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Nudity Portal
A nudist sunning herself on a beach in Formentera.

The meanings of nudism and naturism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. [1] Several other terms ("social nudity" as well as "public nudity", and recently: "clothes-free") have been proposed as a replacement of these terms, but none has yet found the same wide-spread acceptance as the older terms naturism and nudism. [2] Self-ownership or sovereignty of the individual or individual sovereignty is the condition where an individual has the exclusive moral right to control his or her own body and life. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Beschreibung Description: Supermons on a Formentera Beach Source: Flickr Date: created. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Beschreibung Description: Supermons on a Formentera Beach Source: Flickr Date: created. ... Flag of Formentera Formentera is the smallest and southernmost island of the Illes Pitiüses group (which includes Eivissa (Ibiza) and Formentera) and belongs to the Balearic Islands autonomous community (Spain). ... A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... “Clothes free” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ...


The movement includes a large range of variants including "naturism", "nudism", "Freikörperkultur (FKK)", the "free beach movement" as well as generalized "public lands/public nudity" advocacy. While there is a large amount of shared history and common themes, issues and philosophy, differences between these separate movements are sometimes contentious. The usage of these terms varies geographically; people in the US often prefer the term nudism, while people in Europe more often than not refer to themselves as naturists.[1] The predominant movement centers on established, family-friendly, non-sexualized variations. The inclusion of the "topfree equality" movement within this movement is under debate. Use of the word "clothes free" has also been used when preceding other words as a descriptive term, some arguing that it allows more inclusion of both the naturist and nudist philosophy, which are arguably similar in many regards.[2] Freikörperkultur is a German movement whose name translates to Free Body Culture. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ... Fashion line Imitation of Christ incorporated toplessness in its public fashion show, which brought comparisons to Vanessa Beecrofts art. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... The concept of family friendly entertainment or information, or of the media carrying them being so, is an aspect of the family values controversy in American political and social discourse. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... A mixed group of people demonstrating the kind of equality that this movement seeks. ...


The movement also works in parallel to and sometimes influences and is influenced by popular culture as well as individuals and activists (see clothes free people) as well as organizations (see clothes free organizations). Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... Andrew Martinez reading the paper in a park in Berkeley, California. ... Many organizations associate with the terms naturism or nudism. ...


The entry Issues in Social Nudity, under its "Labels, associations and terminology" heading, makes an attempt at defining the differences between "nudism" and "naturism". Social nudity is nudity in private and public spaces. ...

Contents

Terminology

The terms naturism, nudism and social nudity are generally defined as the practice of going nude, especially in a mixed social setting. A naturist is one who practices a way of life in greater fidelity to nature, characterized by the practice of non sexual nudity in social life, with the intention of encouraging self-respect, respect for others, and for the environment. The term nudism also generally means that the activities are done in non-sexualized, family-friendly context, while nudists are less nature oriented. The usage and definition of these terms varies geographically and historically.[1][3] Those who practice naturism are called naturists, those who practise nudism are called nudists. See also: labels, associations and terminology for an extended discussion and disambiguation. “Clothes free” redirects here. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... The concept of family friendly entertainment or information, or of the media carrying them being so, is an aspect of the family values controversy in American political and social discourse. ... Social nudity is nudity in private and public spaces. ...


The word "naturist" should not be confused with the word "naturalist" (likewise "naturism" with naturalism).-1... Naturalism may refer to: Naturalism (philosophy), any of several philosophical stances wherein all phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural, are either false, unknowable, or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses Methodological naturalism is the methodological assumption that that observable events in nature are explained only by natural...


A naturist or nudist community (club, resort or facility) is a place where nudity is openly permitted. Non-nudists often call these places nudist colonies but the term "colony" is seen by most nudists as offensive. Some "clothing optional" facilities tolerate the wearing of clothes, perhaps for a shy newcomer, while others insist on complete nudity (when practical — often to ensure that no one feels inappropriately undressed). This distinction is a source of controversy among naturists with some arguing that a clothing optional resort fails to enforce naturist values, while others insist that a "mandatory unclothed" resort is as restrictive as the outside world (where nudity is generally forbidden). This article is about a type of political territory. ...

Families enjoying the swimming at Monts de Bussy, Haute Vienne, France.
Families enjoying the swimming at Monts de Bussy, Haute Vienne, France.


More specialized nudist terms include: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Naturism Talk:Naturism Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Naturism Talk:Naturism Metadata This file...

  • Canuding is the practice of nude canoeing.
  • Clothes minded or clothing compulsory Disallowing or discouraging nudity, thus requiring the wearing of clothes, especially swimsuits, e.g. on beaches, as opposed to toleration of nudity.
  • Clothes free/clothes-free and clothing free/clothing-free used when preceding other words as a descriptive term is used sometimes by some arguing that it allows more inclusion of both the naturist and nudist philosophy without showing preference or bias to either labels or philosophy. It is also used by others who do not like labels.[2]
  • Clothing optional and nude optional can describe a policy or a venue that allows or encourages nudity but tolerates the wearing of clothes.
  • Clothist is a nickname for a person who does not practice social nudity.
  • A cottontail is someone whose buttocks are paler than his or her legs and back, caused by sun tanning while wearing a swimsuit.(US specific)
  • A free beach or nude beach is not so much one without an admission cost, but one in which people can be entirely free of wearing their clothes.
  • Freehiking or free hiking is the practice of hiking in the wilderness while nude.
  • Freikörperkultur (FKK) (see article in German) literally translated as Free Body Culture is the name for the general movement in Germany. The abbreviation is widely recognised all over Europe and often found on informal signs indicating the direction to a remote naturist beach.
  • Gymnophobia is an irrational fear or anxiety about being seen naked, or about seeing others naked.
  • A landed nudist organization is one that owns the real estate for its facilities. Non-landed (or travel) clubs meet at various locations, such as private residences, hot springs, landed resorts and rented facilities.
  • A shaved or smoothie individual is one who shaves off much of his/her body hair, often including the pubic hair. (See acomoclitism).
  • Skinny dipping , also spelled skinny-dipping, is swimming naked, i.e. without any swimsuit. Skin(ny) diving is both used as a synonym and for free diving.
  • Textile: see clothist
  • Topfree means bare-chested (leaving chest, breasts uncovered), or a place that allows uncovered female and male chests. The term was coined by activists to use instead of the term "topless", which has a negative connotation to some, in part because it is used by strip clubs.

Nudist colony is no longer a favored term. A swimsuit, bathing suit or swimming costume is an item of clothing designed to be worn for swimming. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... A suntanned arm showing browner skin where it has been exposed. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ... Freikörperkultur is a German movement whose name translates to Free Body Culture. ... Gymnophobia is an irrational, abnormal and persistent fear or anxiety about being seen naked, and/or about seeing others naked, even when it is socially acceptable. ... La Naissance de Venus by Eugène Emmanuel Amaury-Duval (1808-1885) shows a woman portrayed with no genital hair. ... Skinny dipping, or skinny-dipping is swimming naked. ... This article concentrates on human swimming. ... “Clothes free” redirects here. ... A swimsuit, bathing suit or swimming costume is an item of clothing designed to be worn for swimming. ... Free-diver with monofin, ascending. ... Categories: Stub | Nudity | Social movements ... A nudist colony is a group of nudists who choose to live together on a permanent basis for the purpose of eschewing clothing. ...


Philosophy and practice

Riding nude

Nudists believe that the naked human body is to be accepted, respected, cherished, and enjoyed. They believe it is not inherently shameful, corrupting, degrading, or dangerous. Many of them enjoy clothes free activities. They reject views that being naked with other people is morally wrong (indecent), sexual per se (erotic or pornographic). They argue that nakedness is a healthy, natural state, that being nude is to be in the purest form, since everyone was born nude. They generally find that they quickly become so accustomed to being nude among nudes that it no longer seems very remarkable. It is, rather, simply one part of their lifestyle. Image File history File linksMetadata Nacktreiten. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nacktreiten. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ... Eroticism is an aesthetic focused on sexual desire, especially the feelings of anticipation of sexual activity. ... Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφια pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of harlots) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but (according to some) distinct from, erotica. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... Birth is the process in animals by which an offspring is expelled from the body of its mother. ...


Modern social nudity is mostly a revival of ancient customs and mores, when it was more pervasive throughout the world.[citation needed] Even the Inuit of the Arctic went nude in their igloos.[4] The indigenes of Tierra del Fuego went almost naked under conditions of snow and bitingly cold wind (In Chapter 10 of The Voyage of the Beagle, Charles Darwin commented on the hardiness of these people[1]). Only a few small, isolated examples today survive of societies which have retained from ancient times a customary life with little or no clothing ever. They are mostly in the Amazon basin, sub-Saharan Africa, and New Guinea. They endure continuing political, economic, and cultural forces which are assimilating some and killing others, often destroying their traditional habitat. See cultural assimilation. Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... A watercolor by the HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ...


Social nudity in less extreme forms is practised in many cultures, especially in the contexts of social bathing or swimming, sometimes with mixed sexes. Nude activities can be indoors and outdoors. Typical activities are relaxation, sunbathing and recreation (including many sports). Some also prefer to work nude, etc., when the temperature and the social situation allows it (including when one is alone). A nude party (not to be confused with a sex party) may be public (e.g. Starkers Nightclub) or private. Some clothing-optional communities do exist for those who wish to live in a supportive environment. In fact there are communities under development that even cater specifically to Christians that desire to practise Christian naturism. [citation needed] The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... Look up relaxation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... “Fun” redirects here. ... A sex party is a gathering at which people meet for sexual intercourse. ... Starkers Club London It is unique in that it is the only disco in England where everyone is naked. ... Christian naturists are followers of the Christian faith who practice naturism or nudism, and thus are part of the clothes-free movement. ...


Practitioners say that they are not pruriently interested in seeing others naked (which, if for sexual pleasure, is called voyeurism) or in being seen naked by others (likewise: exhibitionism). People participate in clothes free activities for various reasons. Many are convinced that increased exposure to the natural environment, made easier through nudity, can result in numerous health benefits. Sunlight has been shown to be beneficial in some skin conditions and enables the body to make vitamin D, a necessary nutrient. However, with the increased awareness of skin cancer, wearing of sunscreen is now often part of the culture, and recently more education has been carried out to warn of the risk. Whereas nudist parents do not require their children to put on clothes before going outside at a clothes free area, most do require them to put on sunscreen lotion. Overall, those who enjoy clothes free activities often claim that they are more relaxed and in a better state of mind when they shed their clothes. “Voyeur” redirects here. ... An exhibitionist exposing himself at a soccer game. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ... Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that helps protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and which reduces sunburn and other skin damage, with the goal lowering your risk of skin cancer. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ...


Many people say that being nude in groups makes them feel more accepted for their entire being — physical, intellectual and emotional. They say that they tend to be more accepted, in spite of differences in age, body shape, fitness, and health. Without clothing, one's social rank is generally obscured. They report feeling more united with humanity, with less regard to a person's wealth, position, nationality, race, and sex.

Those inexperienced in social nudity often say that they fear that it contributes to an imbalance of power between men and women. [citation needed] They say that women and children are more vulnerable when nude, and can be exploited. While that might be true in a situation of commercial nudity, such as a strip club, women advocates of social nudity assert the opposite, especially in an established nude group. The men are nude there as well, no money is changing hands, nor is anyone in any sense giving a "performance". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1106x522, 133 KB) Description: Bredene Naaktstrand Source: Flickr Date: created 18. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1106x522, 133 KB) Description: Bredene Naaktstrand Source: Flickr Date: created 18. ... Nude beach of Bredene Bredene is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ...


Male newcomers to social nudity as well as occasionally other contexts of nudity, such as modelling, worry about having an erection. However, being unfamiliar with social nudity does not appear to cause erections as easily as is suspected. Rather, it is more or less the visibility of erections that is a question. It is usually accepted that a newcomer to naturism might feel more excited or ashamed than others, as after all, mere arousal or shame itself could hardly be reproached. First time naturists usually become much more at ease eventually, especially if they are sociable. Erected penis This article discusses human physiological erection. ...


Nudist websites and resorts typically have an "FAQ" in which they try to resolve the concern of erections, attempting to make the newcomer feel more comfortable. The responses go on to say that an erection is unlikely, will go away soon and can easily be hidden.


Many pro-nudity organizations promote frequent social activities. Some of the clubs have stricter entrance requirements than some traditional up-scale 'country clubs', including the requirement to supply references, a sponsoring member, a trial membership, committee approval and/or, due to fears of sex offenders, criminal background checks. At the other end of the spectrum are 'unorganized' clothes free events and activities on public lands where there is nothing to join, no one to pay, and only law to serve as rules of etiquette. Many people get their first exposure to the clothes free movement through that kind of informal approach (e.g. a clothing optional beach, a friend's place in the woods, a party on the shore or skinny dipping). This article is about the criminal term. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Office etiquette be merged into this article or section. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ... Skinny dipping, or skinny-dipping is swimming naked. ...


History of social nudity

Max Koch, Freilicht, 1897.
Max Koch, Freilicht, 1897.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x928, 220 KB) Max Koch (1854-1925), Freilicht, 1897. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x928, 220 KB) Max Koch (1854-1925), Freilicht, 1897. ...

Prehistory

Genetic studies of the human body louse Pediculus humanus, which feeds on the body but lives in and requires clothing, suggests that humans started wearing garments 72,000 years ago +/- 42,000 years. This estimate matches that of the first appearance of physical evidence of clothing-making tools. The species Homo sapiens itself has existed for 200,000 or more years, so there is a strong argument that the 'natural' condition of early humans was nude. Early humans are thought to have been covered in somewhat more body hair than we are today, and preferentially inhabited the warmer areas of the earth. The competitive advantage that clothing gave these early peoples as they expanded into the less hospitable parts of the globe was a strong driver for its widespread adoption. In tropical conditions however, the human body does not physically require clothing and it continues as more a social convention than as a biological necessity. This article is about the general scientific term. ... The body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is a louse which infests humans. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ...


Historical era

Ancient cultures (the Greeks for example) sometimes had quite different attitudes toward the unclothed human body than are common today. In fact, the word "gymnasium" comes from the Greek word "gymnos", meaning "nude," because athletics in Greece was routinely practised naked by its participants.


Among the Greeks, the Spartans allowed the most freedom regarding nudity. Spartan women, who exercised nude with men, also dressed more briefly than other Greeks. They were granted unusual freedom to move around the city as they pleased. In addition, it was not uncommon for them to dispense with their light clothing and appear nude in open city areas, a unique phenomenon at that time in history. Besides having this option of urban nudity, Spartan women were customarily unclothed at festivals, as were their families. In still earlier times, women of Minos in Crete ordinarily dressed with their breasts exposed, while their shoulders, abdomen and the rest of their torso and lower bodies were covered. Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ...


Nudity taboos may have developed simply because people got accustomed to wearing clothes for practical reasons, as in temperate or desert climates. Perhaps it became a habit, was culturally ingrained, and was elevated to a requirement.


Feminist theory, however, generally links the historic and pre-historic development of body "modesty" to the subjugation of women. In patriarchal societies, it is often the men who most desire to cover the women, ostensibly to protect the women, but, according to the theory, it is more to keep a woman from developing relationships without the approval of her father or husband. (This argument coheres with the Spartan custom of nudity, since Spartan women practiced polyandry, sharing husbands as sexual partners with their peers, though mainly in the interest of procreation. But Spartan nudity was also linked to the mixed atheletic training). An alternative formulation of this theory is that hiding women's bodies (or at least a given society's selection of "erogenous zones") keeps the ardor of unauthorized males at bay. Women may feel that this protection, whether or not it is really meaningful, has value. In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ...


Objections to being nude are often religiously motivated, even when that idea started as a cultural taboo, as in the previous two paragraphs. Though that is more likely just a spread of western values ingrained into the people, and the religion itself, from millinia of wearing clothing. Many peoples around the world started wearing clothes only after missionaries argued that it is more civilized. However, there are many religiously devout nudists who attend worship services regularly. They argue that they do not need to shed their morals with their clothes. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...


The Adamites, a Gnostic sect, practised religious nudism. Adamites being persecuted Adamites, or Adamians, were adherents of an early Christian sect (considered heresy by the Roman Catholic church) that flourished in North Africa in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th century. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge...


Another religious sect, the Doukhobors, migrated from Russia to western Canada. They practise or practised occasional nudity, such as while working in the farm fields. One of the three subdivisions of Doukhobors, the Freedomites, went so far in the 1900s as to publicly strip in mass public demonstrations to protest against government policies which were meant to assimilate them (see documentary Spirit Wrestlers below in references or in reading). The Doukhobors (Russian Духоборы) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ...


One of the two main divisions of the Jain religion of India is "skyclad", or naked, though generally it is practised by the males. Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...


Although there is no well-defined date in Western society when it became unacceptable to be seen nude in public, the era of Queen Victoria certainly ended whatever remained of it, with nothing emerging until after her death in 1901. “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The spread of philosophy and the rise of formal communities

The earliest known naturist club in the "western" sense of the word was established in British India in 1891. It was founded by Charles Edward Gordon Crawford, a widower, who was a District and Sessions Judge for the Bombay Civil Service at Thana. Evidence for its existence is only known by a few letters he sent to friends, and the club reportedly closed in 1892. Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In the early 1900s, a series of philosophical papers was published in Germany that examined the negative psychological effect of self-hate of the body based on both religious and severely negative community views. The basic position that the human body, in and of itself, was neither sinful nor obscene was combined with a new philosophy to create the modern Western nudist movement. The proposition was advanced that combining physical fitness, sunlight, and fresh air bathing, and then adding the nudist philosophy, contributed to mental and psychological fitness, good health, and an improved moral-life view. The wide publication of those papers contributed to an explosive worldwide growth of nudism, in which nudists participated in various social, recreational, and physical fitness activities in the nude.


The first known organized club for nudists, Freilichtpark (Free-Light Park), was opened near Hamburg in 1903 by Paul Zimmerman. About the same time, another German, Dr. Heinrich Pudor, wrote a book titled Nacktcultur, which discussed the benefits of nudity in co-education and advocated participating in sports while being free of cumbersome clothing. This article is about the city in Germany. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


The nudist movement gained prominence in Germany in the 1920s, but was suppressed during the Nazi Gleichschaltung after Adolf Hitler came to power. The state-controlled leisure organization of the Nazis, Kraft durch Freude, refused to recognize it. However, it was later discovered that Luftwaffe (Air Force) head Hermann Göring had single-handedly written his own strict anti-nudity views into the Gleichschaltung, thereby imposing his views on everyone. (He had been one of its main authors.) Many in the Nazi party thought he had gone too far, so after nearly a decade, the rules were eventually softened in July 1942.[5] Nevertheless, all naturism clubs had to register with Kraft durch Freude, which meant excluding Jews and Communists. Also, they had to keep all activities well out in the countryside so there would be virtually no chance of being seen by others. The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Kraft durch Freude (abbreviated KdF and meaning strength through joy), was a large state-controlled leisure organization in Nazi Germany, a part of the Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF), the national German labour organization. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


After the war, East Germans enjoyed nudism as one the few freedoms they had under the communist government, chiefly at beaches rather than clubs (private organizations being regarded as potentially subversive by the regime). It quickly rebounded in the West also, and today, united Germany has many clubs, parks and beaches for nudism. Since German reunification, however, nudity is said to have become rare at some locations in the former eastern zone. Vacationing in Mediterranean France at the large Cap d'Agde resort also became popular for Germans when it opened in the late 1960s, and Germans are typically the most commonly-seen foreigners at nude beaches all around Europe. Anthem Auferstanden aus Ruinen Capital East Berlin Language(s) German Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1949 – 1960 Wilhelm Pieck  - 1960 – 1973 Walter Ulbricht  - 1973 – 1976 Willi Stoph  - 1976 – 1989 Erich Honecker  - 1989 Egon Krenz  - 1989 - 1990 Manfred Gerlach Head of Government  - 1949 – 1964 Otto Grotewohl  - 1964 – 1973 Willi Stoph... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Cap dAgde is the seaside resort of Agde, France, at the north-west of the Mediterranean sea in the département of Hérault in the région of Languedoc-Roussillon. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ...

Photo by "Nambassa Trust and Peter Terry"
Photo by "Nambassa Trust and Peter Terry"

In the United Kingdom, the first nudist club was established in Wickford, Essex in 1924. According to Michael Farrar writing for British Naturism the club adopted the name "Moonella Group" from the name of the owner of the ground, Moonella, and called its site The Camp. Moonella, who was still living in 1965 but whose identity remains to be discovered, had inherited a house with land in 1923 and made it available to certain members of the New Gymnosophy Society. This Society had been founded a few years before by H.C. Booth, M.H. Sorensen and Rex Wellbye under the name of the English Gymnosophical Society. It met for discussions at the Minerva Cafe at 144 High Holborn in London, the headquarters of the Women's Freedom League. Those who were permitted to join the Moonella Group were carefully selected, and the club was run by an "aristocracy" of the original members, all of whom had "club names" to preserve their anonymity. Image File history File linksMetadata Nambassa_1981_Village_Market. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nambassa_1981_Village_Market. ... For other uses, see Wickford (disambiguation). ... Essex is a county in the East of England. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... British Naturism (formally Central Council for British Naturism, but almost never known by this name now), is the official naturist movement in the United Kingdom, as recognised by the International Naturist Federation. ... The Camp was the first naturist club to be established in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Holborn Bars, built as the headquarters of the Prudential Assurance Company, is one of the most striking buildings on High Holborn. ... The Womens Freedom League was an organisation in the United Kingdom which campaigned for womens suffrage and sexual equality. ...


By 1943 there were a number of these so-called "sun clubs" and together they formed the British Sunbathers Association or BSBA. In 1954 a group of clubs unhappy with the way the BSBA was being run split off to form the Federation of British Sun Clubs or FBSC. These two organisations rivalled each other for a while before eventually coming together again in 1964 as the Central Council for British Naturism or CCBN. This organisation has remained much the same but is now more commonly known simply as British Naturism or BN. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... British Naturism (formally Central Council for British Naturism, but almost never known by this name now), is the official naturist movement in the United Kingdom, as recognised by the International Naturist Federation. ...


In the United States, German immigrant Kurt Barthel organized the first nudist event in 1929 in the woods just outside of New York City (NYC) and founded the American League for Physical Culture (ALPC). Social nudism in the form of private clubs and campgrounds began appearing in the 1930s. In 1931, according to a history, a Baptist minister named Ilsley Boone was elected vice president of the ALPC and gained the nickname "The Dictator."[6] He also began the American Sunbathing Association (ASA), which, according to a decision in Roberts v. Clement, posted on the Naturist Education Foundation site, was organized in 1939 as a successor to the ALPC.[7] Boone created his idea of a family atmosphere by prohibiting alcohol at all member clubs. According to the Federation of Canadian Naturists history and the Lupin Naturist Club history, Boone was toppled in 1951 by members dissatisfied with his autocratic style.[8][9] This, together with Boone's desire to open a new club closer to NYC than others had wanted, led him to form the National Nudist Council. Kurt Barthel could be called the father of the American Nudist Club. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Rev. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Elsewhere in the USA, a 1935 advertisement claims Sea Island Sanctuary, South Carolina, was the "largest and oldest" resort where nudism could be practised year-round. Rock Lodge Club, in Stockholm, New Jersey, about 40 miles (65 km) from New York City, started in 1932 and is still in operation today. Nudism first began appearing on the west coast of the U.S. and Canada about 1939. In that year, the first club in Canada, the Van Tan Club, formed and continues today in North Vancouver, BC. Kaniksu Ranch, about 45 miles (70 km) north of Spokane, Washington, opened the same year and is still in operation. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Resorts combine a hotel and a variety of recreations, such as swimming pools. ... HISTORY In the late 1800s, Mr. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kaniksu National Forest is a U.S. National Forest located in the Idaho panhandle and is one of three forests that are aggregated into the Idaho Panhandle National Forest (the other two are the Coeur dAlene and St. ... Nickname: Location of Spokane in Spokane County and Washington Coordinates: , Country United States State Washington County Spokane Government  - Mayor Dennis P. Hession Area  - City  58. ...

Naturist beach at Port Leucate (Aude),France, which illustrates the mixed clothing habits on leading French beaches
Naturist beach at Port Leucate (Aude),France, which illustrates the mixed clothing habits on leading French beaches


In 1995, the ASA renamed itself, becoming the American Association for Nude Recreation (AANR). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The American Association for Nude Recreation (AANR) is a nudist organization in the United States. ...


In 1980 The Naturist Society (TNS) was founded by Lee Baxandall as a successor to the Free Beach Movement. The emphasis of TNS is on nudity in public locations rather than on private premises, though it also sponsors several annual gatherings held at private resorts. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Naturist Society (TNS) is a national organization for North American naturism or nudism based in Oshkosh, Wisconsin in the U.S.A. It publishes a quarterly periodical called Nude and Natural which documents and coordinates naturist activities and provides information about issues related to naturism. ... Lee R. Baxandall is an American is a writer, editor and critic. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ...


In Canada, individuals around the country became interested in nudism, skinny-dipping, and physical culture in the early part of the 20th century. After 1940 they had their own Canadian magazine, Sunbathing & Health, which occasionally carried local news. Canadians had scattered groups in several cities during the 1930s and 1940s, and some of these groups attracted enough interest to form clubs on private land. The most significant clubs were the Van Tan Club and, in Ontario, the Sun Air Club. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Canadians who served in the military during the Second World War met like-minded souls from across the country, and often visited clubs while in Europe. They were a ready pool of recruits for post-war organizers. A few years later the wave of post-war immigration brought many Europeans with their own extensive experience, and they not only swelled the ranks of membership, but often formed their own clubs, helping to expand nudism from coast to coast.


Most of those clubs united in the Canadian Sunbathing Association, which affiliated with the American Sunbathing Association in 1954. Several disagreements between eastern and western members of the CSA resulted in the breakup of CSA into the Western Canadian Sunbathing Association (WCSA) and the Eastern Canadian Sunbathing Association (ECSA) in 1960. The ECSA endured much in-fighting over the next decade and a half, leading to its official demise in 1978. The WCSA continues today as the Western Canadian Association for Nude Recreation (WCANR), a region of the American Association for Nude Recreation (AANR) which itself was formerly known as the ASA. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The American Association for Nude Recreation (AANR) is a nudist organization in the United States. ...


In 1977 the Fédération québécoise de naturisme (FQN) was founded in Québec. In 1986 the Federation of Canadian Naturists (FCN) was formed with the support of the FQN. The FQN and FCN joined to be the official Canadian representatives in the International Naturist Federation (INF). Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Issues in social nudity

See Issues in social nudity

Social nudity is nudity in private and public spaces. It is sometimes controversial for addressing, challenging and exploring a myriad of sometimes taboo subjects, stereotypes and mores relating to the nude appearance of the human body, mixed gender nudity, personal space, human sexuality, gymnophobia, modesty, physical attractiveness, vanity, objectification, exploitation and consent. Social nudity is nudity in private and public spaces. ...


Politics

  • The Sex Party of British Columbia (Canada) promotes normalization of all parts of the human body and destigmatizing human sexual organs. It would pass legislation requiring all public parks and beaches larger than one hectare to designate areas reserved for nudists.
  • The Dutch party Naastenliefde, Vrijheid en Diversiteit would pass legislation to make public nudity legal everywhere, provided that a towel is used when sitting on a public bench.
  • The short-lived Naturist Lifestyle Party in New South Wales, Australia aimed "to bring naturism fully into the public eye, with view to getting an equitable allocation of public resources to those who support the naturist lifestyle."[10]
  • Arkansas has made it illegal for people to advocate nudism under code 5-68-204 section C which states:
"It is unlawful for any:
(1) Person, club, camp, corporation, partnership, association, or organization to advocate, demonstrate, or promote nudism; or
(2) Person to rent, lease, or otherwise permit his or her land, premises, or buildings to be used for the purpose of advocating, demonstrating, or promoting nudism."

The Sex Party is political party based in British Columbia, Canada. ... Naastenliefde, Vrijheid & Diversiteit (Charity, Freedom, and Diversity) is a Dutch political party. ... Fashion line Imitation of Christ incorporated toplessness in its public fashion show, which brought comparisons to Vanessa Beecrofts art. ... Classic garden bench For metonymic and other uses see Bench (metonymy) and Bench A bench is a piece of furniture, which mostly offers several persons seating. ... “NSW” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ...

Places To Go

See List of public outdoor clothes free places

There are places all over the world where people are free to practice nudism. The best way to find out if you would like to practice nudism is to try it out. The link List of public outdoor clothes free places identifies several clothing optional beaches, resorts, public parks and communities all over the world. The list is broken down by geographic locations, so you should be able to fine somewhere close to you. This is a list of public outdoor clothes free areas for recreation. ... This is a list of public outdoor clothes free areas for recreation. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c In his book, Cinema Au Naturel (Introduction on page 11), author Mark Storey states notes "two related terms that we will continually run across are nudist and naturist. Although the meanings of the two terms are virtually identical, they often have different connotations for those who prefer one to the other. In America people who believe that it is physically, socially, emotionally, and perhaps spiritually healthy to go about fully nude individually and in groups of mixed sex whenever weather permits and others are not offended generally refer to themselves as "nudists". In Europe such people more often than not refer to themselves as "naturists."
  2. ^ a b c ClothesFree International, Inc. changed its name in January 2006 from its former name, The International Naturist Association. The corporation listed three reasons for the change. One of the reasons given was "some people don't like being labeled." They explain "just like a person who periodically works in their garden might not want to be labeled a "gardener", the words "Clothes Free" doesn't label the person as does the word nudist or “naturist”. "Clothes Free" is catching on as the new friendly replacement to "nudist". Many resorts are now calling themselves clothes free resorts instead of nudist resorts. The words "Clothes Free" points at the clothes that are gone, instead of pointing at, or labeling the person." Despite the claim that some that the organizations is trying to stop use of the word nudism and nudity they say "we fully support and belong to great organizations like The Naturist Society (TNS), The American Association for Nude Recreation, Federation of Canadian Naturists, and the International Naturist Federation."
  3. ^ Presently, Mark Storey is authoring an article detailing historical use of the terms naturism and nudism and how they differ between different cultures, countries, and time periods in history. In a telephone interview by Daniel Johnson on 15 Apr 2006 with Storey he stated that "a draft of the piece was posted on the "References" page of the The Naturist Society web site for a few weeks". At the time of its former release in October 2004 it was titled Naturism, Nudism, or Nameless? A History of Terms He is planning on publishing a revised article as soon as additional information and errors are corrected.
  4. ^ Features in the Inuit film Atanarjuat
  5. ^ Freikörperkultur Geschichte
  6. ^ The History of Social Nudism - Nudist History
  7. ^ Roberts v. Clement
  8. ^ History of Naturism
  9. ^ Body Acceptance: A Brief History of Social Nudity
  10. ^ In October 2006, the party was dissolved, as announced by party Secretary and parliamentary candidate Sylvia Else: "NLP winding up." (Topic), in aus.culture.naturist at Google Groups

Mark Storey is a board member of the Naturist Action Committee and has testified at anti-nudity legislation hearings all over the country. ... ClothesFree International, Inc is a clothes free or naturist organization based in California, founded by Corky Stanton. ... The Naturist Society (TNS) is a national organization for North American naturism or nudism based in Oshkosh, Wisconsin in the U.S.A. It publishes a quarterly periodical called Nude and Natural which documents and coordinates naturist activities and provides information about issues related to naturism. ... The American Association for Nude Recreation (AANR) is a nudist organization in the United States. ... The International Naturist Federation is the global umbrella organisation representing official national naturist societies. ... Mark Storey is a board member of the Naturist Action Committee and has testified at anti-nudity legislation hearings all over the country. ... The Naturist Society (TNS) is a national organization for North American naturism or nudism based in Oshkosh, Wisconsin in the U.S.A. It publishes a quarterly periodical called Nude and Natural which documents and coordinates naturist activities and provides information about issues related to naturism. ... Atanarjuat (or The Fast Runner) is a Canadian film, released in 2001. ...

References

  • Story, Marilyn (Sept. 1984) "Comparisons of Body Self-Concept between Social Nudists & Nonnudists" Journal of Psychology 118
  • Story, Marilyn (1979) "Factors Associated w/More Positive Body Self-Concepts in Preschool children" Jour. of Social Psychology 108 49-56 56
  • Story, Marilyn (May 1987) "A Comparison of Social Nudists & Non-nudists on Experience w/Various Sexual Outlets" Journ. of Sex Research 23 No. 2 p197-211,
  • Robin Lewis & Louis Janda (1988) "The Relationship Between Adult Sexual Adjustment & Childhood Experiences Regarding Exposure to Nudity, Sleeping in the Parental Bed, Parental Attitudes Toward Sexuality" Arch. of Sexual Behavior 17 No.4
  • Mary S. Calderone, M.D. (1981) in "The Family Book About Sexuality" ISBN 0-397-01377-9
  • Information from Being and Nakedness "Disorganized nudity" by Charles Daney
  • Nude & Natural (N), Beyond Safe Havens: Oregon's Terri Sue Webb, By Daniel Johnson Issue 21.3, Spring 2002 [2].

Cover of N magazine Issue 24. ... Terri Sue Webb is an activist living in Bend, Oregon, who was one of few activists in the United States active in The Freedom to be Yourself (TFTBY) or (FTBY) campaign. ... Daniel Lorenz Johnson (right) being arrested Daniel Lorenz Johnson (born May 24, 1974) is an American artist, activist and writer who has worked for the advancement of clothing-optional opportunities on public lands through interdisciplinarity, collaborative projects involving media art, popular culture, and progressive politics (including ecological economics, environmental issues...

Further reading

  • Lee Baxandall's World Guide to Nude Beaches & Resorts: New for the '90s (1997) [3] ISBN 0-934106-21-5
  • Naked Places, A Guide for Gay Men to Nude Recreation and Travel (2006) [4] ISBN 0-9656089-4-8
  • The Canadian Guide to Naturist Resorts & Beaches (2000) [5] ISBN 0-9682332-2-8
  • North American Guide to Nude Recreation (2002) [6] ISBN 1-882033-09-4
  • Bare Beaches (2004) [7] ISBN 0-9544767-1-9
  • Naturisme, The INF World Handbook (2006) [8] ISBN 90-5062-080-9
  • Storey, Mark Social Nudity, Sexual Attraction, and Respect Nude & Natural magazine, 24.3 Spring 2005.
  • Storey, Mark Children, Social Nudity and Academic Research Nude & Natural magazine, 23.4 Summer 2004.
  • Jim Hamm Productions Limited Spirit Wrestlers, a 2002 documentary video and DVD about the Russian Christian sect called Freedomite Doukhobors, which is mentioned above in Historical era.

Mark Storey is a board member of the Naturist Action Committee and has testified at anti-nudity legislation hearings all over the country. ... Cover of N magazine Issue 24. ... Mark Storey is a board member of the Naturist Action Committee and has testified at anti-nudity legislation hearings all over the country. ... Cover of N magazine Issue 24. ...

See also

The meanings of naturism and nudism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ... This is a list of public outdoor clothes free areas for recreation. ... Social nudity is nudity in private and public spaces. ... Fashion line Imitation of Christ incorporated toplessness in its public fashion show, which brought comparisons to Vanessa Beecrofts art. ... People skinny dipping and sunbathing nude at Bredene nudist beach in Belgium. ... The 2005 Solstice Cyclists in Seattle June 18, 2005. ... The American Nudist Research Library is the first and believed to be the largest nudist/naturist library in North America. ... Naturism (which is generally equated with nudism) concerns a lifestyle in which nudity, especially in a communal context, is viewed as natural, positive and healthy. ... Nudity in film is the appearance in motion pictures of people without clothing. ... Christian naturists are followers of the Christian faith who practice naturism or nudism, and thus are part of the clothes-free movement. ...

External links

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

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