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Encyclopedia > Manufacturing

Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand") is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. The term may refer to a vast range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Applied art. ... High tech refers to high technology, technology that is at the cutting-edge and the most advanced currently available. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... Look up Finished good in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Manufacturing takes place under all types of economic system. In a capitalist economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by a state agency to supply perceived needs. In modern economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ...


Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in the United States include General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company, Chrysler, Boeing, Gates Rubber Company and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include France's Airbus and Michelin Tire. Modern proponents of Fair Trade policy and a strong manufacturing base for the U.S. economy include economists Paul Craig Roberts and Ravi Batra, and commentator Lou Dobbs. Nasas Glenn Research Center clean room. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication, when used chas an industrial term, applies to the building of machines and structures by cutting, shaping and assembling components made from raw materials. ... Fabrication may refer to more than one thing: Fabrication (metal) Semiconductor device fabrication Lie Fiction Fable This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Ford Motor Company is an American multinational corporation and the worlds third largest automaker after Toyota and General Motors, based on worldwide vehicle sales. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 ) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Boeing. ... Charles Cassius Gates, Jr. ... Pfizer, Incorporated (NYSE: PFE) (pronounced faɪzəɹ or faɪzÉ™), is the worlds largest pharmaceutical company. ... Airbus S.A.S. is the aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS N.V., a pan-European aerospace concern. ... Michelin (full name: Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) (Euronext: ML) based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France, is primarily a tyre manufacturer. ... Certified Fair trade quinoa producers in Ecuador. ... The United States has the worlds second largest GDP, $13. ... Paul Craig Roberts Paul Craig Roberts is an economist and a nationally syndicated columnist for Creators Syndicate. ... Ravi Batra is a U.S. economist and professor at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. ... Lou Dobbs (born September 24, 1945) is an economist, the anchor and managing editor of CNNs Lou Dobbs Tonight, an editorial columnist, and host of a syndicated radio show. ...

Contents

Context

Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... Commercial law or business law is the body of law which governs business and commerce and is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals both with issues of private law and public law. ... Look up Management in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term general manager is a descriptive term for certain executives in a business operation. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through design and manufacture, to service and disposal. ... Advanced Planning & Scheduling (APS) refers to a manufacturing management process by which raw materials and production capacity are optimally allocated to meet demand. ... Scheduling is an important tool for manufacturing and engineering, where it can have a major impact on the productivity of a process. ...

History and development

  • In its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans.
  • Before the Industrial Revolution most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture (and continues to do so in places). Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
  • The beginnings of modern industrial manufacturing are covered in the Industrial Revolution article.
  • The development of the modern manufacturing facility is covered in the factory article.
  • The development of the applied science behind manufacturing is covered in the industrial process article.

An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... A Watt steam engine. ... The domestic system or putting-out system was a popular system of cloth production in Europe. ... A Watt steam engine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacture an item or items. ...

Manufacturing systems: The changing methods of manufacturing

A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... The domestic system or putting-out system was a popular system of cloth production in Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The American system of manufacturing involves semi-skilled labor using machine tools and templates (or jigs) to make standardized, identical, interchangeable parts, manufactured to a tolerance. ... The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Just In Time (JIT) is an inventory strategy implemented to improve the return on investment of a business by reducing in-process inventory and its associated costs. ... Lean manufacturing is a generic process management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS)[1] but also from other sources. ... i like chicken ... Mass customization refers to a customer co-design process of products and services which meet the needs of each individual customer with regard to certain product features . ... Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and training to enable it to respond quickly to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs and quality. ... Rapid manufacturing is a technique for manufacturing solid objects by the sequential delivery of energy and/or material to specified points in space to produce that part. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Economics of manufacturing

According to some economists, manufacturing is a wealth-producing sector of an economy, whereas a service sector tends to be wealth-consuming. [1][2] Economists who favor a strong manufacturinng base oppose outsourcing for the sake of labor arbitrage to obtain cheap labor as an example of absolute advantage which does not produce mutual gain, and not an example of comparative advantage which does.[3] Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing In economics and marketing, a service is the non-material equivalent of a good. ... Outsourcing became part of the business lexicon during the 1980s and often refers to the delegation of non-core operations from internal production to an external entity specializing in the management of that operation. ... A country has an absolute advantage economically over another, in a particular good, when it can produce that good more efficiently. ... In economics, the theory of comparative advantage explains why it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence. ... Manufacturing Belt, highlighted in red The Manufacturing Belt, sometimes nicknamed Rust Belt, is an area in parts of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States of America. ... Any activity or effort performed to protect a nation against attack or other threats. ...


On the other hand, some manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. In the U.S, manufacturers are subject to regulations by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency In Europe, pollution taxes to offset environmental costs are another form of regulation on manufacturing activity. Labor Unions and craft guilds have played a historic role negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention // Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Labor law or labour law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the relationship between and among employers, employees, and labor organizations, often dealing with issues of public law. ... An environment is a complex of external factors that acts on a system and determines its course and form of existence. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... EPA redirects here. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A guild is an association of people of the same trade or pursuits (with a similar skill or craft), formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of workmanship and ethical conduct. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... In the common law, a tort is a civil wrong for which the law provides a remedy. ... Product liability encompasses a number of legal claims that allow an injured party to recover financial compensation from the manufacturer or seller of a product. ...


Taxonomy of manufacturing processes

Taxonomy of manufacturing processes This tree lists various manufacturing processes arranged by similarity of function. ...


Manufacturing Process Management Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) is a collection of technology and methods used in the manufacture of products. ...


Manufacturing categories

Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as, semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures, and vacuum tubes. ... A semiconductor is a fuckin solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a metal and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... The structure of insulin Biological technology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... Synthetic biology is a new area of research that combines science and engineering in order to design and build novel biological functions and systems. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. ... The energy industry is a generic term for all of the industries involved the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing fuel and refining, and fuel distribution. ... F&B is a common abbreviation in the Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... The beer brewing industry is dominated by a few international players. ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Look up smith, Smith in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A machinist is a craftsman who uses machine tools to make parts or alter parts by cutting away excess material. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... Tool and Die Makers are highly skilled workers in the manufacturing industry. ... The global steel industry has been going through major shifts in focus. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... The USS Monongahela (1862), an exemplar of the 19th century sailmakers craft A sailmaker is a person who makes and repairs sails for sailboats, typically working on shore in a sail loft. ... Tentmaking is a method of international Christian evangelism in which missionaries support themselves through external work, instead of receiving financial support from a church. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Automakers, also known as carmakers, automobile manufacturers, motor manufacturers, or the automobile industry are companies that design and manufacture automobiles. ... Tire manufacturing is a complex process, starting with the raw materials which pass through several processes to arrive at the finished tire. ...

Theories

Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... Fordism is a form of production or production paradigm that prevailed in post-war decades (and perhaps even before second world war) in western industrial countries. ... Scientific management, Taylorism or the Classical Perspective is a method in management theory which determines changes to improve labour productivity. ...

Control

Look up Management in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of articles on general management and strategic management topics. ... Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. ... For the Jurassic 5 album, see Quality Control (album) In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. ... The often-used six sigma symbol. ...

See also

Manufacturing is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ...

References

  1. ^ Friedman, David (2006). No Light at the End of the Tunnel. Los Angeles Times. New America Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  2. ^ Joseph, Keith (1976). Monetarism Is Not Enough. Center for Policy Studies. Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  3. ^ Roberts, Paul Craig (2005-05-12). America is losing. Counter Punch. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph (January 17, 1918 - December 10, 1994) was a lawyer, a British politician, and Conservative cabinet member under three different administrations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • MESA International Association Website
  • Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME)
  • How Everyday Things Are Made
  • Engineers Edge
  • Manufacturers Alliance
  • Logistics Quarterly
  • National Association of Manufacturers
  • Manufacturer China
  • The Logistics Institute
  • Alliance for American Manufacturing
  • The Manufacturer
  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization
  • US Manufacturer Directory
  • Manufacturing Engineering Centre (MEC), Cardiff University, UK.

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