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Encyclopedia > Nobelium
102 mendeleviumnobeliumlawrencium
Yb

No

(Upb)
General
Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102
Chemical series actinides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f
Appearance unknown, probably silvery
white or metallic gray
Atomic mass (259) g/mol
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Melting point 1100 K
(827 °C, 1521 °F)
Atomic properties
Electronegativity 1.3 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 642 kJ/mol
Miscellaneous
CAS registry number 10028-14-5
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nobelium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
253No syn 1.7 m α 8.440 249Fm
ε 3.200 253Md
255No syn 3.1 m α 8.445 251Fm
ε 2.012 255Md
259No syn 58 m α 7.910 255Fm
ε 0.500 259Md
SF - -
References

Nobelium, also known as unnilbium, is a synthetic element in the periodic table that has the symbol No and atomic number 102. A radioactive metallic transuranic element in the actinide series, nobelium is synthesized by bombarding curium with carbon ions. It was first identified by a team led by Albert Ghiorso and Glenn T. Seaborg in 1958[1]. General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1100... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (260) g/mol Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3 Phase presumably a... General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 173. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (890x260, 0 KB)stub for unified link coding, copy of File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of elements. ... This extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... The actinide series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 103. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... A period 7 element is one of the chemical elements in the seventh row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... The atomic mass of a chemical element is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule or other body. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radon, Rn, 86 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 6, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass (222) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Melting point 202 K (-71 °C... Properties The electron is a lightweight fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Nobelium (No) Has no stable isotopes. ... Isotopes are forms of an element, therefore their nuclei have the same atomic number — the number of protons in the nucleus — but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 102 seconds and 103 seconds (100 seconds to 16. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1800... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1100... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1800... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1100... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 103 seconds (a kilosecond) and 104 seconds (16. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1800... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1100... Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay characteristic of very heavy isotopes, and is theoretically possible for any atomic nucleus whose mass is greater than or equal to 100 amu (elements near ruthenium). ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The chemical elements labelled as synthetic are unstable, with a half-life so short (ranging from a fraction of millisecond to a few million years) relative to the age of the Earth that any atoms of that element that may have been present when the Earth formed have long since... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (Z) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, the atomic number of Uranium. ... The actinide series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 103. ... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Albert Ghiorso (b. ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Notable characteristics

Little is known about nobelium and only small quantities of it have ever been produced. It has no uses whatsoever outside of the laboratory. Its most stable isotope, 259No, has a half-life of 58 minutes and decays to 255Fm through alpha decay or to 259Md through electron capture. Isotopes are forms of an element, therefore their nuclei have the same atomic number — the number of protons in the nucleus — but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1800... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle through the electromagnetic force and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1100... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron...


History

Nobelium (named for Alfred Nobel) was first synthesized by Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, John R. Walton and Torbjørn Sikkeland in April 1958 at the University of California, Berkeley. The team used the new heavy-ion linear accelerator (HILAC) to bombard a curium target (95% 244Cm and 4.5% 246Cm) with 12C ions to make 254No (half-life 55 seconds). Their work was confirmed by Soviet researchers in Dubna. Alfred Nobel (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden – December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... Albert Ghiorso (b. ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... An ion is an atom, group of atoms, or subatomic particle that normally is electrically neutral and achieve their status as an ion by loss (and addition) of an electron. ... A Linear particle accelerator is an electrical device for the acceleration of subatomic particles. ... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics Establishment October Revolution  - Declared 30 December 1922   - Recognized 1... Dubna is a small city located in central Russia, in the Taldomsky district of Moscow Oblast, approximately 125 km north of Moscow, on the banks of the Volga river. ...


A year earlier, however, physicists at the Nobel Institute in Sweden announced that they had synthesized an isotope of element 102. The team reported that they created an isotope with a half-life of 10 minutes at 8.5 MeV after bombarding 244Cm with 13C nuclei. Based on this report, the Commission on Atomic Weights of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry assigned and accepted the name nobelium and the symbol No for the "new" element. Subsequent Russian and American efforts to repeat the experiment failed. The Institutes building in central Oslo, Norway. ... Isotopes are forms of an element, therefore their nuclei have the same atomic number — the number of protons in the nucleus — but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)(Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...


In 1966 researchers at UC Berkeley confirmed the 1958 experiments and went on to show the existence of 254No (half-life 55 s), 252No (half-life 2.3 s), and 257No (half-life 23 s). The next year Ghiorso's group decided to retain the name nobelium for element 102. 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...


Nobelium was the most recent element "of which the news had come to Harvard" when Tom Lehrer wrote "The Elements Song" and was therefore the element with the highest atomic number to be included. Tom Lehrer in 1960. ... The Elements (1959) is a song by Tom Lehrer that recites the names of all the chemical elements that were known at the time of writing, up to number 102, nobelium. ...


Isotopes

13 radioisotopes of nobelium have been characterized, with the most stable being 259No with a half-life of 58 minutes, 255No with a half-life of 3.1 minutes, and 253No with a half-life of 1.7 minutes. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 56 seconds, and all of these have half lifes that are less than 2.4 seconds. This element also has 1 meta state, 254mNo (t½ 0.28 seconds). A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The known isotopes of nobelium range in atomic weight from 249.088 u (249No) to 262.108 u (262No). The primary decay mode before the most stable isotope, 259No, is alpha emission, and the primary mode after is spontaneous fission. The primary decay products before 259No are element 100 (fermium) isotopes, and the primary products after are energy and subatomic particles. Isotopes are forms of an element, therefore their nuclei have the same atomic number — the number of protons in the nucleus — but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay characteristic of very heavy isotopes, and is theoretically possible for any atomic nucleus whose mass is greater than or equal to 100 amu (elements near ruthenium). ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1800... A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom: it may be elementary or composite. ...


References

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory - Nobelium
  • Guide to the Elements - Revised Edition, Albert Stwertka, (Oxford University Press; 1998) ISBN 0-19-508083-1
  • It's Elemental - Nobelium

External links

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Look up nobelium in
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  Results from FactBites:
 
It's Elemental - The Element Nobelium (235 words)
They produced this new element, which they named nobelium, by bombarding a target of curium-244 with ions of carbon-13 with a device called a cyclotron.
They were unable to produce any isotope of nobelium with a half-life of 10 minutes, but were able to produce nobelium-254, with a half-life of three seconds, by bombarding curium-246 with carbon-12.
Since only tiny amounts of nobelium have ever been produced, there are currently no uses for it outside of basic scientific research.
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Nobelium (975 words)
It is a metal of the actinide series in Group 3 of the periodic table.
Nobelium was the 10th transuranium element to be...
Nobelium does not occur naturally and was first produced by bombarding curium with carbon nuclei.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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