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Encyclopedia > Peat
Peat in Lewis, Scotland
Peat in Lewis, Scotland

Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. Peat forms in wetlands or peatlands, variously called bogs, moors, muskegs, pocosins, mires, and peat swamp forests. Peat in Scotland by Wojsyl, June 2004, GNU FDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Peat in Scotland by Wojsyl, June 2004, GNU FDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Lewis (disambiguation). ... Look up decay in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... Moorland in the Pennines (England); Coarse grasses and bracken tend to dominate especially in high rainfall areas. ... Muskeg is a soil type (also a peatland or wetland type called a bog) common in arctic and boreal areas. ... Pocosin is a Native American term for a type of palustrine wetland with deep, acidic, sandy, peat soils. ... Peat swamp forests are areas of land where the peat, created by the leave compost has become a boggy marsh and the forests are resposible for this. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

Peat exploitation in East Frisia, Germany
Peat exploitation in East Frisia, Germany

Peat deposits are found in many places around the world, notably in Russia, Ireland, Finland, Estonia, Scotland, Poland, northern Germany, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, New Zealand and in North America, principally in Canada, Michigan, Minnesota, the Florida Everglades, and California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Approximately 60% of the world's wetlands are peat. Peatlands cover a total of around 3% of global land mass or 3,850,000 to 4,100,000 km². About 7% of this total has been exploited for agriculture and forestry, with significant environmental repercussions.[citation needed] Under proper conditions, peat will turn into lignite coal over geologic periods of time. Download high resolution version (1251x782, 136 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1251x782, 136 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the Everglades and the South Florida rocklands. The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta. ... Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ...


Formation

Peat forms when plant material, usually in marshy areas, is inhibited from decaying fully by acidic and anaerobic conditions. It is composed mainly of marshland vegetation: trees, grasses, fungi, as well as other types of organic remains, such as insects, and animal corpses. Under certain conditions, the decomposition of the latter (in the absence of oxygen) is inhibited, and archaeologists often take advantage of this. Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


Peat layer growth and the degree of decomposition (or humification) depends principally on its composition and on the degree of waterlogging. Peat formed in very wet conditions will grow considerably faster, and be less decomposed, than that in drier places. This allows climatologists to use peat as an indicator of climatic change. The composition of peat can also be used to reconstruct ancient ecologies by examining the types and quantities of its organic elements. Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ...


Under the right conditions, peat is the earliest stage in the formation of coal. Most modern peat bogs formed in high latitudes after the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last ice age some 9,000 years ago. They usually grow slowly, at the rate of about a millimetre per year. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


The peat in the world's peatlands has been forming for 360 million years and contains 550 Gt of carbon.[1] This article is about the metric tonne. ...


Types of peat material

Peat material is either fibric, hemic, or sapric. Fibric peats are the least decomposed, and comprise intact fiber. Hemic peats are somewhat decomposed, and sapric are the most decomposed.


Phragmites peat is one composed of reed grass, Phragmites australis, and other grasses. It is denser than many other types of peat. This article is about common reed. ...


Types of peatland

Six principal types of peatlands are widely recognized. These are:

  • Blanket mires: Rain-fed peatlands generally 1 to 3 m deep. Many of the peatlands found in Ireland and the United Kingdom are of this type, with the UK alone possessing around 13% of the total global blanket mire area. They generally develop in cool climates with small seasonal temperature fluctuations and over 1 m of rainfall and over 160 rain days each year.
  • Raised mires: Rain-fed, potentially deep peatlands occurring principally in lowland areas across much of Northern Europe, as well as in the former USSR, North America and parts of the southern hemisphere.
  • String mires: flat or concave peatlands with a string-like pattern of hummocks (hence the name), found principally in northern Scandinavia but occurring in the western parts of the former USSR and in North America. A few examples exist in northern Britain.
  • Tundra mires: peatlands with a shallow peat layer, only about 500 mm thick, dominated by sedges and grasses. They form in permafrost areas, covering around 110,000 to 160,000 km² in Alaska, Canada, and the former USSR.
  • Palsa mires: a type of peatland typified by characteristic high mounds, each with a permanently frozen core, with wet depressions between the mounds. These develop where the ground surface is frozen only for part of the year, and are common in the former USSR, Canada and parts of Scandinavia.
  • Peat swamps: forested peatlands including both rain- and groundwater-fed types, commonly recorded in tropical regions with high rainfall. This type of peatland covers around 350,000 km², primarily in south-east Asia but also occurring in the Everglades in Florida.

A Blanket bog is a type of bog found mainly in the midlands of the Republic of Ireland. ... The word Ombrotrophic refers to a type of peatland which receives all of its water and nutrients from precipitation falling directly on its surface. ... The word Ombrotrophic refers to a type of peatland which receives all of its water and nutrients from precipitation falling directly on its surface. ... A string bog is a bog consisting of slightly elevated ridges and islands, with woody plants, alternating with flat, wet sedge mat areas. ... While these two men dig in Alaska to study soil, the hard permafrost requires the use of a jackhammer In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years. ...

Characteristics and uses

A peat stack in Ness in the Isle of Lewis (Scotland).
A peat stack in Ness in the Isle of Lewis (Scotland).
Worked bank in blanket bog, near Ulsta, Yell, Shetland Islands
Worked bank in blanket bog, near Ulsta, Yell, Shetland Islands

Peat is soft and easily compressed. Under pressure, water in the peat is forced out. Upon drying, peat can be used as a fuel. It has industrial importance as a fuel in some countries, such as Ireland and Finland, where it is harvested on an industrial scale. In many countries, including Ireland and Scotland, where trees are often scarce, peat is traditionally used for cooking and domestic heating. Stacks of drying peat dug from the bogs can still be seen in some rural areas. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 460 pixelsFull resolution (2966 × 1704 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 460 pixelsFull resolution (2966 × 1704 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Teampull Mholuaidh, 13th Century temple in the village of Eoropie Ness (Scottish Gaelic: Nis) is the northernmost part of the Isle of Lewis, a community consisting of about 16 villages, including Lionel, Habost, Swainbost, Cross, North and South Dell, Cross Skigersta, Skigersta, Eoradale, Adabrock, Port of Ness, Knockaird, Fivepenny and... For other uses, see Lewis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Blanket (disambiguation). ... Ulsta is a village at the south-west corner of Yell, Shetland, Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... This article is about the country. ...


Peat is also dug into soil to increase the soil's capacity to retain moisture and add nutrients. This makes it important agriculturally, for farmers and gardeners. Its insulating properties make it of use to industry. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ...


Peat fires are used to dry malted barley for use in Scotch whisky distillation. This gives Scotch whisky its distinctive smoky flavour, often called "peatiness" by its aficionados. For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... For an alternate meaning, see Fan (implement). ...


Although peat has many uses for humans, it also presents severe problems at times. When dry, it can be a major fire hazard, as peat fires can burn almost indefinitely (or at least until the fuel is exhausted), even underground, provided there is a source of oxygen. Peat deposits also pose major difficulties to builders of structures, roads and railways, as they are highly compressible under even small loads. When the West Highland Line was built across Rannoch Moor in western Scotland, its builders had to float the tracks on a mattress of tree roots, brushwood and thousands of tons of earth and ashes. The West Highland Line (Scottish Gaelic: Rathad Iarainn nan Eilean - Iron Road to the Isles) is one of the most scenic railway lines in Britain, linking the fishing port of Mallaig on the west coast to Glasgow. ... Rannoch Moor is a large expanse of around 30 square miles (78 km²) of boggy moorland to the west of Loch Rannoch, in the Watsonian Vice County of Mid Perth and the County of Perthshire, in Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ...


During prehistoric times, peat bogs had considerable ritual significance to Bronze Age and Iron Age peoples, who considered them to be home to (or at least associated with) nature gods or spirits. The bodies of the victims of ritual sacrifices have been found in a number of locations in England, Ireland, and especially northern Germany and Denmark, almost perfectly preserved by the tanning properties of the acidic water. (See Tollund Man for one of the most famous examples of a bog body). The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Preserved full length corpse of the Tollund Man, with rope around neck The Tollund Man is the naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the time period characterised in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age. ... Grauballe man at Mosegaard-Museum, Denmark Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserved human bodies found in sphagnum bogs in Northern Europe, Great Britain and Ireland. ...


Peat wetlands formerly had a degree of metallurgical importance as well. During the Dark Ages, peat bogs were the primary source of bog iron, used to create the swords and armour of the Vikings. Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Bog iron refers to impure iron deposits that develop in bogs or swamps by the chemical or biochemical oxidation of iron carried in the solutions. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ...


Many peat swamps along the coast of Malaysia serve as a natural means of flood mitigation. The peat swamps serve like a natural form of water catchment whereby any overflow will be absorbed by the peat. However, this is effective only if the forests are still present, since they prevent peat fires.


Peat is also an important raw material in horticulture, and it is used in medicine and balneology to produce filters, textiles etc. Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Balneology [from Latin balneum, bath + logy] is the science of baths or bathing, especially the study of the therapeutic use of mineral baths. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ...


Peat is sometimes used in freshwater aquaria, most commonly in soft water or blackwater river systems, such as those mimicking the Amazon River basin. In addition to being soft in texture and therefore suitable for demersal (bottom-dwelling) species such as Corydoras catfish, peat is reported to have a number of other beneficial functions in freshwater aquaria. It softens water by acting as an ion exchanger, it contains substances good for plants and for the reproductive health of fishes, and can even prevent algae growth and kill microorganisms. Peat often stains the water yellow or brown due to the leaching of tannins.[2] “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Blackwater rivers are rivers with waters colored like black tea to coffee. ... This article is about the river. ... Diversity Over 150 valid species. ... Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ...


Peat is also used in cosmetic treatments, because they contain humic acids, which are able to absorb through skin and boost metabolism. Humic acid is one of the major components of humic substances which are dark brown and major constituents of soil organic matter humus that contributes to soil chemical and physical quality and are also precursors of some fossil fuels. ...


In Ireland

Industrial milled peat production in a section of the Bog of Allen in the Irish Midlands. The turf in the foreground is machine produced for domestic use
Industrial milled peat production in a section of the Bog of Allen in the Irish Midlands. The turf in the foreground is machine produced for domestic use

In Ireland, large-scale domestic and industrial peat usage is widespread. Specifically in the Republic of Ireland, a state-owned company called Bord na Móna is responsible for managing peat production. It produces milled peat which is used in power stations. It sells processed peat fuel in the form of peat briquettes which are used for domestic heating. These are oblong bars of densely compressed, dried and shredded peat. Briquettes are largely smokeless when burned in domestic fireplaces and as such are widely used in Irish towns and cities where burning non-smokeless coal is banned. Peat moss is a manufactured product for use in garden cultivation. Turf (dried out peat sods) is very commonly used in rural areas. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 448 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,872 × 2,167 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 448 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,872 × 2,167 pixels, file size: 2. ... The Bog of Allen (Móin Alúine in Irish) is a large peat bog in the centre of Ireland between the rivers Liffey and Shannon. ... Bord na Móna (lit. ... A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable matter, such as escaillage, which can be used to start a fire. ... Species See text Sphagnum is a genus of mosses commonly called peat moss due to its prevalence in peat bogs. ... Rolled sod Sod is turf and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of this material. ...


In Finland

Peat-fired power plant in Oulu, Finland
Peat-fired power plant in Oulu, Finland

Thanks to the climate, geography and environment of Finland, bogs and peat bogs (turvesuo in Finnish) are widespread. Twenty-six percent of the land area of Finland is bog of some sort. Because of this abundance of sources, peat is available in considerable quantities: Some estimates put the amount of peat in Finland alone to be twice the size of North Sea oil reserves.[3] This abundant resource (often mixed with wood at an average of 2.6%) is burned in order to produce heat and electricity. Peat provides approximately 6.2% of Finland's annual energy production, second only to Ireland.[4] The contribution of peat to greenhouse gas emissions of Finland can exceed a yearly amount of 10 million tonnes carbon dioxide, equal to the total emissions of all passenger car traffic in Finland. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x2031, 2080 KB) Description Toppila Peat-Fired Power Plant in Oulu, Finland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x2031, 2080 KB) Description Toppila Peat-Fired Power Plant in Oulu, Finland. ... Location of Oulu in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Oulu Province Region Northern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Oulu sub-region Charter 1605 Government  - City manager Matti Pennanen Area  - City 449. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Finland classifies peat as a slowly renewing biomass fuel[5] as opposed to the stance of the European Union and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which classify peat strictly as a fossil fuel. Peat producers in Finland often claim that peat is a special form of biofuel, because of the relatively fast retake rate of released CO2 if the bog is not forested for the following 100 years. Also, agricultural and forestry-drained peat bogs actively release more CO2 annually than is released in peat energy production in Finland (approx 30 TWh versus 25 TWh).[6] The average regrowth rate of a single peat bog, however, is indeed slow, from 1,000 up to 5,000 years. Furthermore it is a common practice to forest used peat bogs instead of giving them a chance to renew, leading to lower levels of CO2 storage than the original peat bog. Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass - recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts, such as manure from cows. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... The terawatt hour (TW·h) is a unit for measuring energy. ...


At 106 g CO2/MJ, the carbon dioxide emissions of peat are higher than those of coal (at 94.6 g CO2/MJ) and natural gas (at 56.1) (IPCC). According to one study, increasing the average amount of wood in the fuel mixture from the current 2.6% to 12.5% would take the emissions down to 93 g CO2/MJ, though little effort is made to achieve this.[7] The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


The state-owned company VAPO is the world leader in peat production with 21.7 million cubic meters in 2003.[8]


Peat extraction is also seen by some conservationists as the main threat to mire biodiversity in Finland. The International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG) in 2006 urged the local and national governments of Finland to protect and conserve the remaining pristine peatland ecosystems. This includes the cessation of drainage and peat extraction in intact mire sites and the abandoning of current and planned groundwater extraction that may affect these sites. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Environmental and ecological issues

Increase, and change relative to previous year, of the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide.
Increase, and change relative to previous year, of the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide.

Because of the challenging ecological conditions of peat wetlands, they are home to many rare and specialised organisms that are found nowhere else. Some environmental organisations and scientists have pointed out that the large-scale removal of peat from bogs in Britain, Ireland and Finland is destroying wildlife habitats. It takes centuries for a peat bog to regenerate. Image File history File links Co2. ... Image File history File links Co2. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Recent studies indicate that the world's largest peat bog, located in Western Siberia and the size of France and Germany combined, is thawing for the first time in 11,000 years. As the permafrost melts, it could release billions of tonnes of methane gas into the atmosphere, greatly exacerbating global warming. Such discoveries are causing climate scientists to have to revise upwards their estimates of the rate of increase in global temperatures. Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ...


The world's peatlands are thought to contain 180 to 455 petagrams of sequestered carbon, and they release into the atmosphere 20 to 45 teragrams of methane annually. The peatlands' contribution to long-term fluctuations in these atmospheric gases has been a matter of considerable debate.[9] A petagram (symbol: Pg) is an SI unit of mass. ... A teragram (symbol: Tg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


Fires

Smoke and ozone pollution from Indonesian fires, 1997.
Smoke and ozone pollution from Indonesian fires, 1997.

Peat has a high carbon content and can burn under low moisture conditions. Once ignited by the presence of a heat source (e.g. a wildfire penetrating the subsurface), it smoulders. These smouldering fires can burn undetected for very long periods of time (months, years and even centuries) propagating in a creeping fashion through the underground peat layer. Peat fires are emerging as a global threat with significant economic, social and ecological impacts. Recent burning of peat bogs in Indonesia, with their large and deep growths containing more than 50 billion tons of carbon, has contributed to increases in world carbon dioxide levels. Peat deposits in southeast Asia could be destroyed by 2040.[10][11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 455 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Carbon dioxide Peat User:SEWilco/Images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 455 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Carbon dioxide Peat User:SEWilco/Images ... Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling) combustion is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from reactions occurring on the surface of a solid fuel when heated in an oxidizing environment. ... Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling) combustion is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from reactions occurring on the surface of a solid fuel when heated in an oxidizing environment. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


In 1997, it is estimated that peat and forest fires in Indonesia released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gt of carbon; equivalent to 13-40 percent of the amount released by global fossil fuel burning, and greater than the carbon uptake of the world's biosphere. 1997 was unusually high, however. These fires likely are responsible for the boost in the increase in carbon dioxide levels since being noticed in 1997.[12][13] The 1997 Southeast Asian haze occured in the second half of 1997, and its after effects caused widespread inconvenience especially visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. ...


More than 100 peat fires in Kalimantan and East Sumatra continue to burn since 1997. Each year the peat fires in Kalimantan and East Sumatra ignite new forest fires above the ground.


Tissue preservation

Some northern European acidic anaerobic peat bogs have proved to have the capability to preserve mammalian tissue for millennia. Examples of this conservation are Tollund Man and Haraldskær Woman, both recovered from peat bogs with remarkable intact skin, internal organs and skeletons. Preserved full length corpse of the Tollund Man, with rope around neck The Tollund Man is the naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the time period characterised in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age. ... Haraldskær Woman in glass covered coffin, Velje, Denmark The Haraldskær Woman (or Haraldskaer Woman) is a well-preserved Iron Age bog body naturally preserved in a bog in Jutland, Denmark. ...


Wise use and protection

In June 2002 the United Nations Development Programme launched the Wetlands Ecosystem and Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Rehabilitation Project. This project is targeted to last for 5 years till 2007 and brings together the efforts of various non-government organisations.


In November 2002, the International Peat Society and the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG) published guidelines on the "Wise Use of Mires and Peatlands — Backgrounds and Principles including a framework for decision-making". The aim of this publication is to develop mechanisms that can balance the conflicting demands on the global peatland heritage, to ensure its wise use to meet the needs of humankind.


See also

Acid sulfate soils are naturally occurring soils, sediments or organic substrates (e. ... In both the FAO soil classification and the USA soil taxonomy, Histosols are soils comprised primarily of organic materials. ... The Irish Peatland Conservation Council is a national organisation established in 1982 which works to conserve and protect a representative sample of Irish bogs. ... This is a list of bogs. ... The Unified Soil Classification System (or USCS) is used in engineering, geology and soil science disciplines to describe the texture, grain size, and the shear strength of a soil. ...

References

  1. ^ International Mire Conservation Group (2007-01-03). Peat should not be treated as a renewable energy source (pdf). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  2. ^ Scheurmann, Ines (1985). Natural Aquarium Handbook, The, (trans. for Barron's Educational Series, Hauppauge, New York: 2000), Munich, Germany: Gräfe & Unzer GmbH. 
  3. ^ VAPO
  4. ^ Työ- ja elinkeinoministeriö
  5. ^ http://www.motiva.fi/fi/kirjasto/uusiutuvatenergialahteetsuomessa/muutbiomassaenergianlahteet/turve.html
  6. ^ Boreal Env. Res
  7. ^ VTT 2004: Wood in peat fuel – impact on the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions according to IPCC guidelines
  8. ^ VAPO
  9. ^ "Rapid early development of circumarctic peatlands and atmospheric CH4 and CO2 variations." Science 314: 285.
  10. ^ BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Asian peat fires add to warming
  11. ^ http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/biomass_burn/wildland.html
  12. ^ Indonesian Wildfires Accelerated Global Warming
  13. ^ Massive peat burn is speeding climate change - 06 November 2004 - New Scientist

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... For other places with the same name, see Royal Botanical Gardens (disambiguation). ... The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is Europes largest wildlife conservation charity. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Void ratio, in materials science, is defined as the volume of voids in a mixture divided by the volume of solids. ... Bulk density a property of particulate materials. ... Thixotropy is the property of some non-newtonian pseudoplastic fluids to show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear, the lower its viscosity. ... Reynolds dilatancy is the observed tendency of a compacted granular material to dilate (expand in volume) as it is sheared. ... The angle of repose, also referred to as angle of friction, is an engineering property of granular materials. ... Cohesion is the component of shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ... Specific storage (Ss), storativity (S), specific yield (Sy) and specific capacity are aquifer properties; they are measures of the ability of an aquifer to release groundwater from storage, due to a unit decline in hydraulic head. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Effective stress (σ) is a value reflecting the strength of a soil. ... Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores). ... Shear strength in reference to soil is a term used to describe the maximum strength of soil at which point significant plastic deformation or yielding occurs due to an applied shear stress. ... Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. ... Soil compaction occurs when weight of livestock or heavy machinery compresses the soil, causing it to lose pore space. ... Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use. ... A type of seismic wave, the S-wave moves in a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. ... An example of lateral earth pressure overturning a retaining wall. ... A drill rig operator advances a direct push soil sampler. ... The (Dutch) Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a test to measure the strength or bearing capacity of (soft) soils. ... The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical properties of soils. ... Exploration geophysics is the applied branch of geophysics which uses deep and primarily near surface methods to probe or image the earth. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Water borehole in northern Uganda A borehole is a deep and narrow shaft in the ground used for abstraction of fluid or gas reserves below the earths surface. ... The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, and the Atterberg limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A direct shear test is a laboratory test used by Professional Engineer Mohamed Fazlin to find the shear strength parameters of soil. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. ... The Proctor compaction test, and the related Modified Proctor compaction test, are tests to determine the maximum practically-achievable density of soils and aggregates, and are frequently used in geotechnical engineering. ... The R-Value test, California Test 301, measures the response of a compacted sample of soil or aggregate to a vertically applied pressure under specific conditions. ... A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material. ... A triaxial shear test is a common method to measure the mechanical properties of many deformable solids, especially soil, sand, clay, and other granular materials or powders. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Crosshole sonic logging is a method to verify the integrity of drilled shafts and other concrete piles. ... Shallow foundations of a house A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. ... In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. ... A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. ... A deep foundation installation for a bridge in Napa, California. ... Dynamic load testing is a fast and effective method of assessing foundation bearing capacity that requires instrumenting a deep foundation with accelerometers and strain transducers and analyzing data collected by these sensors. ... Wave equation analysis is a numerical method of analysis for the behavior of driven foundation piles. ... A gravity-type stone retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or rock from a building, structure or area. ... A diagram of a mechanically stabilized earth wall as it would be modeled in a finite element analysis. ... Soil nailing is a technique in which soil slopes, excavations or retaining walls are reinforced by the insertion of relatively slender elements - normally steel reinforcing bars. ... A tieback is a horizontal wire used to reinforce retaining walls for stability. ... Historically, Gabions were round cages with open tops and bottoms, made from wicker and filled with earth for use as fortifications. ... Slurrywall excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ... Mass wasting, also known as mass movement or slope movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, regolith, and rock move downslope under the force of gravity. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Soil liquefaction describes the behavior of water saturated soil when its behavior changes from that of a solid to that of a liquid. ... A series of mixed vertical oscillators A plot of the peak acceleration for the mixed vertical oscillators A response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by... If you want to build a house and need to know where the best (or the worst) place to locate for earthquake shaking, then you need to dig up the regional seismic hazard maps. ... // The interaction between ground and structure consists of an exchange of mutual stress between the structure itself and the foundations ground. ... Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally synthetic products used to solve geotechnical problems. ... Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. ... Geomembranes are a kind of geosynthetic material. ... A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) is a woven fabric like material primarily used for the lining of landfills. ... Also referred to as Deformation Survey. ... An automatic deformation monitoring system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent software and hardware elements forming a complex whole for deformation monitoring that, once set up, does not require human input to function. ...


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Peat Production (406 words)
The usage of peat resources is according to all environmental restrictions in Latvia and at the international level.
Peat products have been exported since 1930s and, therefore, peat deposit development, extraction and utilisation experience is gathered.
The main product types are fuel peat which has been used in the local market and differently prepared fen type peat with low decomposition degree which has been exported and used in local market.
Peat (666 words)
Peat is an organic material that forms in the waterlogged, sterile, acidic conditions of bogs and fens.
Peat has the ability to preserve materials and this has led to some remarkable finds in peat bogs, including people buried thousands of years ago and wooden artefacts that have not survived elsewhere.
Peat bogs contribute to the welfare of all living things by 'locking up' carbon that would otherwise increase the greenhouse effect.
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