2006.
  42. ^ a b c John A. W. Kirsch and Gregory C. Mayer (1998-07-29). "The Platypus is not a Rodent: DNA Hybridization, Amniote Phylogeny and the Palimpsest Theory". Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 353 (1372): 1221–1237.
  43. ^ M. Messer, A.S. Weiss, D.C. Shaw and M. Westerman (1998-03). "Evolution of the Monotremes: Phylogenetic Relationship to Marsupials and Eutherians, and Estimation of Divergence Dates Based on α-Lactalbumin Amino Acid Sequences". Journal of Mammalian Evolution 5 (1): 95–105. Springer Netherlands.
  44. ^ a b O. W. M. Rauhut, T. Martin, E. Ortiz-Jaureguizar and P. Puerta (2001-12-11). The first Jurassic mammal from South America. Nature. Retrieved on 24 October 2006.
  45. ^ Tim Folger (1993-01). A platypus in Patagonia — Ancient life. Discover. Retrieved on 17 October 2006.
  46. ^ Jocelyn Selim (2005-04-25). Sex, Ys, and Platypuses. Discover. Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  47. ^ Explore the Platypus genome. Ensembl (2006-11). Retrieved on 19 January 2007.
  48. ^ Platypus Fungal Disease. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania (2008-29-08). Retrieved on 29 February 2008.
  49. ^ http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/ThemeNodes/LBUN-5K438G?open.
  50. ^ David Fleay's achievements. Queensland Government (2003-11-23). Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  51. ^ Platypus. Catalyst (2003-11-13). Retrieved on 13 September 2006.
  52. ^ About World Expo '88. Foundation Expo '88 (1988). Retrieved on 17 December 2007.
  53. ^ A Brief History of the Olympic and Paralympic Mascots. Bejing2008 (2004-08-05). Retrieved on 25 October 2006.
  54. ^ The Home of Hexley the Platypus. Retrieved on 25 October 2006.

Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Books
  • Augee, Michael L. Platypus. World Book Encyclopedia. 2001 ed.
  • Burrell, H. The Platypus. Adelaide: Rigby, 1974.
  • Marshall, Ben "The Amazing Duckbilled Platypus" New York Publishers Inc. 2002 ed
  • Grant, Tom. The platypus: a unique mammal. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 1995. ISBN 0-86840-143-9.
  • Griffiths, Mervyn. The Biology of the Monotremes. Academic Press, 1978.
  • Michael Hutch, Melissa C. McDade, eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia; Volume 12. Detroit: Gale, 2004.
  • Moyal, Ann. Platypus: The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World. Smithsonian Books, 2001. ISBN 1-56098-977-7.
  • Strahan, R. The Mammals of Australia. New South Wales: Reed Books, 1995.
Documentary

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ornithorhynchidae
Wikispecies has information related to:
Ornithorhynchus anatinus
  • PBS.org
  • Platypus-Evolution and Conservation

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Families †Kollikodontidae Ornithorhynchidae Tachyglossidae †Steropodontidae Monotremes (monos, single + trema, hole; refers to the cloaca) are mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... The Australosphenida are a sub-class of mammals which has nearly entirely died out. ... Genera Obdurodon (extinct) Ornithorhynchus Ornithorhyncidae is one of two families in the order Monotremata, and contains all species of platypus. ... For other senses of this word, see echidna (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Tachyglossus aculeatus (Shaw, 1792) The Short-beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), also known as the Spiny Anteater because of its diet of ants and termites, is one of four living species of echidna and the only member of the genus Tachyglossus. ... Binomial name Tachyglossus aculeatus (Shaw, 1792) The Short-beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), also known as the Spiny Anteater because of its diet of ants and termites, is one of four living species of echidna and the only member of the genus Tachyglossus. ... Binomial name Zaglossus bruijnii (Peters and Doria, 1876) The Long-beaked Echidna is one of the four extant echidnas and one of three species of Zaglossus that occur in New Guinea. ... Binomial name Zaglossus bruijnii (Peters and Doria, 1876) The Western Long-beaked Echidna is one of the four extant echidnas and one of three species of Zaglossus that occur in New Guinea. ... Binomial name Flannery & Groves, 1998 Sir Davids Long-beaked Echidna (Zaglossus attenboroughi), also known as the Attenboroughs Long-beaked Echidna or Cyclops Long-beaked Echidna, is one of three species from the genus Zaglossus to occur in New Guinea. ... Binomial name Zaglossus bartoni (Thomas, 1907) The Eastern Long-beaked Echidna (Zaglossus bartoni), also known as Bartons Long-beaked Echidna, is one of three species from the genus Zaglossus to occur in New Guinea. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Platypus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3451 words)
To Aborigines the platypus is known as Mallangong, Tambreet or Boonaburra.
The platypus is semi-aquatic, inhabiting small streams and rivers over an extensive range from the cold highlands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps to the tropical rainforests of coastal Queensland as far north as the base of the Cape York Peninsula.
The platypus and other monotremes were very poorly understood for many years, and to this day some of the 19th century myths that grew up around them endure, for example, that the monotremes are "inferior" or quasi-reptilian, and that they are the distant ancestor of the "superior" placental mammals.
Platypus (883 words)
Platypus is from the Greek platys meaning broad and pous meaning foot, referring to the animal's webbed foot.
As the platypus gathers food in its mouth, it moves the food to its cheek pouches.
The paddle-like tail of the platypus is broad and flat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m