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Encyclopedia > MEGHALAYA
  ?Meghalaya
India
Coordinates: 25°34′N 91°53′E / 25.57, 91.88
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 22,429 km² (8,660 sq mi)
Capital Shillong
Largest city Shillong
District(s) 7
Population
Density
2,306,069 (23rd)
• 103/km² (267/sq mi)
Language(s) Garo, Khasi, English
Governor Banwari Lal Joshi
Chief Minister D.D. Lapang
Established 1972-01-21
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (60)
ISO abbreviation IN-ML
Website: meghalaya.nic.in

Coordinates: 25°34′N 91°53′E / 25.57, 91.88 Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links India_Meghalaya_locator_map. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... , Shillong (Khasi Shillong) is the capital of Meghalaya, one of the smaller states in India. ... , Shillong (Khasi Shillong) is the capital of Meghalaya, one of the smaller states in India. ... The divisions of a district. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ... Garo is the language of the majority of the people of the Hills which bear their name in the state of Meghalaya of India. ... Khasi is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the four districts of Meghalaya state in India, namely East Khasi Hills district, West Khasi Hills district, Jaiñtia Hills district and Ri Bhoi district. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Governors of Meghalaya See Also Meghalaya Governors of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Meghalaya | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... Banwari Lal Joshi (born 1 April 1934) is the governor of the Indian state of Meghalaya. ... Chief Ministers of Meghalaya See Also Meghalaya Chief Ministers of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Meghalaya | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... Dr. Donwa Dethwelson Lapang (b. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... ISO 3166-2 for India (ISO 3166-1 : IN) The purpose of this family of standards is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and such. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Meghalaya pronunciation  is a small state in north-eastern India. The word "Meghalaya" literally means "The Abode of Clouds" in Hindi and Sanskrit. Meghalaya is a hilly strip in the eastern part of the country about 300 km long (east-west) and 100 km wide, with a total area of about 22,429 km². The population numbered 2,175,000 in 2000. The state is bounded on the north by Assam and by Bangladesh on the south. The capital is Shillong, which has a population of 260,000. Image File history File links Meghalaya. ... India is subdivided into 28 states, 6 union territories and a national capital territory. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... , Shillong (Khasi Shillong) is the capital of Meghalaya, one of the smaller states in India. ...


About one third of the state is forested. The Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion encompasses the state; its montane forests are distinct from the lowland tropical forests to the north and south. The forests of Meghalaya are notable for their biodiversity of mammals, birds, and plants. The Meghalaya subtropical forests is a montane subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of eastern India. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...

Contents

History

Meghalaya was formed by carving out the two districts of the state of Assam: the United Khasi and Jaintia Hills, and the Garo Hills on 21 January 1972. Prior to attaining full statehood, Meghalaya was given a semi-autonomous status in 1970. is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Khasi, Garo, and Jaintia tribes each had their own kingdoms, until they came under the British administration in the 19th century. Later, the British incorporated Meghalaya into Assam in 1835. The region enjoyed semi-independent status by virtue of a treaty relationship with the British Crown.


When Bengal was partitioned on 16 October, 1905 by Lord Curzon, Meghalaya became a part of the new province of 'Eastern Bengal and Assam'. However, when the partition was reversed in 1912, Meghalaya became a part of the province of Assam. At the time of Independence of the country in 1947, the present day Meghalaya constituted two districts of Assam and enjoyed limited autonomy within the state of Assam. Partition of Bengal, 1905 was made on 16 October 1905 by then Indian vice roy Lord Curzon. ...


On 3 January, 1921 in pursuance of Section 52A of the Government of India Act of 1919, the Governor-General-in-Council declared the areas now in Meghalaya, other than the Khasi States, as "backward tracts". Subsequently however, the Government of India Act of 1935 regrouped the backward tracts into two categories, namely, "excluded" and "partially excluded" areas in place of backward tracts. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time of Independence of the country in 1947, the present day Meghalaya constituted two districts of Assam and enjoyed limited autonomy within the state of Assam.


The Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act, 1969 accorded an autonomous status on the state of Meghalaya. The Act came into effect on April 2nd 1970, and an Autonomous State of Meghalaya was created within the State of Assam. The Autonomous state had a Legislature in accordance with the Sixth schedule to the Constitution. The Legislature had 37 members.


In 1971, the Parliament passed the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganization) Act, 1971, which conferred full statehood on the Autonomous State of Meghalaya. Meghalaya attained statehood on 21 January 1972, with a Legislative Assembly of its own. is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Demographics

Tribal peoples make up the majority of Meghalaya's population. The Khasis are the largest group, followed by the Garos. These were among those known to the British as "hill tribes". Other groups include the Jaintias, the Koch and the Hajong, Dimasa, Hmar, Kuki, Lakhar, Mikir, Rabha etc.. The Khasi are a tribe in Meghalaya, India and in parts of Bangladesh, who call themselves Hynniew trep (which means the seven huts in the Khasi language). ... The Garos are a tribe in Meghalaya, India, and Mymensingh, Bangladesh, who call themselves Achik. ... Akha girl. ... Jaintia was an ancient hill kingdom in Assam. ... Koch is German for cook. Koch can refer to the following: Bill Koch - cross-country skier Billy Koch - Major league baseball relief pitcher Carl Ludwig Koch and his son Ludwig Carl Christian Koch - German entomologists specializing in arachnology Carl Wilhelm Otto Koch, (1810 - 1876), mayor of Leipzig Charles G. Koch... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Hmar is the name of one of the numerous tribes of India, spread over a large area in the northeast. ... The term Kuki people refers to Zo ethnic entity that spreads out in a contiguous region in Northeast India, Northwest Burma (Myanmar), and the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh. ... The Karbi, mentioned as the Mikir in the Constitution Order of the Government of India, constitute an important ethnic group in the hill areas of Assam. ... Rabha is a tribe in Assam. ...


Meghalaya is one of three states in India to have a Christian majority with 70.3% of the population practicing Christianity [1]; the other two (Nagaland and Mizoram) are also in the north-east of India. Hinduism is the next sizeable faith in the region with 13.3% of the population practicing it. [2] A sizeable minority, 11.5% of the population follow an ancient Animist philosophy (classified as other on the census). [3] Muslims make up 4.3% of the population as well. [4] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ...


As per the census of India 2001, the sex ratio in the state was 975 females per thousand males which was much better than the national average of 933. It has grown steadily from a 1981 level of 954. Traditionally the sex ratio in the rural areas has been higher than that in the urban areas. However, as per the census figures for 2001, the urban sex ratio in of 985 was higher than the rural sex ratio of 972. This has often been attributed to the belief that, unlike most other parts of India, there is no special preference for a male child in Meghalaya. Motto Satyameva Jayate (Sanskrit)  (Devanagari) Truth Alone Triumphs[1] Anthem Jana Gana Mana Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people[2] Vande Mataram I bow to thee, Mother[4] Capital New Delhi Largest city Mumbai Official Languages: Scheduled Languages: Hindi, English Hindi in the Devanagari script is... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ...


Culture and society

The main tribes in Meghalaya are the Jaintias, the Khasis and the Garos. One of the unique features of the State is that a majority of the tribal population in Meghalaya follows a matrilineal system where lineage and inheritance are traced through women. The Khasi and Jaintia tribesmen follow the traditional matrilineal norm, wherein the "Ka Khadduh" (or the youngest daughter) inherits all the property and acts as the caretaker of aged parents and any unmarried siblings. However, the male line, particularly the mother’s brother, may indirectly control the ancestral property since he may be involved in important decisions relating to property including its sale and disposal. The tribal people of Meghalaya are therefore a part of what may be the world's largest surviving matrilineal culture. According to India's National Family Health Survey, Meghalaya is the state where parents have shown the least interest to have a male child -- 73% less than the national average.


Geography

The Umiam Lake near Shillong
The Umiam Lake near Shillong

Geographically, the State of Meghalaya is also known as the "Meghalaya Plateau". It consists mainly of archean rock formations. These rock formations contain rich deposits of valuable minerals like coal, limestone, uranium, silimanite etc. Meghalaya has many rivers. Most of these are rainfed and are therefore seasonal. The important rivers in the Garo Hills Region are Daring, Sanda, Bandra, Bhogai, Dareng and Simsang, Nitai and the Bhupai. In the central and eastern section of the plateau the important rivers are Umkhri, Digaru, Umiam, Kynchiang (Jadukata), Mawpa, Umiew or Barapani, Myngot and Myntdu. In the southern Khasi Hills Region, these rivers have created deep gorges and some of the most beautiful waterfalls. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1751x1139, 1051 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Meghalaya Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1751x1139, 1051 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Meghalaya Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Umiam Lake in Meghalaya Umiam Lake is a lake located in the hills 15 kms from Shillong in the state of Meghalaya, India. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


The elevation of the plateau ranges between 150 m to 1961 m. The central part of the plateau comprising the Khasi Hills has the highest elevations, followed by the eastern section comprising the Jaintia Hills Region. The highest point in Meghalaya is the Shillong Peak which is also a prominent IAF station. in the Khasi Hills overlooking the city of Shillong. It has an altitude of 1961 m. The Garo Hills Region in the western section of the plateau is nearly plain. The highest point in the Garo hills is the Nokrek Peak with an altitude of 1515 m.


Districts

Workers outside a coalmine in the Jaintia Hills
Workers outside a coalmine in the Jaintia Hills

Meghalaya currently has 7 districts. These are: East Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills, Ri-Bhoi, South Garo Hills, West Garo Hills and the West Khasi Hills. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (876x754, 362 KB) I RMehra, took this picture myself in Jowai in February 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Meghalaya Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (876x754, 362 KB) I RMehra, took this picture myself in Jowai in February 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Meghalaya Metadata This file contains additional information... East Garo Hills is an administrative district in the state of Meghalaya in India. ... East Khasi Hills is an administrative district in the state of Meghalaya in India. ... Jaintia Hills is an administrative district in the state of Meghalaya in India. ... Ri Bhoi District in Meghalaya, was upgraded from subdivisional level to a full fledged district on 4 June 1992. ... South Garo Hills is an administrative district in the state of Meghalaya in India. ... West Garo Hills is an administrative district in the state of Meghalaya in India. ... West Khasi Hills is an administrative district in the state of Meghalaya in India. ...


The East Garo Hills district was formed in 1976 and has a population of 247,555 as per the 2001 census. It covers an area of 2603 square kilometres. The District Headquarters are located at Williamnagar, earlier known as Simsangiri.


The East Khasi Hills district was carved out of the Khasi Hills on 28 October 1976. The district has covers an area of 2,748 square kilometres and has a population of 660,923 as per the 2001 census. The headquarters of East Khasi Hills are located in Shillong. is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Jaintia Hills district was created on 22nd February 1972. It has a total geographical area of 3819 square kilometres and a population of 295,692 as per the 2001 census. The district headquarters are located at Jowai. Jaintia Hills district is the largest producer of coal in the state. Coal mines can be seen all over the district. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ...


The Ri-Bhoi district was formed by further division of East Khasi Hills district on 4th June 1992. It has an area of 2448 square kilometres. The total population of the district was 192,795 as per the 2001 census. The district headquarters are located at Nongpoh. It has a hilly terrain and a large part of the area is covered with forests. The Ri-Bhoi district is famous for its pineapples and is the largest producer of pinapples in the state.


The South Garo Hills district came into existence on 18th June 1992 after the division of the West Garo Hills district. The total geographical area of the district is 1850 square kilometres. As per the 2001 census the district has a population of 99,100. The district headquarters are located at Baghmara.


The West Garo Hills district lies in the western part of the state and covers a geographical area of 3714 square kilometres. The population of the district is 515,813 as per the 2001 census. The district headquarters are located at Tura.


The West Khasi Hills district is the largest district in the state with a geographical area of 5247 square kilometres. The district was carved out of Khasi Hills District on 28th October 1976. The district headquarters are located at Nongstoin.


Climate

A sign board in Cherrapunji
A sign board in Cherrapunji

The climate of Meghalaya is moderate but humid. With average annual rainfall as high as 1200 cm in some areas, Meghalaya is the wettest state of India. The western part of the plateau, comprising the Garo Hills Region with lower elevations, experiences high temperatures for most of the year. The Shillong area, with the highest elevations, experiences generally low temperatures. The maximum temperature in this region rarely goes beyond 28 degrees, whereas winters temperatures of sub-zero degrees are common. The town of Cherrapunji in the Khasi Hills south of capital Shillong holds the world record for most rain in a calendar month, while the village of Mawsynram, near town of Cherrapunji, holds the distinction of seeing the heaviest yearly rains. Best time to visit Meghalaya is during the months of March to July. Originally the British and Assam Tea Estate owners would shift here during the summer months to escape the heat of the Indian Plains. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (695x934, 380 KB) I, RMehra, took this picture myself in February 2005 in Cherrapunji. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (695x934, 380 KB) I, RMehra, took this picture myself in February 2005 in Cherrapunji. ... Meghalaya Cherrapunji is a town in Meghalaya, India which is credited as being one of the worlds wettest places. ...


Economy

Meghalaya is predominantly an agrarian economy. Agriculture and allied activities engage nearly two-thirds of the total work force in Meghalaya. However, the contribution of this sector to the State’s NSDP is only about one-third. Agriculture in the state is characterized by low productivity and unsustainable farm practices, giving rise to a high incidence of rural poverty. As a result, despite the large percentage of population engaged in agriculture, the state is still dependent upon imports from other states for most food items such as meat, eggs, food grains etc. Infrastructural constraints have also prevented the economy of the state from growing at a pace commensurate with that of the rest of the country. Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ...


Meghalaya is considered to have a rich base of natural resources. These include minerals such coal, limestone, silimanite, Kaolin and granite among others. Meghalaya also has a large forest cover, rich biodiversity and numerous water bodies. However, the low level of industrialization and the relatively poor infrastructure base in the state acts as an impediment to the exploitation of these natural resources in the interest of the state's economy. Meghalaya also has much natural beauty and the State government has been trying to exploit this for promoting tourism in the State. However, infrastructural constraints and security concerns have hampered the growth of tourism in the state. For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Tourist redirects here. ...


Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trends in the gross state domestic product of Meghalaya at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 2,000
1985 3,930
1990 8,900
1995 19,950
2000 37,280

Meghalaya's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $1.6 billion in current prices.


Incidence of Poverty

Planning Commission, the apex planning body under the Government of India, has estimated the percentage of population below poverty line in Meghalaya at nearly one-third the total population of the state in 2000. The incidence of poverty in rural areas at about 55% is almost double the percentage of poverty in the urban areas. This article needs cleanup. ...


Agriculture

Nearly 10% of the total geographical area of Meghalaya is under cultivation. Agriculture in the state is characterized by limited use of modern techniques and low productivity. As a result, despite the vast majority of the population engaged in agriculture, the contribution of agricultural production to the state’s GDP is low and most of the population engaged in agriculture remains poor. A substantial portion of the cultivated area is under the traditional shifting agriculture known locally as “Jhum” cultivation. Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. ...


Food grains are the most important crop in Meghalaya. These are grown in over 1,330 km², nearly 60% of the state’s cultivated area. The production of food grains is over 230 thousand tonnes. Rice is the dominant food grain crop accounting for over 80% of the food grain production in the state. Other important food grain crops are maize, wheat and a few other cereals and pulses.


Oilseeds such as rape and mustard, linseed, soybean, castor and sesame are grown on nearly 100 km². Rape and mustard are the most important oilseeds accounting for well over two-thirds of the oilseed production of nearly 6.5 thousand tonnes.


Fibre crops such as cotton, jute and Mesta had traditionally been among the only cash crops in Meghalaya, grown almost exclusively in Garo Hills. These have been losing popularity in recent years as indicated by their declining yield and area under cultivation.


Climatic conditions in Meghalaya also permit a large variety of horticulture crops including fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices and medicinal plants. These are considered to be higher value crops but traditional values and food security concerns have prevented farmers at large from embracing these crops.


The important fruits currently grown in the state include citrus fruits, pineapple, papaya, banana etc. The mandarin orange grown in Meghalaya is considered to be of very high quality. In addition to this, a large variety of vegetables are grown in the state including cauliflower, cabbage and radish.


Areca nut plantations can be seen all over the state, especially around the road from Guwahati to Shillong. Other plantation crops like tea, coffee and cashew have been introduced lately and are becoming popular. A large variety of spices, flowers, medicinal plants and mushrooms are also grown in the State.


Transport

The partition of the country has created severe infrastructure constraints for the Northeastern region, with merely 2% of the perimeter of the region adjoining the rest of the country. A narrow strip of land, often called the Siliguri Corridor, or the Chicken's Neck connects the region with the State of West Bengal. Meghalaya is a land locked state with a large number of small settlements in remote areas. Road is the only means of transport within the state. While the capital Shillong is relatively well connected, road connectivity in most other parts of the state is relatively poor. A significant portion of the roads in the state are still un-metalled. Most of the arrivals into the Meghalaya take place through Guwahati in neighbouring Assam, which is nearly 103 km away. Assam has a major railhead as well as an airport with regular train and air services to the rest of the country. The State still has a large number of old timber bridges. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chickens Neck an isthmus of Indian territory is shown in red. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ...


Meghalaya does not have any railhead. It has a small airport at Umroi, about 40 km from Shillong on the Guwahati-Shillong highway. The small size of the airport does not allow the operations of large aircraft and only small aircraft operate from Kolkata and Agartala, capital of the neighbouring State of Tripura. , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Agartala   (Bengali: আগরতলা) is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ...


Flora and fauna

As per the State of Forest Report 2003, published by the Forest Survey of India, Meghalaya has a forest cover of 9,496 km², which is 42.34% of the total geographical area of the state. The Meghalayan subtropical forests have been considered among the richest botanical habitats of Asia. These forests receive abundant rainfall and support a vast variety of floral and faunal biodiversity. A small portion of the forest area in Meghalaya is under what is known as “sacred groves” (see Sacred groves of India). These are small pockets of ancient forest that have been preserved by the communities for hundreds of years due to religious and cultural beliefs. These forests are reserved for religious rituals and generally remain protected from any exploitation. These sacred groves harbour many rare plant and animal species. The Nokrek biosphere reserve and the Balaphakram National Park, both in the West Garo Hills are considered to be the most biodiversity rich sites in the Meghalaya. In addition, Meghalaya has three Wildlife Sanctuaries. These are the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, the Siju Sanctuary and the Bhagmara Sanctuary, which is also the home of the insect eating pitcher plant Nepenthes khasiana. Sacred groves were a feature of the mythological landscape and the cult practice of Old Europe, of the most ancient levels of Scandinavian mythology, Greek mythology, Slavic mythology, Roman mythology, and in Druidic practice. ... For the article about sacred groves in general, see Sacred grove Sacred groves in India refer to tracts of usually virgin forests of varying sizes, which are communally protected, and which usually have a significant religious connotation for the protecting community. ... Pitcher of Nepenthes distillatoria. ... Binomial name Nepenthes khasiana Hook. ...


Due to the diverse climatic and topographic conditions, Meghalayan forests support a vast floral diversity, including a large variety of Parasites and Epiphytes, Succulent plants and Shrubs. Two of the most important tree varieties include: Shorea robusta or Sal and the Tectona grandis or teak. Meghalaya is also the home to a large variety of fruits, vegetables, spices and medicinal plants. Meghalayan is also famous for its large variety of orchids – nearly 325 of them. Of these the largest variety is found in Mawsmai, Mawmluh and Sohrarim forests in the Khasi hills. A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Succulent plants, such as this Aloe, store water in their fleshy leaves Succulent plants, also known as succulents or fat plants, are water-retaining plants adapted to xerophilic climatic or soil conditions. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Binomial name Shorea robusta Roth Sal (Shorea robusta) is a species of tree native to southern Asia, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. ... Binomial name Roth Sal (Shorea robusta) is a species of tree native to southern Asia, ranging south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), also called jati is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ...


Meghalaya also has a large variety of mammals, birds, reptiles and insects. The important mammal species include elephants, bear, civets, mongooses, weasels, rodents, gaur, wild buffalo, deer, wild boar and a number of primates. Meghalaya also has a large variety of bats. The limestone caves in Meghalaya, such as the Siju cave are home to some of the rarest bat species. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Genera Chrotogale Cynogale Diplogale Hemigalus Arctogalidia Macrogalidia Paguma Paradoxurus Civettictis Viverra Viverricula Civets are mammals, most of which are species in the family Viverridae. ... Genera 17 genera, see text The mongoose is any member of the Herpestidae family of small, cat-like carnivores. ... For other uses, see Weasel (disambiguation). ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 Range map The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ...


The prominent bird species in Meghalaya include the Magpie-Robin, the Red-vented Bulbul, the Hill Myna is usually found in pairs or in flocks in the hill forests of Meghalaya, the Large Pied Hornbill and the Great Indian, which is the largest bird in Meghalaya. Other birds include the Peacock Pheasant, the Large Indian Parakeet, the Common Green Pigeon and the Blue Jay. Meghalaya is also home to over 250 species of butterflies, nearly a quarter of all the species found in India.


The common reptile varieties in Meghalaya are lizards, crocodiles and tortoises. Meghalaya also has a number of snakes including the python, the Copperhead, the Green Tree Racer, the Indian Cobra the King Cobra, the Coral Snake and Vipers. For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tortoise (disambiguation). ... Synonyms Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826 Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831 Holodonta - Müller, 1832 Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840 Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythones - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Cope, 1864 Peropodes - Meyer, 1874... Binomial name (F. Boie, 1827) Radiated Ratsnakes or Copperhead Rat Snake Elaphe radiata is a species of snake. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Indian Cobra or Spectacled Cobra (Naja naja), also known as an Asian Cobra, is a species of venomous snake native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Binomial name Cantor, 1836 Range (in red) The King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the worlds longest venomous snake, growing to a length of 18. ... Species Over 65, see article. ... Synonyms Viperae - Laurenti, 1768 Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperidae - Gray, 1825[1] The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes commonly referred to as vipers, although the term viperids is more specific and distinguishes them from the viperines (subfamily Viperinae). ...


Tourism

Introduction

Earlier, foreign tourists required special permits to enter the areas that now constitute the state of Meghalaya. However, the restrictions were removed in 1955. Meghalaya is considered to be one of the most picturesque states in the country. It has enough tourism content to attract tourists of many different interests.


Tourism content

Meghalaya has some of the thickest surviving forests in the country and therefore constitutes one of the most important ecotourism circuits in the country today. The Meghalayan subtropical forests support a vast variety of flora and fauna. Meghalaya has 2 National Parks and 3 Wildlife Sanctuaries.


Meghalaya also offers many adventure tourism opportunities in the form of mountaineering, rock climbing, trekking and hiking, water sports etc. The state offers several trekking routes some of which also afford and opportunity to encounter some rare animals such as the slow loris, assorted deer and bear. The Umiam Lake has a water sports complex with facilities such as rowboats, paddleboats, sailing boats, cruise-boats, water-scooters and speedboats. Umiam Lake in Meghalaya Umiam Lake is a lake located in the hills 15 kms from Shillong in the state of Meghalaya, India. ...


Meghalaya has an estimated 500 natural limestone and sandstone caves spread over the entire state including most of the longest and deepest caves in the sub-continent. Krem Liat Prah is the longest cave and Synrang Pamiang is the deepest cave, both located in the Jaintia Hills. Cavers from United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Ireland and the US have been visiting Meghalaya for over a decade exploring these caves. Not many of these have however been developed or promoted adequately for major tourist destinations. Krem Liat Prah is the longest natural cave in India. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ...


Important Tourist Spots

‘Cherrapunjee’, may well be regarded as one of the most popular tourist spots in North East of India. It lies to the south of the capital Shillong. The town is very well known and needs little publicity. A rather scenic, 50 kilometer long road, connects Cherrapunjee with Shillong.


The popular waterfalls in the state are the Elephant Falls, Shadthum Falls, Weinia falls, Bishop Falls, Nohkalikai Falls, Langshiang falls and Sweet Falls. The hot springs at Jakrem near Mawsynram are believed to have curative and medicinal properties.


Meghalaya also has many natural and manmade lakes. The Umiam Lake (popularly known as Bara Pani meaning Big water) on the Guwahati-Shillong road is a major tourism attraction for tourist. Meghalaya several parks; Thangkharang Park, the Eco-park, the Botanical Garden and Lady Hydari Park to name a few. Dawki, which is located at about 96 Kilometres from Shillong is the gateway to Bangladesh and affords a scenic view of some of the tallest mountain ranges in Meghalaya and the Bangladesh border lands.


Problems and Constraints

The state has a relatively poor road and communication network. While some of the major circuits such as Shillong-Jowai, Shillong-Tura and Shillong-Sohra are well developed; the internal road networks are rather poor and inadequately maintained. There are few markets outside capital Shillong. Banking facilities are also missing and few establishments in the state accept credit cards. The Garo hills region which has some of the most important tourist spots is not well connencted with the rest of the state.


Tourism in the North East in general has also suffered on account of years of insurgency and the resulting security concerns. Many governments had in the past issue advisories against traveling to the Northeast of India, worsening the security perception. It may however be mentioned that Meghalaya is perhaps the least affected by insurgency in the Northeast region. The current ground scenario for Shillong is one in which tourist are welcome to come and enjoy the beauty of Meghalaya.


Government and politics

State Government

Like most other states in India, Meghalaya has a unicameral legislature. The State Legislative Assembly has 60 members at present. Meghalaya has two representatives in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India; one each from Shillong and Tura. It also has one representative in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament. The ceremonial head of the State is the Governor appointed by the Government of India. However, the real executive powers are held by the Chief Minister. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ...


Meghalaya does not have a high court of its own. The Guwahati High Court has jurisdiction in Meghalaya. A Circuit Bench of the Guwahati High Court has been functioning at Shillong since 1974.


See also

  • List of political parties in the state

Autonomous District Councils

In order to provide a local self governance machinery to the rural population of the country, provisions were made in the Constitution of India and accordingly the Panchayati Raj institutions were set up. However, on account of the distinct customs and traditions prevailing in erstwhile state of Assam (of which Meghalaya and most of the Northeast was a part), it was felt necessary to have a separate political and administrative structure in Assam. Moreover, some of the tribal communities in the region also had their own traditional political systems and it was felt that Panchayati Raj institutions may come into conflict with these traditional systems. The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... The Panchayat is a South Asian political system. ...


To provide a simple and inexpensive form of local self governance to the tribal population, the Sixth Schedule was appended to the Constitution on the recommendations of a sub committee formed under the leadership of Gopinath Bordoloi. The Sixth Schedule provided for the constitution of Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) in certain rural areas of the Northeast including some areas that now fall in Meghalaya. The Sixth Schedule carries detailed provisions for the constitution and management of Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) and laid down the powers of the ADCs. At present Meghalaya has three ADCs, viz., Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council, Garo Hills Autonomous District Council and the Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council. Gopinath Bordoloi was the state of Assams first Chief Minister, and also leading Indian freedom-fighter from Assam. ...


Traditional political institutions

All the three major ethnic tribal groups, namely, the Khasis, Jaintias and the Garos also have their own traditional political institutions that have existed for hundreds of years. These political institutions were fairly well developed and functioned at various tiers, such as the village level, clan level and state level. In the traditional political system of the Khasis each clan had its own council known as the “Durbar Kur”, which was presided over by the clan headman. The council or the Durbar managed the internal affairs of the clan. Similarly, every village had a local assembly known as the Durban Shnong, i.e. village Durbar or council, which was presided over by the village headman. These councils or Durbars played an administrative role in issues of common interest, such as sanitation, water supply, health, roads, education and conflict resolution. However, the inter-village issues were dealt with through a political unit comprising adjacent Khasi Villages. This political unit was known as the raid. The raid had its own council the Raid Durbar, which was presided over by the elected headman known as Basans, Lyngdohs or Sirdars. Above the Raid was a the supreme political authority known as the Syiemship. The Syiemship was the congregation of several raids and was headed an elected chief known as the “Syiem” (or the king). The Syiem ruled the Khasi state through the State Assembly, known as the Durbar Hima. Most of the elections were through adult male suffrage.


The Jaintias also had a three tier political system somewhat similar to the Khasis. The supreme political authority was the Syiem. The second tier of this structure was the congregation of Jaintia villages known as Raids. These were headed by “Dolois”, who were responsible for performing the executive, magisterial, religious and ceremonial functions at the Raid level. At the lowest level were the village headmen. Each administrative tier had its own councils or durbars. Most elections were through adult male suffrage.


In the traditional political system of the Garos a group of Garo villages comprised the Akhing. The Akhing functioned under the supervision of the Nokmas, which was perhaps the only political and administrative authority in the political institution of the Garos. The Nokma performed both judicial and legislative functions. The Nokmas also congregated to address inter-Aching issues. There were no well-organized councils or durbars among the Garos.


Facts and figures

Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Khasi are a tribe in Meghalaya, India and in parts of Bangladesh, who call themselves Hynniew trep (which means the seven huts in the Khasi language). ... The Garos are a tribe in Meghalaya, India, and Mymensingh, Bangladesh, who call themselves Achik. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ),(also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of tribe, lord or a revered old man. ... Koch is German for cook. Koch can refer to the following: Bill Koch - cross-country skier Billy Koch - Major league baseball relief pitcher Carl Ludwig Koch and his son Ludwig Carl Christian Koch - German entomologists specializing in arachnology Carl Wilhelm Otto Koch, (1810 - 1876), mayor of Leipzig Charles G. Koch... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... , Shillong (Khasi Shillong) is the capital of Meghalaya, one of the smaller states in India. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  2. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  3. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  4. ^ http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/ 2001 Indian Census Data
  5. ^ http://www.censusindiamaps.net/page/Religion_WhizMap1/housemap.htm
  • Gopalakrishanan R, Meghalaya - Land and People, ISBN 81-7117-146-X
  • Thomas Eugene D. – Poverty and Rural Development in Meghalaya
  • Power to the People in Meghalaya, Regency Publishers

External links

  • Native-NE: The Community Website of North East India
  • Sinlung News
  • Meghalaya State homepage
  • Shillong Online
  • History of Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
  • St. Mary's College, Shillong (Meghalaya)
  • St. Edmund's College, Shillong (Meghalaya)
  • North Liberty English School, Jowai(Meghalaya)
  • National Geographic Article on Meghalayan Subtropical Forests
  • Lakes, waterfalls and orchids in abode of clouds - The Tribume
  • Cave Biology (Biospeleology)Solutions for Cave related queries.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Meghalaya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (353 words)
Meghalaya (मेघालय in Devanāgarī) is a small state in north-eastern India.
Meghalaya was originally part of Assam, and became a separate state on 21 January 1972.
Meghalaya is one of three states in India to have a Christian majority; the other two (Nagaland and Mizoram) are also in the north-east of India.
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