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Encyclopedia > Novel
Literature
Major forms

Epic · Romance · Novel
Tragedy · Comedy · Drama · Satire
For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...

Media

Performance · Book Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ...

Techniques

Prose · Poetry Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about the art form. ...

History and lists

Basic topics · Literary terms
History · Modern history
Books · Writers
Literary awards · Poetry awards Literature is prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. ... The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of literature. ... The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ... This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of best-selling books List of... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that the section Literature from the article List of prizes, medals, and awards be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of awards that are, or have been, given out to writers of poetry, either for a specific poem, collection of poems, or body of work. ...

Discussion

Criticism · Theory · Magazines Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ...

A novel (from, Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new", "news", or "short story of something new") is today a long written, fictional, prose narrative. The seventeenth-century genre conflict between long romances and short novels, novellas, has brought definitions of both traditions into the modern usage of the term. Write redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ...

Contents

History

Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe; title page of 1719 newspaper edition
Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe; title page of 1719 newspaper edition

Image File history File links Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe, published in Heathcots Intelligence, 1719, first issue. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ...

World wide view

The modern novel can no longer be seen as an entirely European product. It is not – as critics like Ian Watt had pointed out in the 1950s – an early 18th century invention of English literature. The era of "romances" had ended before 1719 and "novels" had been appreciated as an alternative as early as 1613, the date when the Novelas Exemplares were published. Extended fictions with modern historical backgrounds were fashionable on the French international market before Robinson Crusoe appeared. A field of diverse sources and parallel histories had been established by that time. Pierre Daniel Huet's ground breaking study Traitté de l'origine des romans (1670) took the first steps looking for origins of the novel in the ancient Mediterranean cultures and in medieval Europe, in the epic tradition and in the traditions of shorter fictions. Literary critic and literary historian Ian Watt (1917-1999) was a professor of English at Stanford University. ... Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721) was a French churchman and scholar, Bishop of Soissons from 1685 to 1689 and afterwards of Avranches. ... Marie de LaFayettes Zayde (1670), the original context of Huets Traitté de lorigine des romans Pierre Daniel Huets Traitté de lorigine des romans (Treatise on the Origin of Novels, or Romances if one wants to speak early 18th century English) can claim to be the...


Our notion of the epic tradition has grown since then: the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, Indian epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata were unknown in Europe in the 1670s as were the European epic tales. Huet already noted Petronius' Satyricon, the incredible stories of Lucian of Samosata, and Lucius Apuleius' proto-picaresque The Golden Ass and a heroic strain with the romances of Heliodorus and Longus. The ancient Greek romance was revived by Byzantine novelists of the twelfth century. All these traditions were rediscovered in the 17th and 18th centuries where they influenced the modern book market. The novella is, however, related to universal oral traditions. Jokes would fall into a broad history of the "exemplary story" which gave rise to the more complex form of novelistic story telling. Fiction has its still wider context with the Bible being filled with similes and stories to be interpreted. Fiction is, as Huet noted, a rather universal phenomenon, though not a phenomenon with a single cause. Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... Lucian of Samosata (c. ... Lucius Apuleius (ca 123/5 CE - ca 180 CE), an utterly Romanized Berber who described himself as half-Numidian half-Gaetulian, is remembered most for his bawdy picaresque Latin novel the Metamorphoses, better known as The Golden Ass. ... The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresco, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular style of novel that originated in Spain and flourished in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries and has continued to influence modern literature. ... The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius, which according to St. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Heliodorus of Emesa, from Emesa, Syria, was a Greek writer generally dated in the 3rd century of the Common Era, and is known for the ancient Greek romance or novel called the Aethiopica (the Ethiopian Story) or sometimes Theagenes and Chariclea. According to his own statement, his fathers name... Daphnis and Chloe by Jean-Pierre Cortot Longus (Greek: Λόγγος) was a Greek novelist and romancer, and author of Daphnis and Chloe. ... Under the Comnenian dynasty, Byzantine writers of twelfth century Constantinople reintroduced the ancient Greek romance novel, imitating its form and time period but Christianizing its content. ...


The history of prose fiction remains heterogeneous with parallel developments all around the globe. Early examples of prose novels include The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu in the 11th century, Philosophus Autodidactus by Ibn Tufail in the 12th century, Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis in the 13th century, and Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century. The inventions of paper and movable letters became, however, key factors the genre needed to step from isolated traditions into a market of exchange and awareness of the genre. Spanish, French, German, Dutch and English became the first languages of the new market. The national risings of the USA, Russia, Scandinavia and Latin America widened the spectrum in the 19th century. A wave of new literatures has brought forth novels with Asian and African authors since then. Their novels quickly became contributions to the history of world literature in the 19th century and in the 20th century were nourished with international awards such as the Nobel Prize in Literature; they make it problematic for any nation to remain unvoiced and unheard of. The novel has become a medium of national awareness on a global scale. The establishment of literature as the realm of fictions to be discussed, a 19th century development, became the moving force behind this development. Ilustration of ch. ... Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部 Murasaki Shikibu, c. ... Hayy bin Yaqzān Arabic,حي بن يقظان (Alive son of Awake),a philosophical romance and allegorical Arabic tale written by The Arab philosopher and physician Ibn Tufail early 11th century ; the tale is about a man who lives alone on an island and who, without contact with other human beings, discovers ultimate... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... For other uses, see Romance of the Three Kingdoms (disambiguation). ... Luo Guanzhong (Traditional Chinese: 羅貫中, Wade Giles: Lo Kuan-chung) was a 14th century Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms and editing Outlaws of the Marsh, two of the most revered adventure epics in Chinese literature. ...


The age of manuscript circulation

Anglophone histories of the novel have to cope with the special generic evolution which brought the word "novel" into the context of extended prose fictions.

  • The period 1200-1750 saw a rise of the originally short piece of fiction rivalling then with the original "romance" (the epic-length performance). The rivalry was European, yet only the Spanish and the English went one step further and allowed the word novel (Spanish: novela) to become their regular term for fictional narratives.
  • The period 1700-1800 saw a reversal, a rise of "new romances" in reaction to the production of potentially scandalous novels. The movement encountered a complex situation in the English market, where the term "new romance" could hardly be ventured, after all the novel had done to transform taste. The new genre adopted the name novel with the effect that the English (and Spanish) eventually needed a new word for the original short performance: The term novella was created to fill the gap in English; "short story" brought a further refinement.

The meaning of the term "romance" changed within the same complex process, becoming the word for a love story whether in life or fiction. Other meanings include the musicologist's genre "Romance" of a short and amiable piece, or Romance languages for the languages derived from Latin (Catalan, French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese). A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... This article is in need of attention. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Romance, 1000-1500

Main article: Romance (genre)

The word romance seems to have become the label of romantic fictions because of the "Romance" language in which early (11th and twelfth century) works of this genre were composed. The most fashionable genres developed in southern France in the late twelfth century and spread east- and northwards with translations and individual national performances. Subject matter such as Arthurian knighthood had already at that time traveled in the opposite direction, reaching southern France from Britain and French Brittany. As a consequence, it is particularly difficult to determine how much the early "romance" owed to ancient Greek models and how much to northern folkloric verse epics such as Beowulf and the Nibelungenlied. As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ...


The standard plot of the early romance was a series of adventures. Following a plot framework as old as Heliodorus, and so durable as to be still alive in Hollywood movies, a hero would undergo a first set of adventures before he met his lady. A separation would follow, with a second set of adventures leading to a final reunion. Variations kept the genre alive. Unexpected and peculiar adventures surprised the audience in romances like Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Gauvin et le Chevalier vert). Classics of the romance developed such as the Roman de la Rose, written first in French, and famous today in English thanks to the translation by Geoffrey Chaucer. Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Mirth and Gladness lead a Dance in this miniature from a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose in the Bodleian Library (MS Douce 364, folio 8r). ... Chaucer redirects here. ...


These original "romances" were verse works, adopting a "high language" thought suitable for heroic deeds and to inspire the emulation of virtues; prose was considered "low", more suitable for satire). Verse allowed the culture of oral traditions to live on, yet it became the language of authors who carefully composed their texts — texts to be spread in writing, thus to preserve the careful artistic composition. The subjects were aristocratic. The textual tradition of ornamented and illustrated handwritten books afforded patronage by the aristocracy or by the monied urban class developing in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, for whom knight errantry most clearly was a world of fiction and fantasy. A knight errant is a figure of Medieval romantic chivalric literature. ...


The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries saw the emergence of the first prose romances along with a new book market. This market had developed even before the first printing facilities were introduced: prose authors could speak a new language, a language avoiding the repetition inherent in rhymes. Prose could risk a new rhythm and longer thoughts. Yet it needed the written book to preserve the coincidental formulations the author had chosen. While the printing press was yet to arrive, the commercial book production trade had already begun. Legends, lives of saints and mystical visions in prose were the main object of the new market of prose productions. The urban elite and female readers in upper class households and monasteries read religious prose. Prose romances appeared as a new and expensive fashion in this market. They could only truly flourish with the invention of the printing press and with paper becoming a cheaper medium. Both of these achievements arrived in the late fifteenth century, when the old romance was already facing fierce competition from a number of shorter genres; most salient among these genres was the novel, a form that arose in the course of the fourteenth century. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ...


Early novel, 1000-1600

The Pilgrims diverting each other with tales; woodcut from Caxton's 1486 edition of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
The Pilgrims diverting each other with tales; woodcut from Caxton's 1486 edition of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales

It is difficult to give a full catalog of the genres that finally culminated - with the works of Boccaccio, Geoffrey Chaucer, Niccolò Machiavelli and Miguel de Cervantes - in the original "novel", the production today generally categorized under the term "novella". from meta This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Cervantes redirects here. ...


The early "novel" contrasting the early "romance" was basically any story told for its spectacular or revealing incidents. The original environment - living on with the typical frame settings - was the entertaining conversation. Stories of grave incidents could just as well augment sermons. Collections of examples facilitated the work of preachers in need of such illustrations. A fable could illustrate a moral conclusion; a short historical reflection could do the same. A competition of genres developed. Tastes and social status were decisive, if one believes the medieval collections. The working classes loved their own brand of drastic stories: stories of clever cheating, wit and ridicule levelled against hated social groups (or competitors among the storytellers). Much of the original genre is still alive with the short joke told in everyday life to make a certain humorous point in a conversation. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... An Exemplum (latin for example, pl. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. ...


Artistic performances included the story within a story: situations in which a series of stories was allegedly told. They rejoiced in a broad pattern of tastes and genres. The Canterbury Tales constitute a classic example, with their noble storytellers fond of "romantic" stories and their lower narrators preferring stories of everyday life. The genre did not have its own generic term. "Novel" would simply denote the novelty of the accident narrated. The inclusion of frame stories, however, brought an awareness of the fact that genres were developing in this field. For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ...


The main advantage of the background story was the justification it put into the hands of the actual authors such as Chaucer and Boccaccio. Romances afforded lofty language and relied on an accepted notion of what deserved to be read as high style. Yet what if the taste in moral teachings and poetry changed? Romances quickly became outdated. Stories of cheats and pranks, illicit love affairs, and clever intrigues in which certain respectable professions or the citizens of another town were made fun of were, on the other hand, neither morally nor poetically justifiable. They carried their justification outside. The storyteller would offer a few words explaining why he thought this story was worth telling. Again, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales afford the best examples: the real author could tell stories without any other justification than that this story gave a good portrait of the person who told it and of his or her taste, and that justification would remain stable throughout history.


If lofty performances grew tedious - as they did in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries with the old plots never leading to newer ones - the collections of tales or novels made it easy to criticise the lofty performances and to reduce their status: one of the group of narrators (created by the actual author) could start with the romantic story only to be interrupted by the other narrators listening within the story. They might silence him or order him to speak a language they liked, or they might ask him to speed up and to make his point. The result was a rise of the short genre. The steps of this development can be traced with the short story gaining in appreciation and value to rival romances in new versified collections at the end of the fourteenth century.


Nonetheless, by the early to mid sixteenth century, the novel was a popular enough form of literature for at least one newly discovered area - the land of California - to be named after a place in a novel, Las sergas de Esplandián. It has been suggested that Califas be merged into this article or section. ... Las Sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián) is the fifth book in a series of novels on Spanish chivalry by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, which began with Amadís de Gaula. ...


The novel on the early market of printed books, 1480-1800

Conflict between novels and romances, 1600-1700

The cheap design of chapbooks: The Honour of Chivalry, first published in 1598; title page of an early eighteenth century edition
The cheap design of chapbooks: The Honour of Chivalry, first published in 1598; title page of an early eighteenth century edition
William Painter's Palace of Pleasure well furnished with plesaunt Hitorires and excellent Nouvelles (1566), "novels" in the original sense of the word.
Miguel de Cervantes' Novelas Exemplares (1613)
Miguel de Cervantes' Novelas Exemplares (1613)
The [...], or [...] formula promising an example; here, William Congreve's Incognita (1692) promising a reconciliation of love and duty
The [...], or [...] formula promising an example; here, William Congreve's Incognita (1692) promising a reconciliation of love and duty

The invention of printing subjected both novels and romances to a first wave of trivialization and commercialization. Printed books were expensive, yet something people would buy, just as people still buy expensive things they can barely afford. Alphabetization, or the rise of literacy, was a slow process when it came to writing skills, but was faster as far as reading skills were concerned. The Protestant Reformation created new readers of religious pamphlets, newspapers and broadsheets. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x669, 100 KB)THE| Honour of Chivalry,| OR| The Famous and Delectable| HISTORY| OF| Don Bellianis of Greece. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x669, 100 KB)THE| Honour of Chivalry,| OR| The Famous and Delectable| HISTORY| OF| Don Bellianis of Greece. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x734, 43 KB)William Painter, The Palace of Pleasure (1566) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x734, 43 KB)William Painter, The Palace of Pleasure (1566) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... William Painter (1540?-1594), English author, was a native of Kent. ... Image File history File links Miguel de Cervantes, Novelas Exemplares (1613) - title page of the original edition File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Miguel de Cervantes, Novelas Exemplares (1613) - title page of the original edition File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... Image File history File links William Congreve, Incognita (1692) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links William Congreve, Incognita (1692) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... William Congreve (January 24, 1670 – January 19, 1729) was an English playwright and poet. ... Look up trivia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Newspaper sizes in August 2005. ...


The urban population learned to read, but did not aspire to participation in the world of letters. The market of chapbooks developing with the printing press comprised both romances and short histories, tales and fables. Woodcuts were the regular ornament and they were offered without much care. A romance in which the heroic knight had to fight more than ten duels within a few pages could get the same illustration of such a fight again and again if the printer's stock of standard illustrations was small. As their stocks grew, printers repeated the same illustrations in other books with similar plots, mixing these illustrations without respect to style. One can open eighteenth century chapbooks and find illustrations from the early years of printing next to much more modern ones. A modern day chapbook. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface...


Romances were reduced to cheap and abrupt plots resembling modern comic books; neither were the first collections of novels necessarily prestigious projects. They appeared with an enormous variety from folk tales over jests to stories told by Boccaccio and Chaucer, now venerable authors. A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...


A more prestigious market of romances developed in the sixteenth century, with multi-volume works aiming at an audience which would subscribe to this production. The criticism levelled against romances by Chaucer's pilgrims grew in response to both trivialization and the extended multi-volume "romances". Romances like the Amadis de Gaula led their readers into dream worlds of knighthood and fed them with ideals of a past no one could revitalize, or so the critics complained. For other uses, see Amadis (disambiguation). ...


Italian authors like Machiavelli were among those who brought the novel into a new format: while it remained a story of intrigue, ending in a surprising point, the observations were now much finer: how did the protagonists manage their intrigue? How did they keep their secrets, what did they do when others threatened to discover them? Machiavelli redirects here. ...


The whole question of novels and romances became critical when Cervantes added his Novelas Exemplares (1613) to the two volumes of his Don Quixote (1605/15). The famous satirical romance was levelled against the Amadis which had made Don Quixote lose his mind. Advocates of the lofty romance, however, would claim that the satirical counterpart of the old heroic romance could hardly teach anything: Don Quixote neither offered a hero to be emulated nor did it satisfy with beautiful speeches; all it could do was to make fun of lofty ideals. The Novelas Exemplares offered an alternative to the heroic and the satiric modes, yet critics were even less sure what to make of this production. Cervantes told stories of adultery, jealousy and crime. If these stories were to give examples, they gave examples of immoral actions. The advocates of the "novel" responded that their stories taught with both good and bad examples. The reader could still feel compassion and sympathy with the victims of crimes and intrigues, if evil examples were to be told. Cervantes redirects here. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ...


The alternative to dubious novels and satirical romances were better, lofty romances: a production of romances modeled after Heliodorus arrived as a possible answer with excursions into the bucolic world. Honoré d'Urfé's L'Astrée (1607-27) became the most famous work of this type. The criticism that these romances had nothing to do with real life was answered through the device of the roman à clef (literally "novel with a key") — one that, properly understood, alludes to characters in the real world. John Barclay's Argenis (1625-26) appeared as a political Roman à clef. The romances of Madeleine de Scudéry gained greater influence with plots set in the ancient world and content taken from life. The famous author told stories of her friends in the literary circles of Paris and developed their fates from volume to volume of her serialized production. Readers of taste bought her books, as they offered the finest observation of human motives, characters taken from life, and excellent morals regarding how one should and should not behave if one wanted to succeed in public life and in the intimate circles she portrayed. Bucolic, although often used as an adjective, is a noun originally describing a type of pastoral poetry that praises rural life over that of the city. ... Honoré dUrfé, marquis de Valromey, comte de Châteauneuf (February 11, 1568 - June 1, 1625), French novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born at Marseille, and was educated at the Collège de Tournon. ... A roman à clef or roman à clé (French for novel with a key) is a novel describing real-life events behind a façade of fiction. ... John Barclay (January 28, 1582 — August 15, 1621) was a Scottish satirist and Latin poet. ... Argenis is a book by John Barclay; it is a work of historical allegory which tells the story of the religious conflict in France under Henry III and Henry IV. Categories: Stub ... Madeleine de Scudéry (November 15, 1607 - June 2, 1701), often known simply as Mademoiselle de Scudéry, was a French writer. ...


The novel went its own way: Paul Scarron (himself a hero in the romances of Madeleine de Scudéry) published the first volume of his Roman Comique in 1651 (successive volumes appeared in 1657 and, by another hand, in 1663) with a plea for the development Cervantes had introduced in Spain. France should (as he wrote in the famous twenty first chapter of the Roman Comique [1]) imitate the Spanish with little stories like those they called "novels". Scarron himself added numerous of such stories to his own work. Paul Scarron (c. ... Madeleine de Scudéry (November 15, 1607 - June 2, 1701), often known simply as Mademoiselle de Scudéry, was a French writer. ...


Twenty years later Madame de La Fayette took the next decisive steps with her two novels. The first, her Zayde (published in 1670 together with Pierre Daniel Huet's famous Treatise on the Origin of Romances), was a "Spanish history". Her second and more important novel appeared in 1678: La Princesse de Clèves proved that France could actually produce novels of a particularly French taste. The Spanish enjoyed stories of proud Spaniards who fought duels to avenge their reputations. The French had a more refined taste with minute observation of human motives and behavior. The story was firmly a "novel" and not a "romance": a story of unparalleled female virtue, with a heroine who had had the chance to risk an illicit amour and not only withstood the temptation but made herself more unhappy by confessing her feelings to her husband. The gloom her story created was entirely new and sensational. Madame de La Fayette (baptized March 18, 1634 - May 25, 1693) was a French writer, the alleged author of La Princesse de Clèves, Frances first historical novel and often taken to be one of the earliest European novels of its day. ... Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721) was a French churchman and scholar, Bishop of Soissons from 1685 to 1689 and afterwards of Avranches. ... Marie de LaFayettes Zayde (1670), the original context of Huets Traitté de lorigine des romans Pierre Daniel Huets Traitté de lorigine des romans (Treatise on the Origin of Novels, or Romances if one wants to speak early 18th century English) can claim to be the... La Princesse de Clèves is a French novel, regarded by many as one of the first European novels and a classic of its era. ...


The regular novel took another turn. The late seventeenth century saw the emergence of a European market for scandal, with French books now appearing mostly in the Netherlands (where censorship was liberal) to be clandestinely imported back into France. The same production reached the neighboring markets of Germany and Britain, where it was welcomed both for its French style and its predominantly anti-French politics. The novel flourished in this market as the best genre to purport scandalous news. The authors claimed the stories they had to tell were true, told not for the sake of scandal but only for the moral lessons they gave. To prove this, they fictionalized the names of their characters and told these stories as if they were novels. (The audience played its own game in identifying who was who). Journals of little stories appeared — the Mercure Gallant became the most important. Collections of letters added to the market; these included more of these little stories and led to the development of the epistolary novel in the late seventeenth century. This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... The Mercure de France was a French gazette and literary magazine first published from 1672 to 1724 (with an interruption in 1674-1677) under the title Mercure galant (sometimes spelled Mercure gallant) (1672-1674) and Nouveau Mercure galant (1677-1724). ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ...


The novel had interested the English audience ever since Chaucer's days, it had been read in translations of Spanish and French novels throughout the 17th century. In the late 1680s English authors decided to create a modern English equivalent. Aphra Behn and William Congreve adopted the old term and wrote new "novels". A sketch of Aphra Behn by George Scharf from a portrait believed to be lost. ... William Congreve (January 24, 1670 – January 19, 1729) was an English playwright and poet. ...


Embedded in the market of histories: 1650-1730

Early eighteenth century novels and romances were still not considered part of the world of learning, hence not part of "literature"; instead they were market goods. If one opened the term catalogues it was mostly situated in the predominantly political field of "History and Politics" with some romances like Cervantes' Don Quixote translated into verse becoming poetical. The integration of prose fiction into the market of histories appeared under the following scheme: For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Term Catalogues were catalogues printed before the book fairs to give an overview of the upcoming production. ...

image positioning
3.1
Heroical Romances:
Fénelon's Telemach (1699)
1
Sold as romantic inventions, read as true histories of public affairs:

Manley's The New Atalantis (1709)
2
Sold as romantic inventions, read as true histories of private affairs: Menantes' Satyrischer Roman (1706)
3.2
Classics of the novel from the Arabian Nights to M. de La Fayette's Princesse de Clèves (1678)
4
Sold as true private history, risking to be read as romantic invention: Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719)
5
Sold as true public history, risking to be read as romantic invention:

La Guerre d'Espagne (1707)

3.3
Satirical Romances:
Cervantes' Don Quixote (1605)
[1]

The centre of the market was held by fictions which claimed to be fictions and which were read as such. They comprised a high production of romances and, at the bottom end, an opposing production of satirical romances. In the centre, the novel had grown, with stories that were neither heroic nor predominantly satirical, yet mostly realistic, short and stimulating with their examples of human actions to be discussed.


Outside the centre, the market had two wings: On the left hand, one had books which claimed to be romances, but which threatened to be anything but fictitious. Delarivier Manley wrote the most famous of them, her The New Atalantis, full of stories the author claimed to have invented. The censors were helpless: Manley had hawked stories discrediting the ruling Whigs, yet should they ask the Whigs to prove that all these stories actually happened on British soil rather than on the fairytale island Atalantis? This was what they had to do if they wanted to sue the author. Delarivier Manley escaped the interrogations unscathed and continued her libellous work with three more volumes of the same ilk. Private stories appeared on the same market, creating a different genre of personal love and public battles over lost reputations. Mary Delarivier (sometimes spelt Delariviere, Delarivière or de la Rivière) Manley (1663 or c. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ...


On the other hand, one had a market of titles which claimed to be strictly non-fictional — Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe became the most important of them. The genre-identification: "Sold as true private history, risking to be read as romantic invention" opened the preface: Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... For other uses, see Robinson Crusoe (disambiguation). ...

IF ever the Story of any private Man's Adventures in the World were worth making Pvblick, and were acceptable when Publish'd, the Editor of this Account thinks this will be so.
     The Wonders of this Man's Life exceed all that (he thinks) is to be found extant; the Life of one Man being scarce capable of a greater Variety.
    
The Story is told with Modesty, with Seriousness, and with a religious Application of Events to the Uses to which wise Men always ap[p]ly them (viz.) to the Instruction of others by this Example, and to justify and honor the Wisdom of Providence in all the Variety of our Circumstances, let them happen how they will.
     The Editor believes the thing to be a just History of Fact; neither is there any Appearance of Fiction in it: And however thinks, because all such things are dispatch'd [later editions: disputed], that the Improvement of it, as well as the Diversion, as to the Instruction of the Reader, will be the same; and as such he thinks, without farther Compliment to the World, he does them a great Service in the Publication.[2]

A production of histories of similar verisimilitude dove into the overtly political. Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras (1644-1712) became the most important author in this field with his first version of d'Artagnan's story, told again more than a century later by Alexandre Dumas the elder. Witty, and a distant precursor of Ian Fleming's fictional James Bond, is another book allegedly by his hand: La Guerre d'Espagne (1707), the story of a disillusioned French spy, who gave insight into French politics, and into his own love affairs, with little intrigues he managed wherever he had to do his jobs. Fact and fiction were mixed in all these titles, to the point that one could no longer tell where the author had invented and where he had simply betrayed secrets. Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras (1644–1712) was a French novelist and memorialist who wrote semi-fictional memoirs (in the first person) of historical figures from the recent past (such as the marquis de Montbrun and M. de Rochefort). ... The dArtagnan Romances are a set of three novels by Alexandre Dumas telling the story of the musketeer dArtagnan from his humble beginnings in Gascony to his death as a marshal of France in the siege of Maastricht in 1673. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... This article is about the author. ... This article is about the spy series. ...


"New romances to de-scandalised the market" The early eighteenth century — with the novel diving into private and public scandal — had reached a state of affairs where a new reform seemed desirable. The old Amadis could be said to have driven its readers into dream worlds, and the new novels, devoid of lofty speeches and incredible acts of heroism, had done much to refine taste. Yet they had created entirely new risks, with stories of love in which children cheated their parents, and with which private and public gossip were published on the open market.


Jane Barker was among the eighteenth century voices who demanded a return to the old antiquated romance. Her "new romance" Exilius (1715) opened with the sketch of a new tradition: the romance had, so Jane Barker claimed, developed from Geoffrey Chaucer to François Fénelon; the latter was the author who had just become famous with his epochal romance Telemachus (1699/1700). Jane Barker (1652 – 1732) was a poet and novelist of the early 18th century. ... François de Salignac de la Mothe, more commonly known as François Fénelon (1651 - 1715), was a French Roman Catholic theologian, poet and writer. ... The Adventures of Telemachus, Son of Ulysses is a novel by Francois Fénelon, first published in 1699. ...


Fénelon's English publishers had carefully avoided the term "romance" and rather published a "new epic in prose" — so the prefaces. Jane Barker insisted, however, on publishing Exilius as "New Romance [...] after the manner of Telemachus", and failed on the market. In 1719 her publisher, Edmund Curll, finally removed the old title pages and offered her works as a collection of novels. Edmund Curll ( 1675 - December 11, 1747) was an English bookseller and publisher. ...


The big market success of the next decade, Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, appeared that very year and William Taylor, the publisher, avoided these traps with a title page claiming neither the realm of novels nor that of romances, but that of histories, yet with a page design tasting all too much of the "new romance" with which Fénelon had just become famous. For other uses, see Robinson Crusoe (disambiguation). ... Early 18th century novels and romances were still not considered part the world of learning, hence, not of part of literature; they were market goods. ...

The title pages of both the English edition of Fénelon's Telemachus (London: E. Curll, 1715) and Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (London: W. Taylor, 1719): neither of them offer "Novels" as Aphra Behn and William Congreve had done.
The title pages of both the English edition of Fénelon's Telemachus (London: E. Curll, 1715) and Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (London: W. Taylor, 1719): neither of them offer "Novels" as Aphra Behn and William Congreve had done.

Defoe's Robinson Crusoe was everything but a novel, as the term was understood at the time. It wasn't short, it didn't focus on an intrigue, and it wasn't told for the sake of a clear cut-point. Nor was Crusoe an anti-hero of a satirical romance, though he spoke in the first person singular and had stumbled into all kinds of miseries. He did not really invite laughter (though readers of taste would read, of course, all his proclamations about being a real man as made in good humour). The feigned author was serious: against his will his life had brought him into this series of most romantic adventures. He had fallen into the hands of pirates and survived years on an uninhabited island. He had survived all this — a mere sailor from York — with exemplary heroism. If readers read his work as a romance, full of sheer invention, he could not blame them. He and his publisher knew that all he had to tell was strictly unbelievable, and yet they would claim it was true (and if not, still readable as good allegory) — this is the complex game which puts this work into the fourth column of the pattern above. Image File history File links Title pages of Fénelons Telemachus (London: Curll, 1715) and DeFoes Robinson Crusoe (London: W. Taylor, 1719). ... In literature and film, an anti-hero is a central or supporting character that has some of the personality flaws and ultimate fortune traditionally assigned to villains but nonetheless also have enough heroic qualities or intentions to gain the sympathy of readers or viewers. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


Classics of the novel: a morally justified production, 1670-1900

Classics of the novel from the sixteenth century onwards: title page of A Select Collection of Novels (1720-22)
Classics of the novel from the sixteenth century onwards: title page of A Select Collection of Novels (1720-22)

The publication of Robinson Crusoe did not directly lead to the mid-18th century market reform. Crusoe's books were published as dubious histories; they played the game of the scandalous early eighteenth century market, with the novel fully integrated into the realm of histories. They even appeared reprinted by one of the London newspapers as a possibly true relation of facts. Philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau turned Robinson Crusoe into a classic decades later, and it took another century before one could see Defoe's book as the first English "novel" — published, as Ian Watt saw it in 1957 — as an answer to the market of French romances. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x728, 96 KB)Title page of A Select Collection of Novels (1722). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x728, 96 KB)Title page of A Select Collection of Novels (1722). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Literary critic and literary historian Ian Watt (1917-1999) was a professor of English at Stanford University. ...


The reform of the early eighteenth century market of novels came with the production of classics: 1720 saw the decisive edition of classics of the European novel published in London with titles from Machiavelli to Marie de Lafayette. Aphra Behn's "novels" had over the last decades appeared in collections of her works. The author of the 1680s had become a classic by now. Fénelon had become a classic years ago, as had Heliodorus. The works of Petronius and Longos appeared, equipped with prefaces which put them into the tradition of prose fiction Huet had defined. Prose fiction itself, according to the critics, had a history of ups and downs: having run into a crisis with the Amadis, it found its remedy with the novel. It now needed continuous care. Yet, all in all, it could claim to be the most elegant part of the belles lettres, the new market segment within the bigger market of literature, embracing the new classics. This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... Longos can mean: Places: In Greece: Longos, Greece, a village at the sea in the northeastern part of the prefecture of Achaia near the town of Selianitika 10 km from Aegion and 25 km from Patras. ... Belles lettres are works of writing that are appreciated for their visual appearance (such as the calligraphy employed), as much as or more so than their actual content. ...


Huet's Traitté de l'origine des romans, first published in 1670 and now circulating in a number of translations and editions, won a central position among those writings which dealt with prose fiction. The Treatise had created the first corpus of texts to be discussed and it had been the first title that demonstrated how one could "interpret" worldly fictions, just as a theologian would interpret parts of the gospel in a theological debate. The interpretation needed its aims, of course, and Huet had offered a number of questions one could ask: What did the fictional work of a foreign culture or distant period tell us about those who constructed the fiction? What were the cultural needs such stories answered? Are there fundamental anthropological premises which make us create fictional worlds? Did these fictions entertain, divert and instruct? Did they — as one could assume when reading ancient and medieval myths — just provide a substitute for better, more scientific knowledge, or did they add to the luxuries of life a particular culture enjoyed? The ancient Mediterranean erotic stories could afford such an interpretation. Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721) was a French churchman and scholar, Bishop of Soissons from 1685 to 1689 and afterwards of Avranches. ... Marie de LaFayettes Zayde (1670), the original context of Huets Traitté de lorigine des romans Pierre Daniel Huets Traitté de lorigine des romans (Treatise on the Origin of Novels, or Romances if one wants to speak early 18th century English) can claim to be the...


The interpretation and analysis of classics placed readers of fictions in an entirely new and improved position: it made a vast difference whether you read a romance and got lost in a dream world or whether you read the same romance with a preface telling you more about the Greeks, Romans, or Arabs who produced titles like the Aethopica or The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (first published in Europe from 1704 to 1715 in French, and translated immediately from this edition into English and German). Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ...


Immediate modern classics, 1740-1800

Samuel Richardson's Pamela (1741), published with clear intentions: "Now first published in order to cultivate the Principles of Virtue and Religion in the Minds of the Youth of Both Sexes, A Narrative which has the Foundation in Truth and Nature; and at the same time that it agreeably entertains..."
Samuel Richardson's Pamela (1741), published with clear intentions: "Now first published in order to cultivate the Principles of Virtue and Religion in the Minds of the Youth of Both Sexes, A Narrative which has the Foundation in Truth and Nature; and at the same time that it agreeably entertains..."

The early eighteenth century market for classics of prose fiction inspired living authors. Aphra Behn, writing in relative anonymity, became a celebrated author posthumously. Fénelon achieved the same fame during his lifetime. Delarivier Manley, Jane Barker and Eliza Haywood followed their famous French models who had dared to claim fame with their real names: the Madame d'Aulnoy and Anne Marguerite Petit du Noyer. Most novels had previously been pseudonymous; now they became the productions of famous authors. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1282, 87 KB)Samuel Richardson, Pamela, 1741 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1282, 87 KB)Samuel Richardson, Pamela, 1741 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Samuel Richardson (August 19, 1689 – July 4, 1761) was a major 18th century writer best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). ... Playwright and novelist Eliza Haywood, by George Vertue, 1725. ... Marie-Catherine le Jumelle de Barneville, Baronne dAulnoy (1650/1651–4 January 1705) was a French writer known for her fairy tales. ...


The novel as "literature", 1750 through today

The discourse necessary to appreciate such a move towards responsibility was yet underdeveloped. Journals discussing literature focussed on "learning", literature in the strict sense of the word. So far, most discussion of novels and romances had taken place within the field itself. Literary criticism, a critical, external discourse about poetry and fiction, arose only in the second half of the eighteenth century. It opened an interaction between separate participants in which novelists would write in order to be criticised and in which the public would observe the interaction between critics and authors. The new criticism of the late eighteenth century offered a reform by establishing a market of works worthy to be discussed (whilst the rest of the market would thus continue but lose most of its public appeal). The result was a market division into a low field of popular fictions and a critical literary production. The latter, privileged works — those which rivalled ancient verse epics to be discussed as art, which played with the traditions of prose fiction (they opened an internal discourse about the history of literature), and which were of a clearly defined fictional status — these alone could be discussed as works created by an artist who wanted this and no other story to be discussed by the audience. Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Genre fiction is a term for writings by multiple authors that are very similar in theme and style, especially where these similarities are deliberately pursued by the authors. ... Literary fiction is a somewhat uneasy term that has come into common usage since around 1970, principally to distinguish serious fiction from the many types of genre fiction and popular fiction. ... The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ...


Design of title pages changed: new novels no longer pretended to sell fictions whilst threatening to betray real secrets. Nor did they appear as false "true histories". The new title pages pronounced their works to be fictions, and indicated how the public might discuss them. Samuel Richardson’s Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) was one of the titles which brought the novel-title, with its [...], or [...] formula offering an example, into the new format: "Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded – Now first published in order to cultivate the Principles of Virtue and Religion in the Minds of the Youth of Both Sexes, A Narrative which has the Foundation in Truth and Nature; and at the same time that it agreeably entertains..." So the title page read, and made it clear that the work was crafted by an artist aiming at a certain effect, yet to be discussed by the critical audience. A decade later novels needed no status other than that of being novels: fiction. Present-day editions of novels simply state "Fiction" on the cover. It had become prestigious to be sold under the label, asking for discussion and thought. Early 18th century novels and romances were still not considered part the world of learning, hence, not of part of literature; they were market goods. ... Samuel Richardson (August 19, 1689 – July 4, 1761) was a major 18th century writer best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). ... Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. ...


Scandal as published by DuNoyer or Delarivier Manley vanished from the market of prose fiction — whether high or low culture. It could not attract serious critics and was lost if it remained undiscussed. It ultimately needed its own brand of scandalous journalism, which developed into the yellow press. The low market of prose fiction went on to focus on immediate satisfaction of an audience enjoying its stay in the fictional world. The high market grew complex, with works playing new games. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Low culture is a derogatory term for some forms of popular culture. ... Yellow journalism is a type of journalism in which sensationalism triumphs over factual reporting. ...


In the high market, one could eventually see two traditions developing: one of works playing with the art of fiction — Laurence Sterne’s Tristram Shandy among them — the other closer to the prevailing discussions and moods of its audience. The great conflict of the nineteenth century, as to whether artists should write to satisfy the public or whether to produce art for art's sake, was yet to come. Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or, more briefly, Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ...


Sentimentalism, psychology, and the new individual, 1750-1850

The second half of the 18th century was one of those eras in which the novel has been the dominant genre.[2]


The mid- and late eighteenth century "novel of sentimentalism" produced an entirely new individual, one with a different attitude towards privacy and the public. Whereas the early eighteenth century heroine had been bold and ready to protect her reputation if necessary in a press war, her mid-18th century descendant was far too modest and shy to do the same. Early eighteenth century heroines had their secrets, they loved effective intrigues, they tried whatever they felt necessary to get what they wanted. Mid-18th century heroines developed a feeling of modesty. They suffered if they had to keep secrets and felt an urge to confess. They searched for friends and intimacy, for situations in which they could freely open their hearts and speak of their deepest wishes. The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility. ...


The eighteenth century audience saw these new heroes and heroines with amazement. When it came to their most secret wishes they dared to confide in their parents and friends — a trust which would have made them easy victims in the early eighteenth century world of fiction, libel, intrigue and scandal. Now, however, these weak heroines met an environment of compassion. Instead of making their affairs a public entertainment, the new heroes and heroines developed an intimacy into which the novel alone could take a careful look.


Special genres flourished with these protagonists who would not wash their dirty linen in public. Their letters or diaries were found and published only after their deaths. A wave of sentimentalism was the first result, leading to heroes like Henry Mackenzie's Man of Feeling (1771). A second wave followed with more radical heroes who could no longer dream of an environment understanding them. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774) was at the forefront of the new movement, and yielded a wave of compassion and understanding with readers ready to follow Werther into his suicide. Henry Mackenzie (August, 1745 - January 14, 1831), Scottish novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born in Edinburgh. ... Goethe redirects here. ... The Sorrows of Young Werther (originally published as Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) is an epistolary and loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774. ...


Critics embraced the new heroes as the best sign of a new literature which aimed at discussions. The understanding these heroes craved for afforded a secondary discussion — a discussion of the nature of the human psyche so much better observed by these new novels.


The novel, with these developments, had turned advocacy of individual and societal moral reform into a genre. With the romantic movement beginning in the 1770s, the development went one step further: the novel became the medium of an avant garde, the genre where emotions found their test cases. German authors developed the Bildungsroman, a novel focussing on the development of the individual, their education and their way into individuality and society. New sciences like sociology to psychology developed along with the new individual and influenced the discussions surrounding the novel in the nineteenth century. Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Avant-garde (disambiguation). ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form that concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ...


19th century

At the beginning of the seventeenth century the novel had been a genre of realism fighting the romance with its wild fantasies. The novel had turned first to scandal before undergoing reform over the last decades of the eighteenth century. Fiction eventually became the most honourable field of literature. This development culminated in a wave of novels of fantasy at the turn of the nineteenth century. Sensibility was heightened in these novels. Women, overwrought and prone to imagining worlds beyond their appointed one, became the heroines of the new world of "romances" and "gothic novels" creating stories in distant times and places. Renaissance Italy was a favorite setting of the gothic novel. For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ...


The classic gothic novel is Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794). As in other gothic novels, the notion of the sublime is central. Eighteenth-century aesthetic theory held that the sublime and the beautiful were juxtaposed. The sublime was awful (literally, "awe-inspiring") and terrifying while the beautiful was calm and reassuring. Gothic characters and landscapes rest almost entirely within the sublime, with the heroine the great exception. The "beautiful" heroine's susceptibility to supernatural elements, integral to these novels, both celebrates and problematizes what came to be seen as hypersensibility. This article is about the 19th-century author. ... The Mysteries of Udolpho, by Ann Radcliffe, was published in the summer of 1794 by G. G. and J. Robinson of London in 4 volumes. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ... To problematize a term, text, opinion, ideology, identity, or person is to consider the concrete or existential elements of those involved as challenges (problems) that invite the people involved to transform those situations. ...


At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the overwrought emotions of sensibility, as expressed through the gothic sublime, had run their course. Jane Austen with Northanger Abbey (1803) parodied the gothic novel, reflecting its death. Moreover, while sensibility did not disappear, it was less valued. Austen introduced a different style of writing, the "comedy of manners". Her novels often are not only funny, and particularly likely to satirize individuals of high social status, but they also display a wariness of city influences which are often portrayed as having a tendency to corrupt established social values. Her best known novel, Pride and Prejudice (1811), is her happiest, and has been a blueprint for much subsequent romantic fiction. Austen's novels still retain a wide following, despite the distance between their heroines' dilemmas and those of the reader today. 1870 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait commissioned by her nephew for his 1870 Memoir of Jane Austen Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist whose works include Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, Emma, Northanger Abbey, and Persuasion. ... For films named Northanger Abbey, see Northanger Abbey (1986 film) or Northanger Abbey (2007 TV drama). ... The comedy of manners satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class, often represented by stock characters, such as the miles gloriosus in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young. ... For films named Pride and Prejudice, see Pride and Prejudice (film). ...


Separation of high and low production

The market for novels in the nineteenth century was clearly separated into "high" and "low" production. The new high production can best be viewed in terms of national traditions. The low production was organized rather by genres in a pattern deriving from the spectrum of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century genres.


1. The novel as a literary production, promoted by critical discourse

Spanish Literature French Literature German Literature English Literature ...by language and nation

2. Popular Fiction, not promoted by criticism

1
The modern roman à clef (a recent example is Primary Colors)
2
Sex, including soft "romantic" pornography for the female audience
3
Historical settings (the tradition of heroic romances), crime (the tradition of the seventeenth century novel)
4
Adventure, science fiction
5
Espionage, conspiracy

The position of authors attained its modern form with the establishment of this pattern. The modern author can either aim at a broad market or write with an eye to serious critical discussion. The borders between the realms have developed differently in different nations. While this modern market divide came relatively late to the English-speaking world, Germany and France had an earlier and much stronger interest in creating national literatures — France in the wake of the French Revolution, Germany during its mid-19th century unification. Both of these nations experienced a division between high literature — that is, the literature of ruling social group,[3] discussed in schools and newspapers, and celebrated in public life — and a low production — not worthy to be mentioned in such circles — while the vast commercial market of the English-speaking world still resisted this artificial divide. A roman à clef or roman à clé (French for novel with a key) is a novel describing real-life events behind a façade of fiction. ... This article is about the book. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Ezekiel, from Michelangelos Sistine Chapel ceiling, very high culture High culture is a term, now used in a number of different ways in academic discourse, whose most common meaning is the set of cultural products, mainly in the Arts, held in the highest esteem by a culture, or denoting... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ...


The novel proved to be a medium for a communication both intimate (novels can be read privately whereas plays are always a public event) and public (novels are published and thus become a matter touching the public, if not the nation, and its vital interests), a medium of a personal point of view which can get the world into its view. New modes of interaction between authors and the public reflected these developments: authors giving public readings, receiving prestigious prizes, giving interviews in the media and acting as their nations' consciences. This concept of the novelist as public figure arose in the course of the nineteenth century.


20th century

See Modernist literature and Postmodern literature

Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain tendencies in post-World War II literature. ...

See also

Genres of the novel

Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mystery_fiction. ... The cowboy, the quintessential symbol of the American Old West, circa 1887. ... A romance novel is a literary genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries. ... The spy fiction genre (sometimes called political thriller) first arose just before the First World War, at about the same time, the first organized intelligence agencies were being formed. ... The thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole Gothic fiction is an important genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. ... A campus novel is a novel whose main action is set in and around the campus of a university. ...

Articles of further importance

For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... A novelette (or novelet) is a piece of short prose fiction. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Fiction writing consists of fashioning works of prose based on the imagination that could possibly be published in literary form. ... Street literature or broadsides began in the 16th century and continued until the mid-19th century as a type of printing of large printed sheets of paper, designed to be plastered onto walls. ... Under the Comnenian dynasty, Byzantine writers of twelfth century Constantinople reintroduced the ancient Greek romance novel, imitating its form and time period but Christianizing its content. ... These works of literature have each been claimed as the first novel in English. ... While in drama the Unity of Time prescribes that the action of a play is to take place during a single day, the novel as a rule covers a much longer period of time. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of best-selling books List of... The frontispiece to the 1611 first edition of the King James Bible This page provides lists of best-selling single-volume books, book series, authors, and childrens books of all time and in any language. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article is about the art form. ... Historical novels are listed by the country in which the majority of the novel takes place. ... This is a list of modern literary movements: that is, movements after the Renaissance. ... A chain novel is written collectively by a group of authors. ... NaNoWriMo logo NaNoWriMo, or National Novel Writing Month, is a creative writing project originating in the United States in which each participant attempts to write a 50,000 word novel in a single month. ... The Internet Book Database (IBookDB) is an online database with information about books and authors. ... A live novel, sometimes mentioned in the same context as a blog novel, is a serialised, fictional work publised via the internet. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Simons 2001, p.194
  2. ^ Bakhtin 1981, p.5
  3. ^ Bakhtin 1981, p.4

Further reading

Contemporary views

  • 1651: Paul Scarron, The Comical Romance, Chapter XXI. "Which perhaps will not be found very Entertaining" (London, 1700). Scarron's plea for a French production rivalling the Spanish "Novels". Marteau
  • 1670: Pierre Daniel Huet, "Traitté de l'origine des Romans", Preface to Marie-Madeleine Pioche de La Vergne comtesse de La Fayette, Zayde, histoire espagnole (Paris, 1670). A world history of fiction. pdf-edition Gallica France
  • 1683: [Du Sieur], "Sentimens sur l’histoire" from: Sentimens sur les lettres et sur l’histoire, avec des scruples sur le stile (Paris: C. Blageart, 1680). The new novels as published masterly by Marie de LaFayette. Marteau
  • 1702: Abbe Bellegarde, "Lettre à une Dame de la Cour, qui lui avoit demandé quelques Reflexions sur l’Histoire" aus: Lettres curieuses de littérature et de morale (La Haye: Adrian Moetjens, 1702). Paraphrase of Du Sieur's text. Marteau
  • 1705/1708/1712: [Anon.] In English, French and German the Preface of The Secret History of Queen Zarah and the Zarazians (Albigion, 1705). Bellegarde's article plagiarised. Marteau
  • 1713: Deutsche Acta Eruditorum, German review of the French translation of Delarivier Manley's New Atalantis 1709 (Leipzig: J. L. Gleditsch, 1713). A rare example of a political novel discussed by a literary journal. Marteau
  • 1715: Jane Barker, preface to her Exilius or the Banish’d Roman. A New Romance (London: E. Curll, 1715). Plea for a "New Romance" following Fénlon's Telmachus. Marteau
  • 1718: [Johann Friedrich Riederer], "Satyra von den Liebes-Romanen", from: Die abentheuerliche Welt in einer Pickelheerings-Kappe, 2 ([Nürnberg,] 1718). German satire about the wide spread reading of novels and romances. Marteau
  • 1742: Henry Fielding, preface to Joseph Andrews (London, 1742). The "comic epic in prose" and its poetics. Munseys

Secondary literature

  • Erwin Rohde Der Griechesche Roman und seine Vorläufer (1876) [un-superseded history of the ancient novel] (German)
  • Lukács, Georg (1971, 1916). The Theory of the Novel, trans. Anna Bostock, Cambridge: M.I.T. Press. ISBN 0-262-12048-8. 
  • Bakhtin, Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1981. [written during the 1930s]
  • Watt, Ian (1957). The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. Berkeley: University of Los Angeles Press. ISBN 0-520-23069-8.  Watt reads Robinson Crusoe as the first modern "novel" and interprets the rise of the modern novel of realism as an achievement of English literature, owed to a number of factors from early capitalism to the development of the modern individual.
  • Burgess, Anthony (1963). The Novel To-day. London: Longmans, Green. 
  • Burgess, Anthony (1967). The Novel Now: A Student's Guide to Contemporary Fiction. London: Faber. 
  • Ben Edwin Perry The Ancient Romances (Berkeley, 1967) review: [3]
  • Richetti, John J. (1969). Popular Fiction before Richardson. Narrative Patterns 1700-1739. Oxford: OUP. ISBN. 
  • Burgess, Anthony (1970). "Novel, The" – classic Encyclopædia Britannica entry.
  • Miller, H. K., G. S. (1970) Rousseau and Eric Rothstein, The Augustan Milieu: Essays Presented to Louis A. Landa (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970). ISBN 0-19-811697-7
  • Arthur Ray Heiserman The Novel Before the Novel (Chicago, 1977) ISBN 0226325725
  • Madden, David; Charles Bane, Sean M. Flory [1979] (2006). A Primer of the Novel: For Readers and Writers, revised ed., Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5708-1.  Updated edition of pioneering typology and history of over 50 genres; index of types and technique, and detailed chronology.
  • Spufford, Magaret, Small Books and Pleasant Histories (London, 1981).
  • Davis, Lennard J. (1983). Factual Fictions: The Origins of the English Novel. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05420-3. 
  • Spencer, Jane, The Rise of Woman Novelists. From Aphra Behn to Jane Austen (Oxford, 1986).
  • Armstrong, Nancy (1987). Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504179-8. 
  • McKeon, Michael (1987). The Origins of the English Novel, 1600-1740. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3291-8. 
  • Hunter, J. Paul (1990). Before Novels: The Cultural Contexts of Eighteenth-Century English Fiction. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-02801-1. 
  • Ballaster, Ros (1992). Seductive Forms: Women's Amatory Fiction from 1684-1740. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-811244-0. 
  • Doody, Margaret Anne (1996). The True Story of the Novel. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2168-8. 
  • Relihan, Constance C. (ed.), Framing Elizabethan fictions: contemporary approaches to early modern narrative prose (Kent, Ohio/ London: Kent State University Press, 1996). ISBN 0873385519
  • Reconsidering The Rise of the Novel - Eighteenth Century Fiction, Volume 12, Number 2-3, ed. David Blewett (January-April 2000).
  • McKeon, Michael, Theory of the Novel: A Historical Approach (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000).
  • Simons, Olaf (2001). Marteaus Europa, oder, Der Roman, bevor er Literatur wurde: eine Untersuchung des Deutschen und Englischen Buchangebots der Jahre 1710 bis 1720. Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-1226-9.  A market study of the novel around 1700 interpreting contemporary criticism.
  • Price, Leah (2003). The Anthology and the Rise of the Novel: From Richardson to George Eliot. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53939-0.  from Leah Price
  • Rousseau, George (2004). Nervous Acts: Essays on Literature Culture and Sensibility (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004). ISBN 1-4039-3454-1
  • Mentz, Steve, Romance for sale in early modern England: the rise of prose fiction (Aldershot [etc.]: Ashgate, 2006). ISBN 0-7546-5469-9

Erwin Rohde (1845 - 1898) was one of the great German classical scholars of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher and literary critic in the tradition of Western Marxism. ... Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (November 17, 1895 (new style)-1975) wrote influential works in literary theory and literary criticism. ... Literary critic and literary historian Ian Watt (1917-1999) was a professor of English at Stanford University. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Leah Price is a professor of English and American Literature and Language at Harvard University, where her specialties are in the novel, literary journalism, the history of books and reading, and narrative theory, as well as on the culture of the eighteenth and nineteenth-centuries and British fiction in the...

External links


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