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Encyclopedia > Pascal

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. It is equivalent to one newton per square meter, and was used in SI under that name before the name pascal was adopted by the 14th CGPM in 1971. The same unit is also used for stress, Young's modulus, and tensile strength. Cover of brochure The International System of Units. ... Pressure (symbol: p) is the force per unit area acting on a surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface. ... The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... The Conférence générale des poids et mesures (General Conference on Weights and Measures or CGPM) is one of the three organizations established to maintain the SI system under the terms of the Metre Convention (1875). ... Figure 1  Stress tensor In physics, stress is a measure of the internal distribution of force per unit area within a body that balances and reacts to the loads applied to it. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (also known as the modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus or tensile modulus) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Tensile strength measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ...

Contents


Definition

1 pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m2 = 1 J/m3 = 1 kg·m–1·s–2


SI multiples

Multiple Name Symbol Multiple Name Symbol
100 pascal Pa      
101 decapascal daPa 10–1 decipascal dPa
102 hectopascal hPa 10–2 centipascal cPa
103 kilopascal kPa 10–3 millipascal mPa
106 megapascal MPa 10–6 micropascal µPa
109 gigapascal GPa 10–9 nanopascal nPa
1012 terapascal TPa 10–12 picopascal pPa
1015 petapascal PPa 10–15 femtopascal fPa
1018 exapascal EPa 10–18 attopascal aPa
1021 zettapascal ZPa 10–21 zeptopascal zPa
1024 yottapascal YPa 10–24 yoctopascal yPa

Origin

The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, the eminent French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher noted for his experiments with a barometer, an instrument to measure air pressure. Blaise Pascal (June 19, 1623–August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many people to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is mathematics. ... A physicist is a scientist trained in physics. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Schematic drawing of a simple mercury barometer with vertical mercury column and reservoir at base Table of Pneumaticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ...


Explanation

1 megapascal (MPa) = 1 000 000 Pa = 1 N/mm2.


Standard atmospheric pressure is 101 325 Pa = 101.325 kPa = 1013.25 hPa = 1013.25 mbar = 760 Torr. This definition is used for pneumatic fluid power (ISO R554), and in the aerospace (ISO 2533) and petroleum (ISO 5024) industries. A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimetre of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ...


In 1985, IUPAC recommended that standard atmospheric pressure should be harmonized to 100 000 Pa = 1 bar = 750 Torr. The same definition is used in the compressor and the pneumatic tool industries (ISO 2787). [1] The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimetre of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ...


The Unicode computer character set has dedicated symbols (U+33A9) for Pa and (U+33AA) for kPa, but these exist merely for backward-compatibility with some older ideographic character-sets and are therefore deprecated. Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... In computer software standards and documentation, deprecation is the gradual phasing-out of a software or programming language feature. ...


Uses

Meteorologists worldwide have for a long time measured atmospheric pressure in millibars. After the introduction of SI units, many preferred to preserve the customary pressure figures. Therefore, meteorologists use hectopascals today for air pressure, which are equivalent to millibars, while similar pressures are given in kilopascals in practically all other fields, where the hecto prefix is hardly ever used. Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ...

1 hectopascal (hPa) = 100 Pa = 1 mbar.
1 kilopascal (kPa) = 1000 Pa = 10 hPa.

In the former Soviet mts system, the unit of pressure is the pieze, which is equivalent to one kilopascal. The metre-tonne-second or mts system of units is a system of physical units introduced in the Soviet Union in 1933, but abolished in 1955. ... The pieze is the unit of pressure in the former Soviet mts system, 1933-1955. ...


Outside the US, vehicle owners' guides now specify tire inflation in kilopascals. The purchasing of foreign tires is the only place ordinary Americans will find this unit, and as the tire pumps in service stations are not calibrated in these units, they have to do the calculations to convert. The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... Firestone tire A tire (U.S. spelling) or tyre (UK spelling) is a device covering the circumference of a wheel. ...


YEAH santa top bloke GOOD LUCK TO 'IM 7? HATTRICK HERO


Comparison to other units of pressure

1 bar 100 000 Pa
1 barye 0.1 Pa
1 millibar 100 Pa
1 atmosphere 101325 Pa
1 mmHg (or Torr) 133.322 Pa
1 inHg 3386.833 Pa
1 cmH2O 98.0638 Pa
Pressure Units
 
Pascal
(Pa)

Bar
(bar)
Technical atmosphere
(at)

Atmosphere
(atm)

Torr
(mmHg)
Pound per
square inch

(psi)
1 Pa ≡ 1 N/m² 10−5 10.197×10−6 9.8692×10−6 7.5006×10−3 145.04×10−6
1 bar 100 000 ≡ 106 dyn/cm² 1.0197 0.98692 750.06 14.504
1 at 98 066.5 0.980665 ≡ 1 kgf/cm² 0.96784 735.56 14.223
1 atm 101 325 1.01325 1.0332 ≡ 101 325 Pa 760 14.696
1 Torr 133.322 1.3332×10−3 1.3595×10−3 1.3158×10−3 ≡ 1 mmHg 19.337×10−3
1 psi 6 894.76 68.948×10−3 70.307×10−3 68.046×10−3 51.715 ≡ 1 lbf/in²

Example reading: 1 Pa = 1 N/m²  = 10−5 bar  = 10.197×10−6 at  = 9.8692×10−6 atm ....etc.
Note: mmHg is an abbreviation for millimetres of mercury. The bar (symbol bar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... The barye (symbol: Ba) is the centimetre-gram-second (CGS) unit of pressure. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... When expressed as a measurement, an atmosphere (symbol: atm) or standard atmosphere is a unit of pressure roughly equal to the average atmospheric pressure at sea level on Earth. ... One way of defining pressure is in terms of the height of a column of fluid that may be supported by that pressure; or the height of a column of fluid that exerts that pressure at its base. ... The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimetre of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ... Inches of mercury or inHg is a non SI unit for pressure. ... A centimeter (centimetre) of water or cmH2O is a somewhat outdated unit for pressure. ... The bar (symbol bar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... A technical atmosphere (symbol: at) is a non-SI unit of pressure equal to 1 kilogram-force per square centimeter, i. ... When expressed as a measurement, an atmosphere (symbol: atm) or standard atmosphere is a unit of pressure roughly equal to the average atmospheric pressure at sea level on Earth. ... The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimetre of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ... Pounds-force per square inch (lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ... The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. ... In physics, the dyne is a unit of force specified in the centimetre-gram-second (cgs) system of units, symbol dyn. One dyne is equal to exactly 10-5 newtons. ... The deprecated unit kilogram-force (kgf) or kilopond (kp) is the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity (defined as exactly 9. ... When expressed as a measurement, an atmosphere (symbol: atm) or standard atmosphere is a unit of pressure roughly equal to the average atmospheric pressure at sea level on Earth. ... The torr (symbol: Torr) or millimetre of mercury (mmHg) is a non-SI unit of pressure. ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ...

This SI unit is named after Blaise Pascal. As for all SI units whose names are derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (Pa). But when an SI unit is spelled out, it should always be written in lowercase (pascal), unless it begins a sentence or is the name "degree Celsius".
— Based on The International System of Units, section 5.2.

Image File history File links SI_Brochure_Cover. ... Cover of brochure The International System of Units. ... Blaise Pascal (June 19, 1623–August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pascal programming language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2561 words)
Pascal is based on the ALGOL programming language and named in honor of mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal.
The first Pascal compiler was designed in Zurich for the CDC 6000 computer family, and it became operational in 1970.
Pascal and C: A comparison of Pascal and C. IP Pascal: A fully extended Pascal with built in graphical porting platform.
Blaise Pascal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3466 words)
Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences, where he made important contributions to the construction of mechanical calculators and the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by expanding the work of Evangelista Torricelli.
Pascal's work in the fields of the study of fluids (hydrodynamics and hydrostatics) centered on the principles of hydraulic fluids.
Pascal's last major achievement, returning to his mechanical genius, was inaugurating perhaps the first bus line, moving passengers within Paris in a carriage with many seats.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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