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Encyclopedia > Moctezuma ii
Moctezuma II
Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan
Reign c. 1502-1520
Born c. 1466
Died June 1520
Predecessor Ahuitzotl
Successor Cuitláhuac
The Aztec world
Aztec society

Nahuatl language
Aztec calendar
Aztec religion
Aztec mythology
Human sacrifice in Aztec culture This is a list of the tlatoque of Mexico Tenochtitlan, often referred to as Aztec emperors. Category: ... Auítzotl (sometimes rendered as Ahuitzotl) was the Aztec ruler of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... Precolumbian Aztec society was the highly complex and stratified society that developed among the Aztecs of central Mexico in the centuries prior to the Spanish conquest of Mexico, and which were built on the cultural foundations of the larger region of Mesoamerica. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... The sun stone also called the Aztec calendar on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. ... Aztec religion was a Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of astronomy and calendrics. ... The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods (over 100) and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ... Human sacrifice was an aspect of historical Aztec culture/religion, although the extent of the practice is debated by scholars. ...

Aztec history

Aztlán
Aztec codices
Aztec warfare
Aztec Triple Alliance
Spanish conquest of Mexico
Siege of Tenochtitlan
La Noche Triste
Moctezuma II
Hernán Cortés The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ... Detail of first page from the Boturini Codex, depicting the departure from Aztlán. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ...

Moctezuma, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (usually spelled Montezuma in English) (c. 1466–1520), was an Aztec ruler ("huey tlatoani" of Tenochtitlan) and leader of the Aztec Triple Alliance from circa 1502–1520. He is known for being the ruler of the Aztec empire at the beginning of the Spanish conquest of Mexico. For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... A tlatoani was a member of the Aztec nobility. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... The Aztec Triple Alliance, also known as The Aztec Empire, was an alliance of three Aztec city-states: Tenochtitlán; Texcoco; and Tlacopán. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ...


The portrayal of Moctezuma in history has mostly been coloured by his role as ruler of a defeated nation, and many sources describe him as weak-willed and indecisive. The biases of some historical sources make it difficult to understand his actions during the Spanish invasion.[1]


During his reign the Aztec Empire reached its maximal size; Through warfare Moctezuma II expanded the territory as far south as Xoconosco in Chiapas and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and incorporated the Zapotec and Yopi people into the empire.[2] He changed the previous meritocratic system of social hierarchy and widened divide between pipiltin (nobles) and macehualtin (commoners) by prohibiting commoners to work in the royal palaces.[3] The famous Stone of Tizoc, a sacrificial stone decorated with carvings representing Tizoc, Moctezuma's predecessor as Tlatoani, was also elaborated during his rule. Soconusco refers to the region of rich lowlands and foothills along the Pacific coast of southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Chiapas Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - Total 74,211 km² (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ... The Zapotec are an indigenous people of Mexico. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... Pipiltin were members of the very highest social sphere in the ancient Aztec Empire. ... Tízoc was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán. ...

Contents

Name

The original Nahuatl form of his name was pronounced [motekʷˈsoːma]. It is a compound of a noun meaning "lord" and a verb meaning "to frown in anger", and so is interpreted as "he is one who frowns like a lord"[4] or "he who is angry in a noble manner."[5] Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... A compound is a word (lexeme) that consists of more than one free morpheme. ...


Regnal Number

The use of a regnal number is only for modern distinction from the first Moctezuma, referred to as Moctezuma I, because even if the latter was the great-grandparent of the former, there was no dynastic succession among the Aztecs.[6] The Aztec chronicles called him Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, while the first was called Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina or Huehuemotecuhzoma ("Old Moctezuma"). Xocoyotzin, pronounced [ʃokoˈjotsin], means "honored young one". Ordinal numbers or regnal numbers are used to distinguish between persons with the same name who held the same office. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ...


The Sources of Moctezuma's Biography

The descriptions of the life of Moctezuma are full of contradictions, and thus nothing is known for certain about his personality and rule.


Bernal Díaz del Castillo

The first hand account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo's True History of the Conquest of New Spain paints a portrait of a noble leader who struggles to maintain order in his kingdom after he is taken prisoner by Cortés. In his first description of Moctezuma, Díaz del Castillo writes: Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ...


"The Great Montezuma [sic] was about forty years old, of good height, well proportioned, spare and slight, and not very dark, though of the usual Indian complexion. He did not wear his hair long but just over his ears, and he had a short black beard, well-shaped and thin. His face was rather long and cheerful, he had fine eyes, and in his appearance and manner could express geniality or, when necessary, a serious composure. He was very neat and clean, and took a bath every afternoon. He had many women as his mistresses, the daughters of chieftains, but two legitimate wives who were Caciques[7] Cacique may be in reference to: A cacique is a tribal chief in Latin America, particularly of the Spanish West Indies and Brazil from the 16th century. ...


While the Spanish might have been shedding tears in fear of their own lives, given that the Mexican armies killed half their number that same day in flight from Tenochtitlan, it should be noted that Díaz del Castillo almost always describes Moctezuma in gracious and respectful terms in his memoir.[citation needed]


Bernardino de Sahagún

The Florentine Codex, made by Bernardino de Sahagún and his native informants of Tenochtitlan-subjugated Tlatelolco, generally portrays Tlatelolco and Tlatelolcan rulers in a favorable light relative to the Tenocha, and Moctezuma in particular is depicted unfavorably as a weak-willed, superstitious, and indulgent ruler (Restall 2003). Historian James Lockhart suggests that the people needed to have a scapegoat for the Aztec defeat, and Moctezuma naturally fell into that role.[8] Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. ... Bernardino de Sahagún Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ...


Hernán Cortés

Unlike Bernal Díaz, who was remembering his memoirs many years after the fact, Cortés wrote his Cartas de comunicación (Letters from Mexico) in the moment in order to justify his actions to the Spanish Crown. His prose is characterized by simple descriptions and explanations, along with frequent personal addresses to the King. In his Second Letter, Cortes describes his first encounter with Moctezuma thus: Bernal D az del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hern n Cort s. ... A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hernán Cortés, 16th century Spanish conquistador Pablo Cortés, 18th century Spanish slave trader Corte (disambiguation), for the judicial bodies of the Spanish-speaking Americas, and the communes in France and Italy Cortes Generales (General Courts), usually just las Cortes, national legislative assembly of Spain The term Cortes... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Mutezuma [sic] came to greet us and with him some two hundred lords, all barefoot and dressed in a different costume, but also very rich in their way and more so than the others. They came in two columns, pressed very close to the walls of the street, which is very wide and beautiful and so straight that you can see from one end to the other. Mutezuma came down the middle of this street with two chiefs, one on his right hand and the other on his left. And they were all dressed alike except that Mutezuma wore sandals whereas the others went barefoot; and they held his arm on either side. (Trans. Padgen 1986:84).[9] A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ...


Cortés' truthfulness and motives have been called into question by many scholars. Anthony Padget[10] and Eulalia Guzman (Relaciones de Hernan Cortes 1958:279)[11] have pointed the Biblical messages that Cortés seems to ascribe to Moctezuma's retelling of the legend of Quetzalcoatl as a vengeful Messiah who would return to rule over the Mexica. Padgen has written that "There is no preconquest tradition which places Quetzalcoatl in this role, and it seems possible therefore that it was elaborated by Sahagún and Motolinía from informants who themselves had partially lost contact with their traditional tribal histories" (Padgen 1986:467) . In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Sahagún can refer to: A town and monastery in León, Spain. ...


Fernando Alvarado Tezozomoc

Fernando Alvarado Tezozomoc, who wrote the Crónica Mexicayotl, was a grandson of Moctezuma II and his chronicle mostly relates the genealogy of the Aztec rulers. He describes Moctezuma's issue and counts that Moctezuma had 19 children - 11 sons and 8 daughters[12]. For other persons of the same name, see Tezozomoc. ... The Crónica Mexicayotl is a chronicle of the Aztec empire written in the Nahuatl language by Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc around 1598. ...


Depiction in early post-conquest literature

Moctezuma's Palace from the Mendoza Codex (1542)
Moctezuma's Palace from the Mendoza Codex (1542)

Some of the Aztec stories about Moctezuma describe him as being fearful of the Spanish newcomers, and some sources, such as the Florentine codex, comment that the Aztecs believed the Spaniards to be gods and Cortés to be the returned god Quetzalcoatl. The veracity of this claim is difficult to ascertain, but recently ethnohistorians specialising in early Spanish/Nahua relations have discarded it as post-conquest mythicalisation[13]. Image File history File linksMetadata Moctezuma_palace. ... The Codex Mendoza is a painted document from the 1540s. ... Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) (who was known as Hernando or Fernando Cortés during his lifetime and signed all his letters Fernán Cortés) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. In the codex's description of the first meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés, the Aztec ruler is described as giving a prepared speech in classical oratorial Nahuatl, a speech which as described verbatim in the codex (written by Sahagún's Tlatelolcan informants who were probably not eyewitnesses of the meeting) included such prostrate declarations of divine or near-divine admiration as, "You have graciously come on earth, you have graciously approached your water, your high place of Mexico, you have come down to your mat, your throne, which I have briefly kept for you, I who used to keep it for you," and, "You have graciously arrived, you have known pain, you have known weariness, now come on earth, take your rest, enter into your palace, rest your limbs; may our lords come on earth." Matthew Restall argues that Moctezuma politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exactly opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority [14]. This speech has been a factor in fostering the belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. Other parties have also propagated the idea that the Native Americans believed the conquistadors to be gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Geronimo Mendieta[15]. Some Franciscan priests held millennarian beliefs and the natives taking the Spanish conquerors for gods was an idea that went well with this theology[16]. Bernardino de Sahagún, who compiled the Florentine Codex, was also a Franciscan priest. For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta (1525—1604, alternatively Jerónimo de Mendieta) was a Franciscan missionary and historian, who spent most of his life in the Spanish Empires new possessions in Mexico and Central America. ... Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... Bernardino de Sahagún Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of...


Mythical accounts of omens and Moctezuma's superstition

Bernardino de Sahagún (1499-1590) mentions eight events, occurring prior to the arrival of the Spanish, which were interpreted as signs of a possible disaster, e.g. a comet, the burning of a temple, a crying ghostly woman, and others. Some speculate that the Aztecs were particularly susceptible to such ideas of doom and disaster because the particular year in which the Spanish arrived coincided with a "tying of years" ceremony at the end of a 52-year cycle in the Aztec calendar, which in Aztec belief was linked to changes, rebirth and dangerous events. The belief of the Aztecs being rendered passive by their own superstition is referred to by Matthew Restall as part of "The Myth of Native Desolation" to which he dedicates chapter 6 in his book Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest.[17] These legends are likely a part of the post-conquest rationalisation by the Aztecs of their defeat, and serve to show Moctezuma as indecisive, vain, and superstitious, and ultimately the cause of the fall of the Aztec Empire. [18] Bernardino de Sahagún Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of...


Ethnohistorian Susan Gillespie has argued that the Nahua understanding of history as repeating itself in cycles also led to a subsequent rationalisation of the events of the conquests. In this interpretation the description of Moctezuma, the final ruler of the Aztec Empire, was tailored to fit the role of earlier rulers of ending dynasties - for example Quetzalcoatl, the mythical last ruler of the Toltecs.[19] In any case it is more than likely that the description of Moctezuma in post-conquest sources was largely coloured by his role as a monumental closing figure of Aztec history.[citation needed] The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ...


Contact with the Spanish

Also see: Hernan Cortés, Spanish Conquest of Mexico and Siege of Tenochtitlan
Spanish colonization of the Americas
History of the conquest

Inter caetera
Alaska
California
Florida
Guatemala
Mexico
Peru
Yucatán Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) (who was known as Hernando or Fernando Cortés during his lifetime and signed all his letters Fernán Cortés) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in... Carte dAmérique (18th century Delisle map) File links The following pages link to this file: New World Guillaume Delisle Categories: NowCommons | Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... Captain Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, circa 1785. ... The Spanish missions in California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native Americans. ... Spanish Florida (Florida Española) refers to the Spanish colony of Florida. ... // The Maya civilization thrived throughout much of Guatemala and the surrounding region for close to 2000 years before the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ...

Conquistadores

Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Hernán Cortés
Juan Ponce de León
Francisco de Montejo
Pánfilo de Narváez
Francisco Pizarro
Diego de Almagro
Hernando de Soto
Sebastián de Belalcázar
Pedro de Valdivia
Juan de Oñate
Francisco de Orellana A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Vasco Núñez De Balboa (1475–January 15, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. ... Coronado Sets Out to the North, by Frederic Remington, 1861-1909 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (c. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Juan Ponce de León (1460 – July 1521[1][2]) was a Spanish conquistador. ... Francisco de Montejo (c. ... Pánfilo de Narváez Pánfilo de Narváez (1470 – 1528) was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. ... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. ... Diego de Almagro Diego de Almagro (b. ... For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ... Sebastián de Belalcázar (1479 or 1480 to 1551) was a Spanish conquistador. ... Pedro de Valdivia Pedro de Valdivia (c. ... Don Juan de Oñate Salazar (1552 – 1626) was a Spanish explorer, colonial governor of the New Spain (present-day Mexico) province of New Mexico, and founder of various settlements in the present day Southwest of the United States. ... A Spanish postal stamp featuring Orellana Francisco de Orellana (c1500-c1549) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. ...

Meeting place of Moctezuma and Hernán Cortés.
Meeting place of Moctezuma and Hernán Cortés.

First interactions with the Spanish

In 1517, Moctezuma received the first reports of Europeans landing on the east coast of his empire; this was the expedition of Juan de Grijalva who had landed on San Juan Ulúa, which although within Totonac territory was under the auspices of the Aztec Empire. Moctezuma ordered that he be informed of any new sightings of foreigners at the coast and posted extra watch (Díaz del Castillo 1963: 220). Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Juan de Grijalva (born around 1489 in Cuéllar - January 21, 1527) was a Spanish conquistador. ... The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. ...


When Cortés arrived in 1519 Moctezuma was immediately informed and he sent emissaries to meet the newcomers, one of them known to be an Aztec noble named Tentlil in the Nahuatl language but referred to in the writings of Cortés and Bernal Díaz del Castillo as "Tendile". As the Spaniards approached Tenochtitlan they made an alliance with the Tlaxcalteca, who were enemies of the Aztec Triple Alliance, and they helped instigate revolt in many towns under Aztec dominion. Moctezuma was aware of this and he sent gifts to the Spaniards, probably in order to show his superiority to the Spaniards and Tlaxcalteca.[20] Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ...


On November 8, 1519, Moctezuma met Cortés on the causeway leading into Tenochtitlan and the two leaders exchanged gifts. Moctezuma gave Cortés the gift of an Aztec calender, one disc of crafted gold and another of silver. Cortés later melted these down for their material value (Díaz del Castillo 1963: 216-19). is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ...


Host and prisoner of the Spaniards

Moctezuma brought Cortés to his palace where the Spaniards lived as his guests for several months. Moctezuma continued governing his empire and even undertook conquests of new territory during the Spaniards' stay at Tenochtitlan.[citation needed]


At some time during that period Moctezuma became a prisoner in his own house. Exactly why this happened is not clear from the extant sources. The Aztec nobility reportedly became increasingly displeased with the large Spanish army staying in Tenochtitlan, and Moctezuma told Cortés that it would be best if they left. Shortly thereafter Cortés left to fight Panfilo de Narvaez and during his absence the massacre in the main temple turned the tense situation between the Spaniards and Aztecs into direct hostilities, and Moctezuma became a hostage used by the Spaniards to assure their security. (Díaz del Castillo 1963: 245-99). Pánfilo de Narváez (1480? - 1528) was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in The Americas. ... The massacre in the Main Temple of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán is an episode in the Spanish conquest of Mexico which occurred on May 10, 1520. ...


Death

In the subsequent battles with the Spaniards after Cortés' return, Montezuma was killed. The details of his death are unknown: different versions of his demise are given by different sources.


In his Historia, Bernal Díaz del Castillo states that on July 1, 1520, the Spanish forced Moctezuma to appear on the balcony of his palace, appealing to his countrymen to retreat. The people were appalled by their emperor's complicity and pelted him with rocks and darts. He died a short time after that. Bernal Díaz gives this account: Bernal Díaz del Castillo (1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a conquistador, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...

Montezuma was hit by three stones, one on the head, one on the arm, and one on the leg; and though they begged him to have his wounds dressed and eat some food and spoke very kindly to him, he refused. Then quite unexpectedly we were told that he was dead.

[citation needed]


Cortés similarly reported that Moctezuma died wounded by a stone thrown by his countrymen. On the other hand, the indigenous accounts claim that Moctezuma was killed by the Spanish prior to their leaving the city.[citation needed] According to Sahagún's Tlatelolcan informants, Alvarado "garrotted all the nobles he had in power",[citation needed] and Moctezuma's body was found in the street with sword wounds three days after the killings.[citation needed] A garrote (alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld weapon, most often referring to a ligature of chain, rope, or wire used to strangle someone to death. ...


In the Ramirez Codex, an anonymous account by a Christianized Aztec, the Spanish priests are criticized for searching for gold rather than administering the Last Rites. Some modern scholars, such as Matthew Restall (2003), prefer the indigenous accounts over the Spanish ones. They surmise that the Spanish killed Moctezuma once his inability to pacify the Aztec people had made him useless.[citation needed] This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ...


Aftermath

The Spaniards were forced to flee the city and they took refuge in Tlaxcala, and signed a treaty with them to conquer Tenochtitlan, offering to the Tlaxcalans freedom from any kind of tribute and the control of Tenochtitlan.[citation needed]


Moctezuma was then succeeded by his brother Cuitláhuac, who died shortly after during a smallpox epidemic. He was succeeded by his adolescent nephew, Cuauhtémoc. During the siege of the city, the sons of Moctezuma were murdered by the Aztec, possibly because they wanted to surrender. By the following year, the Aztec empire had entirely succumbed to the Spanish.[citation needed] Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... For other uses, see Cuauhtémoc (disambiguation). ...


Following the conquest, Moctezuma's daughter Techichpotzin was considered the heiress to the king's wealth following Spanish customs and given the name "Isabel". She was married to different conquistadors who laid claim to the heritage of the Aztec emperor.[citation needed] Techichpotzin was the daughter of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II. Once the Spanish Conquistadores had invaded what is now Mexico, the Aztec princess was baptized a Christian with the name Isabel Moctezuma. ...

Map showing the expansion of the Aztec empire through conquest. The conquests of Moctezuma II are marked by the colour green (based on the maps by Ross Hassig in Aztec Warfare)
Map showing the expansion of the Aztec empire through conquest. The conquests of Moctezuma II are marked by the colour green (based on the maps by Ross Hassig in Aztec Warfare)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1892x1055, 200 KB) Summary Map showing the expansions undertaken by various aztec rulers. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1892x1055, 200 KB) Summary Map showing the expansions undertaken by various aztec rulers. ...

Legacy

The epic story of Moctezuma the last leader of the Aztec Empire has captivated the thoughts of many people causing the ruler's name to gain wide recognition and use as a symbol in different contexts.[citation needed]


Native American mythology and folklore

Many Native American peoples are reported to worship deities named after the Aztec ruler, and often a part of the myth is that someday the deified Moctezuma shall return to vindicate his people. In Mexico the modern day Pames, the Otomi, Tepehua, Totonac and Nahua peoples are reported to worship earth deities named after Moctezuma.[21] The name also appears in Tzotzil Maya ritual in Zinacantán where dancers dressed as a raingod are called "Montezumas"[22] The Pames are an indigenous people of central Mexico living in the state of San Luis Potosí. They call themselves Xiúi. ... The Otomi are an indigenous people of central Mexico. ... Tepehua is an indigenous language of Mexico, spoken across a number of central Mexican states by the Tepehua ethnic group. ... The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. ... The Tzotzil Maya of the central highlands of Chiapas, Mexico are a Native American group, the direct descendants of the Classic Maya. ...


A mythological figure of the Tohono O'odham[23] people of Northern Mexico and some Pueblo people of New Mexico and Arizona by the name Montezuma, can possibly be traced back to the Aztec ruler.{[cn}} The Tohono Oodham are a Native American tribe formerly known as the Papago who reside primarily in the Sonoran Desert of the southwest United States and northwest Mexico. ... It has been suggested that Pueblo be merged into this article or section. ... Montezuma was the name of a hero-god in the mythology of certain Indian tribes of the Southwest United States, notably the Tohono Oodham, Apache, and Pueblo — not to be confused with the two historical Aztec Emperors of the same name in Mexico, Moctezuma I and Moctezuma II. In...


Hubert Howe Bancroft, writing in the 19th century (Native Races, Volume #3), speculated that the name of the historical Aztec Emperor Moctezuma had been used to refer to a combination of different cultural heroes who were united under the name of a particularly salient representative of Native American identity. This article needs to be updated. ...


Symbol of indigenous leadership

As a symbol of resistance towards Spanish the name of Moctezuma has been invoked in several indigenous rebellions.[citation needed]


One such example was the rebellion of the Virgin Cult in Chiapas in 1721, where the followers of the Virgin Mary rebelled against the Spanish after having been told by an apparition of the virgin that Moctezuma would be resuscitated to assist them against their Spanish oppressors. In the Quisteil rebellion of the Yucatec Maya in 1761 the rebel leader Jacinto Canek reportedly called himself "Little Montezuma". [24] Location within Mexico Municipalities of Chiapas Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - Total 74,211 km² (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Yucatec Maya is a Maya language spoken in the Yucatan Peninsula, northern Belize and parts of Guatemala. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Jacinto Canek, or Jacinto Uc de los Santos (ca. ...


Spanish noble family

The grandson of Montezuma II, Ihuitemotzin, baptized as Diego Luis de Moctezuma, was brought to Spain by King Philip II. There he married Francisca de la Cueva de Valenzuela.[25] In 1627, their son Pedro Tesifón de Moctezuma was given the title of 1st Count of Moctezuma de Tultengo, and thus became part of the Spanish nobility. One descendant of this family was General Jerónimo Girón y Moctezuma, commander of the Spanish forces at the Battle of Mobile (1781).[26] Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... The Battle of Mobile was part of a British counter-offensive aimed at recapturing the town of Mobile from the Spanish during the American Revolutionary War. ...


Moctezuma's daughter, Princess Xipaguacin Moctezuma, married Juan de Grau, Baron of Toleriu, one of Cortés's senior officers, who took her back to Spain where she died in the Mountain village of Toleriu, near Andorra, in 1537.[citation needed] Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ...


References in modern culture

  • The Mexican emperor was at the center of two 18th century Italian operas, Motezuma (1733) by Antonio Vivaldi and Montesuma (1781) by Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli.
  • The conquest of the Aztecs is recounted in a song by Neil Young called Cortez the Killer from the album Zuma, a tribute to Moctezuma who appears in the song as a wise and benevolent ruler.
  • In the game Age of Empires II The Conquerors you can play as the Aztecs and Moctezuma is featured in the storyline.
  • In the game Civilization IV Montezuma is the leader of the Aztec empire and can be controlled by the player.

Motezuma is an opera in three acts by Antonio Vivaldi with an Italian libretto by Girolamo Giusti. ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli (1752-1837) was a composer, born in Naples, Italy on April 4, 1752. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Travelers diarrhea (TD) is the most common illness affecting travelers. ... Red del Metro de Ciudad de México A distinctive orange train on surface track near Metro General Anaya on Line 2 osea no manches guey lol. ... San Lázaro Line 1 Balbuena Metro Moctezuma is a station on the Mexico City Metro, Mexico. ... This article is about the musician. ... Cortez the Killer is a song by Neil Young from his 1975 album, Zuma. ... Zuma is a rock album by Neil Young and Crazy Horse released in 1975. ... Sid Meiers Civilization IV (Civilization IV or Civ4) is a turn-based strategy computer game released in 2005 and developed by lead designer Soren Johnson under the direction of Sid Meier and Meiers studio Firaxis Games. ...

References

  1. ^ Williamson, Edwin. The Penguin History of Latin America. New York: Penguin, 1992:18
  2. ^ Hasig 1988, p. 231
  3. ^ Hasig 1988, p. 231
  4. ^ Andrews, J. Richard [1975] (2003). Introduction to Classical Nahuatl, Revised Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 599. 
  5. ^ Brinton, Daniel G. (1890). Ancient Nahuatl Poetry. 
  6. ^ Williamson, Edwin. The Penguin History of Latin America. New York: Penguin, 1992:18
  7. ^ Cacique is a hispanicized word of Caribbean origins, meaning "hereditary lord/chief" or "(military) leader". After first encountering the term and office in the Caribbean, conquest-era writers such as Díaz often used it to describe indigenous rulers generally./<ref> in their own right, and only some of his servants knew of it. He was quite free from sodomy. The clothes he wore one day he did not wear again till three or four days later. He had a guard of two hundred chieftains lodged in rooms beside his own, only some of whom were permitted to speak to him.'' (Díaz del Castillo 1568/1963: 224-25) When Moctezuma is killed, according to Díaz del Castillo, by his own [[people]] when trying to calm a [[revolt]], Díaz writes how sad all the Spaniards were: ''Cortes and all of us captains and soldiers wept for him, and there was no one among us that knew him and had dealings with him who did not mourn him as if he were our father, which was not surprising, since he was so good. It was stated that he had reigned for seventeen years, and was the best king they ever had in Mexico, and that he had personally triumphed in three wars against countries he had subjugated. I have spoken of the sorrow we all felt when we saw that Montezuma ''[sic]'' was dead. We even blamed the [[Mercederian]] friar for not having persuaded him to become a Christian"'' (Díaz del Castillo 1568/1963: 294).<ref>The Conquest of New Spain. Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Trans. J.M. Cohen New York: Penguin, 1963.</li> <li id="cite_note-7">'''[[#cite_ref-7|^]]''' Lockhart 1993, pp. 17-19</li> <li id="cite_note-8">'''[[#cite_ref-8|^]]''' ''Hernan Cortes: Letters from Mexico''. Trans. Anthony Padgen. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1986.</li> <li id="cite_note-9">'''[[#cite_ref-9|^]]''' ''Hernan Cortes: Letters from Mexico''. Trans. Anthony Padgen. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1986:467.</li> <li id="cite_note-10">'''[[#cite_ref-10|^]]''' Guzamn, Eulalia. ''Relaciones de Hernan Cortes a Carlos V sobre la invasion de Anáhuac''. Vol. I. Mexico, 1958.</li> <li id="cite_note-11">'''[[#cite_ref-11|^]]''' Tezozomoc, Fernando Alvarado, 1992 (1949), Crónica Mexicayotl, Translated by Adrián León, UNAM, México</li> <li id="cite_note-12">'''[[#cite_ref-12|^]]''' Restall 2003, chapter 6</li> <li id="cite_note-13">'''[[#cite_ref-13|^]]''' Restall, 2003, p 97</li> <li id="cite_note-14">'''[[#cite_ref-14|^]]''' Martínez 1980</li> <li id="cite_note-15">'''[[#cite_ref-15|^]]''' Phelan 1956</li> <li id="cite_note-16">'''[[#cite_ref-16|^]]''' Restall, 2003, chapter 6</li> <li id="cite_note-17">'''[[#cite_ref-17|^]]''' Lockhart 1993, pp. 17-19</li> <li id="cite_note-18">'''[[#cite_ref-18|^]]''' Gillespie, 1989, Chapter 5.</li> <li id="cite_note-19">'''[[#cite_ref-19|^]]''' Restall, Matthew. ''Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. [[Oxford University Press]] (2003), ISBN 0-19-516077-0 </li> <li id="cite_note-20">'''[[#cite_ref-20|^]]''' Gillespie 1989:165-66</li> <li id="cite_note-21">'''[[#cite_ref-21|^]]''' Bricker,1981:138-9</li> <li id="cite_note-22">'''[[#cite_ref-22|^]]''' [http://pyramidmesa.netfirms.com/papgo1.html Another telling of the Tohono O'odham legend, dated to 1883]</li> <li id="cite_note-23">'''[[#cite_ref-23|^]]''' Bricker,1981:73</li> <li id="cite_note-24">'''[[#cite_ref-24|^]]''' [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/the_americas/v063/63.3schwaller.html Project MUSE<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-25">'''[[#cite_ref-25|^]]''' [http://book-smith.tripod.com/montezuma.html A Descendant of Moctezuma at the Battle of Mobile, 1780<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li></ol></ref>

Sources

  • Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest by Matthew Restall, Oxford University Press (2003) ISBN 0-19-516077-0
  • Hassig, Ross, Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control; Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
  • Lockhart, James, ed., tr. We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico. University of California Press, 1993
  • John Leddy Phelan, The Millennial Kingdom of the Franciscans in the New World (1956)
  • Jose Luis Martínez, Gerónimo de Mendieta (1980), in Estudios de Cultura Nahuatl vol 14, UNAM, Mexico pp131-197
  • Townsend, Richard F. (2000) The Aztecs (revised edition), Thames and Hudson, New York.
  • Weaver, Muriel Porter (1993). The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors: Archaeology of Mesoamerica, 3rd ed., San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-01-263999-0. 

See also

Historic recurrence is the repetition of similar events in history. ... Motezuma is an opera in three acts by Antonio Vivaldi with an Italian libretto by Girolamo Giusti. ...

External links

  • A reconstructed portrait of Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, based on historical sources, in a contemporary style.
Preceded by
Ahuitzotl
Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan
1502–1520
Succeeded by
Cuitlahuac
Auítzotl (sometimes rendered as Ahuitzotl) was the Aztec ruler of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... This is a list of the tlatoque of Mexico Tenochtitlan, often referred to as Aztec emperors. Category: ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Xocoytl, Moctezuma II (1080 words)
Moctezuma II, also know as Moctezuma Xocoytl (Xocoytl simply meaning the younger), was born the youngest son of the Emperor Axacayatl who ruled from 1469 until his death in 1481, one year after Moctezuma’s birth.
Also, when Moctezuma asked after these strange visitors, he was told that their weapons spat lightning and thunder and that some of them had two heads, six legs, and one body (the Aztecs having never seen horses before, let alone men riding on them).
Moctezuma II was killed by stones his own people threw as he tried to calm their riot.
Montezuma — FactMonster.com (266 words)
He is sometimes called Montezuma II to distinguish him from Montezuma I (ruled 1440–69), who carried on conquests around
Moctezuma or Montezuma - Moctezuma or Montezuma Aztec emperor Born: 1480?
In 1502 Moctezuma became the ninth emperor of the...
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