FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Lung cancer
Lung cancer
Classification and external resources
Cross section of a human lung. The white area in the upper lobe is cancer; the black areas indicate that the patient was a smoker.
ICD-10 C33.-C34.
ICD-9 162
DiseasesDB 7616
MedlinePlus 007194
eMedicine med/1333  med/1336 emerg/335 radio/807 radio/405 radio/406
MeSH D002283

Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. The vast majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas of the lung, derived from epithelial cells. Lung cancer, the most common [[Link title < small > < / small > ]]cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women,[1][2] is responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide annually.[3] In the UK, it is the most common site of fatal cancer in both men and women. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing (including coughing up blood), and weight loss.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (884x1350, 950 KB) Public domain image from cancer. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This article is about the medical term. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ...


The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. This distinction is important because the treatment varies; non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is sometimes treated with surgery, while small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation.[5] The most common cause of lung cancer is long term exposure to tobacco smoke.[6] The occurrence of lung cancer in non-smokers, who account for fewer than 10% of cases, appears to be due to a combination of genetic factors,[7][8] radon gas,[9] asbestos,[10] and air pollution,[11][12][13] including second-hand smoke.[14][15] Lung cancer surgery describes the use of surgical operations in the treatment of lung cancer. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of smoke from tobacco products. ...


Lung cancer may be seen on chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT scan). The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy. This is usually performed via bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy. Treatment and prognosis depend upon the histological type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the patient's performance status. Possible treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. With treatment, the five-year survival rate is 14%.[4] Frontal chest X-ray. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... This drawing shows a bronchoscope inserted through the mouth, trachea, and bronchus into the lung; lymph nodes along trachea and bronchi; and cancer in one lung. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... In the context of pathology, staging refers to the evaluation of a disease in terms of its progression in the body, or stage. This term is most often used in the context of oncology to establish the stage of development of a certain cancer. ... In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients general wellbeing. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... In biostatistics, survival rate is a part of the the survival analysis, indicating the percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a given period of time after diagnosis. ...

Contents

Classification

Frequency of histological types of lung cancer[16]
Histological type Frequency (%)
Non-small cell lung carcinoma 80.4
Small cell lung carcinoma 16.8
Carcinoid[17] 0.8
Sarcoma[18] 0.1
Unspecified lung cancer 1.9

The vast majority of lung cancers are carcinomas—malignancies that arise from epithelial cells. There are two main types of lung carcinoma, categorized by the size and appearance of the malignant cells seen by a histopathologist under a microscope: non-small cell (80.4%) and small-cell (16.8%) lung carcinoma.[16] This classification, based on histological criteria, has important implications for clinical management and prognosis of the disease. Picture of a carcinoid tumour that encroaches into lumen of the small bowel. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the connective or supportive tissue (bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels) and soft tissue. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Histopathology is a field of pathology which specialises in the histologic study of diseased tissue. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...


Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)

The non-small cell lung carcinomas are grouped together because their prognosis and management are similar. There are three main sub-types: squamous cell lung carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell lung carcinoma. Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ...

Sub-types of non-small cell lung cancer[16]
Histological sub-type Frequency of all lung cancers (%)
Squamous cell lung carcinoma 31.1
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinoma (not otherwise specified) 23.2
Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma 3.0
Adenosquamous carcinoma 1.2
Papillary adenocarcinoma 0.7
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma[19] 0.1
Adenoid cystic carcinoma[20] 0.04
Other specified adenocarcinoma 1.1
Large cell carcinoma 10.7
Giant cell and spindle cell carcinoma 0.4
Other/unspecified non-small cell lung carcinoma 8.9

Accounting for 31.1% of lung cancers,[16] squamous cell lung carcinoma usually starts near a central bronchus. Cavitation and necrosis within the center of the cancer is a common finding. Well-differentiated squamous cell lung cancers often grow more slowly than other cancer types.[5] Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a rare type of lung cancer. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... Cavitating propeller model in a water tunnel experiment High speed jet of fluid impact on a fixed surface. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


Adenocarcinoma accounts for 29.4% of lung cancers.[16] It usually originates in peripheral lung tissue. Most cases of adenocarcinoma are associated with smoking. However, among people who have never smoked ("never-smokers"), adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer.[21] A subtype of adenocarcinoma, the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, is more common in female never-smokers, and may have different responses to treatment.[22] Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a rare type of lung cancer. ...


Accounting for 10.7% of lung cancers,[16] large cell lung carcinoma is a fast-growing form that develops near the surface of the lung.[23] It is often poorly differentiated and tends to metastasize early.[5] Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ...


Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)

Small cell lung carcinoma (microscopic view of a core needle biopsy)
Small cell lung carcinoma (microscopic view of a core needle biopsy)

Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC, also called "oat cell carcinoma") is less common. It tends to arise in the larger airways (primary and secondary bronchi) and grows rapidly, becoming quite large.[24] The "oat" cell contains dense neurosecretory granules (vesicles containing neuroendocrine hormones) which give this an endocrine/paraneoplastic syndrome association.[25] While initially more sensitive to chemotherapy, it ultimately carries a worse prognosis and is often metastatic at presentation. Small cell lung cancers are divided into Limited stage and Extensive stage disease. This type of lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Lung_small_cell_carcinoma_(1)_by_core_needle_biopsy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lung_small_cell_carcinoma_(1)_by_core_needle_biopsy. ... Small cell carcinoma is a type of carcinoma usually associated with the lung, though it can be associated with other topographies, such as in cervical cancer. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... redirect Template:Db-reason synaptophysin ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ...


Metastatic cancers

The lung is a common place for metastasis from tumors in other parts of the body. These cancers are identified by the site of origin, thus a breast cancer metastasis to the lung is still known as breast cancer. They often have a characteristic round appearance on chest x-ray.[27] Primary lung cancers themselves most commonly metastasize to the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone.[5] For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines...


Staging

See also: Non-small cell lung carcinoma staging and lung cancer staging with EUS

Lung cancer staging is an assessment of the degree of spread of the cancer from its original source. It is an important factor affecting the prognosis and potential treatment of lung cancer. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is staged from IA ("one A", best prognosis) to IV ("four", worst prognosis).[28] Small cell lung carcinoma is classified as limited stage if it is confined to one half of the chest and within the scope of a single radiotherapy field. Otherwise it is extensive stage.[24] Non-small cell lung carcinoma staging is an important part of the assessment of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (a type of lung cancer). ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...


Signs and symptoms

Symptoms that suggest lung cancer include:[29] A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ...

If the cancer grows in the airway, it may obstruct airflow, causing breathing difficulties. This can lead to accumulation of secretions behind the blockage, predisposing the patient to pneumonia. Many lung cancers have a rich blood supply. The surface of the cancer may be fragile, leading to bleeding from the cancer into the airway. This blood may subsequently be coughed up. Dyspnea (R06. ... Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... Cough is also the name of a band, see Cough (band) A cough is a sudden, often repetitive, spasmodic contraction of the thoracic cavity, resulting in violent release of air from the lungs, and usually accompanied by a distinctive sound. ... In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as stable angina). When the chest pain is not... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Lisp may mean: Lisp programming language Lisp (speech) This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... For other uses, see Clubbing (disambiguation). ... Dysphagia () is a medical term defined as difficulty swallowing. ... The airways are those parts of the respiratory system through which air flows, to get from the external environment to the alveoli. ... Dyspnea (R06. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Depending on the type of tumor, so-called paraneoplastic phenomena may initially attract attention to the disease.[30] In lung cancer, these phenomena may include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to auto-antibodies), hypercalcemia or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Tumors in the top (apex) of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors,[31] may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to changed sweating patterns and eye muscle problems (a combination known as Horner's syndrome), as well as muscle weakness in the hands due to invasion of the brachial plexus. A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare disorder of nerve-muscle (neuromuscular) junction. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Hypercalcaemia is an elevated calcium level in the blood. ... The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a condition commonly found in the hospital population, especially in patients being hospitalized for central nervous system (CNS) injury. ... A pancoast tumor, also pancoast tumour (UK), is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... Horners syndrome is a clinical syndrome caused by damage to the sympathetic nervous system. ... The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ...


Many of the symptoms of lung cancer (bone pain, fever, weight loss) are nonspecific; in the elderly, these may be attributed to comorbid illness.[5] In many patients, the cancer has already spread beyond the original site by the time they have symptoms and seek medical attention. Common sites of metastasis include the bone, such as the spine (causing back pain and occasionally spinal cord compression), the liver and the brain. About 10% of people with lung cancer do not have symptoms at diagnosis; these cancers are incidentally found on routine chest x-rays.[4] Bone Pain- Bone pain is generally referred to as having pain within the affected bone. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity is either The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder; or The effect of such additional disorders or diseases. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... Spinal cord compression develops when the spinal cord is compressed by a tumor, abscess or other lesion. ...


Causes

The main causes of lung cancer (and cancer in general) include carcinogens (such as those in tobacco smoke), ionizing radiation, and viral infection. This exposure causes cumulative changes to the DNA in the tissue lining the bronchi of the lungs (the bronchial epithelium). As more tissue becomes damaged, eventually a cancer develops.[5] Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ...


Smoking

The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. Source: NIH.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. Source: NIH.

Smoking, particularly of cigarettes, is by far the main contributor to lung cancer. In the United States, smoking is estimated to account for 87% of lung cancer cases (90% in men and 85% in women).[32] Among male smokers, the lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is 17.2%. Among female smokers, the risk is 11.6%. This risk is significantly lower in non-smokers: 1.3% in men and 1.4% in women.[33] Cigarette smoke contains over 60 known carcinogens[34] including radioisotopes from the radon decay sequence, nitrosamine, and benzopyrene. Additionally, nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue. The length of time a person smokes as well as the amount smoked increases the person's chance of developing lung cancer. If a person stops smoking, this chance steadily decreases as damage to the lungs is repaired and contaminant particles are gradually removed.[35] Across the developed world, almost 90% of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking.[36] In addition, there is evidence that lung cancer in never-smokers has a better prognosis than in smokers,[37] and that patients who smoke at the time of diagnosis have shorter survival than those who have quit.[38] Image File history File links Cancer_smoking_lung_cancer_correlation_from_NIH.svg‎ Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Cancer_smoking_lung_cancer_correlation_from_NIH.svg‎ Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... Structure of the nitrosamino group Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, some of which are carcinogenic. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ...


Passive smoking—the inhalation of smoke from another's smoking—is a cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Studies from the U.S.,[39] Europe,[40] the UK,[41] and Australia[42] have consistently shown a significant increase in relative risk among those exposed to passive smoke. Recent investigation of sidestream smoke suggests it is more dangerous than direct smoke inhalation.[43] Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of smoke from tobacco products. ... In statistics and mathematical epidemiology, relative risk (RR) of an event associated with the exposure is a ratio of probability of outcome of interest in exposed group versus treatment group. ... Sidestream smoke is smoke coming from the end of a smoldering cigarette. ...


Radon gas

Radon is a colorless and odorless gas generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium, which in turn is the decay product of uranium, found in the earth's crust. The radiation decay products ionize genetic material, causing mutations that sometimes turn cancerous. Radon exposure is the second major cause of lung cancer after smoking.[9] Radon gas levels vary by locality and the composition of the underlying soil and rocks. For example, in areas such as Cornwall in the UK (which has granite as substrata), radon gas is a major problem, and buildings have to be force-ventilated with fans to lower radon gas concentrations. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that one in 15 homes in the U.S. has radon levels above the recommended guideline of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) (148 Bq/).[44] Iowa has the highest average radon concentration in the United States; studies performed there have demonstrated a 50% increased lung cancer risk with prolonged radon exposure above the EPA's action level of 4 pCi/L.[45][46] For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... EPA redirects here. ... The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... For other uses, see Becquerel (disambiguation). ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Asbestos

Asbestos can cause a variety of lung diseases, including lung cancer. There is a synergistic effect between tobacco smoking and asbestos in the formation of lung cancer.[10] In the UK, asbestos accounts for 2–3% of male lung cancer deaths.[47] Asbestos can also cause cancer of the pleura, called mesothelioma (which is different from lung cancer). For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Synergy (from the Greek synergos, συνεργός meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. ... In anatomy, the pleural cavity is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. ...


Viruses

Viruses are known to cause lung cancer in animals[48][49] and recent evidence suggests similar potential in humans. Implicated viruses include human papillomavirus,[50] JC virus,[51] simian virus 40 (SV40), BK virus and cytomegalovirus.[52] These viruses may affect the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis, allowing uncontrolled cell division. This article is about biological infectious particles. ... HPV redirects here. ... The JC virus (JCV) is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus) and is genetically similar to BK virus and SV40. ... SV40 is an abbreviation for Simian vacuolating virus 40 or Simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. ... BK virus is a member of the polyomavirus family. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its replication. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ...


Pathophysiology

Main article: Carcinogenesis

Similar to many other cancers, lung cancer is initiated by activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.[53] Oncogenes are genes that are believed to make people more susceptible to cancer. Proto-oncogenes are believed to turn into oncogenes when exposed to particular carcinogens.[54] Mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene are responsible for 20–30% of non-small cell lung cancers.[55] Chromosomal damage can lead to loss of heterozygosity. This can cause inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Damage to chromosomes 3p, 5q, 13q and 17p are particularly common in small cell lung carcinoma. The TP53 tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 17p, is often affected.[56] Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... An oncogene is a gene that can cause a cell to develop into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... In molecular biology, Ras is the name of a protein, the gene that encodes it, and the family and superfamily of proteins to which it belongs. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... Loss of heterozygosity in a cell represents the loss of a single parents contribution to part of its genome. ... TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene that is named after, and provides instructions for making, a protein called tumor protein 53 (TP53). ...


Several genetic polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer. These include polymorphisms in genes coding for interleukin-1,[57] cytochrome P450,[58] apoptosis promoters such as caspase-8,[59] and DNA repair molecules such as XRCC1.[60] People with these polymorphisms are more likely to develop lung cancer after exposure to carcinogens. Light-morph Jaguar (typical) Dark-morph or melanistic Jaguar (about 6% of the South American population) Polymorphism in biology occurs when two or more clearly different types exist in the same population of the same species— in other words, the occurrence of more than one form or morph. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Caspases are a group of cysteine proteases, enzymes with a crucial cysteine residue that can cleave other proteins after an aspartic acid residue, a specificity which is unusual among proteases. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search XRCC1 is a DNA repair protein. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Diagnosis

Chest x-ray showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung
Chest x-ray showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung

Performing a chest x-ray is the first step if a patient reports symptoms that may be suggestive of lung cancer. This may reveal an obvious mass, widening of the mediastinum (suggestive of spread to lymph nodes there), atelectasis (collapse), consolidation (pneumonia), or pleural effusion. If there are no x-ray findings but the suspicion is high (such as a heavy smoker with blood-stained sputum), bronchoscopy and/or a CT scan may provide the necessary information. Bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy is often used to identify the tumor type.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 633 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,030 × 976 pixels, file size: 44 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 633 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,030 × 976 pixels, file size: 44 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... Frontal chest X-ray. ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Atelectasis is defined as a state in which the lung, in whole or in part, is collapsed or without air. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... This drawing shows a bronchoscope inserted through the mouth, trachea, and bronchus into the lung; lymph nodes along trachea and bronchi; and cancer in one lung. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ...

CT scan showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung
CT scan showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung

The differential diagnosis for patients who present with abnormalities on chest x-ray includes lung cancer, as well as nonmalignant diseases. These include infectious causes such as tuberculosis or pneumonia, or inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis. These diseases can result in mediastinal lymphadenopathy or lung nodules, and sometimes mimic lung cancers.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ... Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning disease of the lymph nodes. ... In medicine, a nodule refers to a small aggregation of cells. ...


Prevention

See also: Smoking ban and List of smoking bans

Prevention is the most cost-effective means of fighting lung cancer. While in most countries industrial and domestic carcinogens have been identified and banned, tobacco smoking is still widespread. Eliminating tobacco smoking is a primary goal in the prevention of lung cancer, and smoking cessation is an important preventative tool in this process.[61] No Smoking sign. ... This is a list of smoking bans by country. ... A No Smoking sign Smoking cessation (commonly known as quitting, or kicking the habit) is the effort to stop smoking tobacco products. ...


Policy interventions to decrease passive smoking in public areas such as restaurants and workplaces have become more common in many Western countries, with California taking a lead in banning smoking in public establishments in 1998. Ireland played a similar role in Europe in 2004, followed by Italy and Norway in 2005, Scotland as well as several others in 2006, England in 2007, and France in 2008. New Zealand has banned smoking in public places as of 2004. Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of smoke from tobacco products. ...


The state of Bhutan has had a complete smoking ban since 2005.[62] In many countries, pressure groups are campaigning for similar bans. Arguments cited against such bans are criminalisation of smoking, increased risk of smuggling and the risk that such a ban cannot be enforced.[63] Criminalization or criminalisation is the process by which an act which was previously legal becomes a criminal offense by the passing of legislation or by increased enforcement of legislation when the act was previously condoned. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A 2008 study performed in over 75,000 middle-aged and elderly people demonstrated that the long-term use of supplemental multivitamins, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and folate did not reduce the risk of lung cancer. To the contrary, the study indicates that the long term intake of high doses of vitamin E supplements may even increase the risk of lung cancer.[64]


Screening

Main article: Lung cancer screening

Screening refers to the use of medical tests to detect disease in asymptomatic people. Possible screening tests for lung cancer include chest x-ray or computed tomography (CT) of the chest. So far, screening programs for lung cancer have not demonstrated any clear benefit. Randomized controlled trials are underway in this area to see if decreased long-term mortality can be directly observed from CT screening.[65] Lung cancer screening is a strategy used to identify early lung cancer in people, before they develop symptoms. ... Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used to identify disease in an unsuspecting population. ... A medical test is any kind of diagnostic medical procedure performed for health reasons. ... Frontal chest X-ray. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ...


Treatment

Treatment for lung cancer depends on the cancer's specific cell type, how far it has spread, and the patient's performance status. Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.[4] The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients general wellbeing. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...


Surgery

Main article: Lung cancer surgery
Gross appearance of the cut surface of a pneumonectomy specimen containing a lung cancer, here a Squamous cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor near the bronchi).

If investigations confirm lung cancer, CT scan and often positron emission tomography (PET) are used to determine whether the disease is localised and amenable to surgery or whether it has spread to the point where it cannot be cured surgically. Lung cancer surgery describes the use of surgical operations in the treatment of lung cancer. ... Gross examination or grossing is the process by which pathology specimens are inspected with the naked eye to obtain diagnostic information, while being processed for further microscopic examination. ... A pneumonectomy (or pneumectomy) is an surgical procedure to remove a lung. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ...


Blood tests and spirometry (lung function testing) are also necessary to assess whether the patient is well enough to be operated on. If spirometry reveals poor respiratory reserve (often due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), surgery may be contraindicated. Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Flow-Volume loop showing successful FVC maneuver. ... For COPD occuring in horses, see recurrent airway obstruction. ...


Surgery itself has an operative death rate of about 4.4%, depending on the patient's lung function and other risk factors.[66] Surgery is usually only an option in non-small cell lung carcinoma limited to one lung, up to stage IIIA. This is assessed with medical imaging (computed tomography, positron emission tomography). A sufficient pre-operative respiratory reserve must be present to allow adequate lung function after the tissue is removed. negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ...


Procedures include wedge resection (removal of part of a lobe), segmentectomy (removal of an anatomic division of a particular lobe of the lung), lobectomy (one lobe), bilobectomy (two lobes) or pneumonectomy (whole lung). In patients with adequate respiratory reserve, lobectomy is the preferred option, as this minimizes the chance of local recurrence. If the patient does not have enough functional lung for this, wedge resection may be performed.[67] Radioactive iodine brachytherapy at the margins of wedge excision may reduce recurrence to that of lobectomy.[68] Wedge resection of the lung is a surgical operation where a part of a lung is removed. ... Lobectomy of the lung is a surgical operation where a lobe of the lung is removed. ... A pneumonectomy (or pneumectomy) is an surgical procedure to remove a lung. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ...


Chemotherapy

Small cell lung carcinoma is treated primarily with chemotherapy and radiation, as surgery has no demonstrable influence on survival. Primary chemotherapy is also given in metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma.


The combination regimen depends on the tumor type. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is often treated with cisplatin or carboplatin, in combination with gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, etoposide or vinorelbine.[69] In small cell lung carcinoma, cisplatin and etoposide are most commonly used.[70] Combinations with carboplatin, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, topotecan and irinotecan are also used.[71][72] Cisplatin, cisplatinum or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e. ... Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer. ... Gemcitabine is a nucleoside used as chemotherapy. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Docetaxel chemical structure Docetaxel is a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Etoposide phosphate (Eposin®, Etopophos®, Vepesid®, VP-16®) is an inhibitor of the enzyme topoisomerase II. It is used as a form of chemotherapy for malignancies such as lung cancer, testicular cancer, lymphoma, non-lymphocytic leukemia, and glioblastoma multiforme. ... Vinorelbine (Navelbine) is a chemotherapy drug that is given as a treatment for some types of cancer including breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. ... Topotecan (Hycamtin®) is a chemotherapy agent that is a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. ... Irinotecan is a chemotherapy agent that is a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. ...


Adjuvant chemotherapy for NSCLC

Adjuvant chemotherapy refers to the use of chemotherapy after surgery to improve the outcome. During surgery, samples are taken from the lymph nodes. If these samples contain cancer, then the patient has stage II or III disease. In this situation, adjuvant chemotherapy may improve survival by up to 15%.[73][74] Standard practice is to offer platinum-based chemotherapy (including either cisplatin or carboplatin).[75] Adjuvant chemotherapy is a term used to describe the role of chemotherapy relative to other cancer treatments. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ...


Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage IB cancer is controversial as clinical trials have not clearly demonstrated a survival benefit.[76][77] Trials of preoperative chemotherapy (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) in resectable non-small cell lung carcinoma have been inconclusive.[78] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy refers to drug treatment given to people with cancer prior to surgery. ...


Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is often given together with chemotherapy, and may be used with curative intent in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma who are not eligible for surgery. This form of high intensity radiotherapy is called radical radiotherapy. A refinement of this technique is continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART), where a high dose of radiotherapy is given in a short time period.[79] For small cell lung carcinoma cases that are potentially curable, in addition to chemotherapy, chest radiation is often recommended.[80] The use of adjuvant thoracic radiotherapy following curative intent surgery for non-small cell lung carcinoma is not well established and controversial. Benefits, if any, may only be limited to those in whom the tumor has spread to the mediastinal lymph nodes.[81][82] Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... A tranverse section of the thorax showing the mediastinum. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ...


For both non-small cell lung carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma patients, smaller doses of radiation to the chest may be used for symptom control (palliative radiotherapy). Unlike other treatments, it is possible to deliver palliative radiotherapy without confirming the histological diagnosis of lung cancer. Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...


Patients with limited stage small cell lung carcinoma are usually given prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). This is a type of radiotherapy to the brain, used to reduce the risk of metastasis.[83] More recently, PCI has also been shown to be beneficial in those with extensive small cell lung cancer. In patients whose cancer has improved following a course of chemotherapy, PCI has been shown to reduce the cumulative risk of brain metastases within one year from 40.4% to 14.6%.[84] For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...


Recent improvements in targeting and imaging have led to the development of extracranial stereotactic radiation in the treatment of early-stage lung cancer. In this form of radiation therapy, very high doses are delivered in a small number of sessions using stereotactic targeting techniques. Its use is primarily in patients who are not surgical candidates due to medical comorbidities. In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity refers to: The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder. ...


Interventional radiology

Radiofrequency ablation should currently be considered an investigational technique in the treatment of bronchogenic carcinoma. It is done by inserting a small heat probe into the tumor to kill the tumor cells.[85] Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) uses radiofrequency energy to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in heart tissue. ...


Targeted therapy

In recent years, various molecular targeted therapies have been developed for the treatment of advanced lung cancer. Gefitinib (Iressa) is one such drug, which targets the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which is expressed in many cases of non-small cell lung carcinoma. It was not shown to increase survival, although females, Asians, non-smokers and those with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma appear to derive the most benefit from gefitinib.[22] Gefitinib is a new drug used in the treatment of certain types of cancer. ... Tyrosine kinases are a subclass of protein kinase, see there for the principles of protein phosphorylation A tyrosine kinase (EC 2. ... Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF). ... Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a rare type of lung cancer. ...


Erlotinib (Tarceva), another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to increase survival in lung cancer patients[86] and has recently been approved by the FDA for second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma. Similar to gefitinib, it appeared to work best in females, Asians, non-smokers and those with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.[87] Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva, Genentech/OSIP, originally coded as OSI-774) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. ...


The angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab (in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin) improves the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma.[88] However this increases the risk of lung bleeding, particularly in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. A drug that inhibits angiogenesis. ... Bevacizumab (trade name Avastin) is a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ... Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ...


Advances in cytotoxic drugs,[89] pharmacogenetics[90] and targeted drug design[91] show promise. A number of targeted agents are at the early stages of clinical research, such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors,[92] the apoptosis promoter exisulind,[93] proteasome inhibitors,[94] bexarotene[95] and vaccines.[96] Future areas of research include ras proto-oncogene inhibition, phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition, histone deacetylase inhibition, and tumor suppressor gene replacement.[97] The terms pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics tend to be used interchangeably, and a precise, consensus definition of either remains elusive. ... COX-2 selective inhibitor is a form of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Exisulind is a drug used to treat cancer. ... Proteasome inhibitors are drugs that block the action of proteasomes, cellular complexes that break down proteins, like the p53 protein. ... Bexarotene is an antineoplastic agent. ... In molecular biology, Ras is the name of a protein, the gene that encodes it, and the family and superfamily of proteins to which it belongs. ... An oncogene is a gene that can cause a cell to develop into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer. ... Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases or PI3Ks) are a family of related enzymes that are capable of phosphorylating the 3 position hydroxyl group of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)[1]. The various 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides that are produced by PI 3-kinases (PtdIns3P, PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns... Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone. ... A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ...


Prognosis

Main articles: Non-small cell lung carcinoma staging and Manchester score

Prognostic factors in non- small-cell lung cancer include presence or absence of pulmonary symptoms, tumor size, cell type (histology), degree of spread (stage) and metastases to multiple lymph nodes, and vascular invasion. For patients with inoperable disease, prognosis is adversely affected by poor performance status and weight loss of more than 10%. [98] Prognostic factors in small-cell lung cancer include performance status, gender, stage of disease, and involvement of the central nervous system or liver at the time of diagnosis. [99] Non-small cell lung carcinoma staging is an important part of the assessment of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (a type of lung cancer). ... Manchester score is an indicator of prognosis in small cell lung cancer. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... In the context of pathology, staging refers to the evaluation of a disease in terms of its progression in the body, or stage. This term is most often used in the context of oncology to establish the stage of development of a certain cancer. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients general wellbeing. ... In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients general wellbeing. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ...


For non-small cell lung carcinoma, prognosis is generally poor. Following complete surgical resection of stage IA disease, five-year survival is 67%. With stage IB disease, five-year survival is 57%.[100] The 5-year survival rate of patients with stage IV NSCLC is about 1%.[6]


For small cell lung carcinoma, prognosis is also generally poor. The overall five-year survival for patients with SCLC is about 5%.[4] Patients with extensive-stage SCLC have an average five-year survival rate of less than 1%. The median survival time for limited-stage disease is 20 months, with a five-year survival rate of 20%.[6] This article is about the statistical concept. ...


According to data provided by the National Cancer Institute, the median age of incidence of lung cancer is 70 years, and the median age of death by lung cancer 71 years.[101] The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ...


Epidemiology

Lung cancer distribution in the United States

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer in terms of both incidence and mortality with 1.35 million new cases per year and 1.18 million deaths, with the highest rates in Europe and North America.[102] The population segment most likely to develop lung cancer is over-fifties who have a history of smoking. Lung cancer is the second most commonly occurring form of cancer in most western countries, and it is the leading cancer-related cause of death. Although the rate of men dying from lung cancer is declining in western countries, it is actually increasing for women due to the increased takeup of smoking by this group. Among lifetime non-smokers, men have higher age-standardized lung cancer death rates than women. Image produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a subdivision of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Image produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a subdivision of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ...


Not all cases of lung cancer are due to smoking, but the role of passive smoking is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor for lung cancer, leading to policy interventions to decrease undesired exposure of non-smokers to others' tobacco smoke. Emissions from automobiles, factories and power plants also pose potential risks.[11][13][103] Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of smoke from tobacco products. ...


Eastern Europe has the highest lung cancer mortality among men, while northern Europe and the U.S. have the highest mortality among women.Lung cancer incidence is currently less common in developing countries.[104] With increased smoking in developing countries, the incidence is expected to increase in the next few years, notably in China[105] and India.[106] Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


Lung cancer incidence (by country) has an inverse correlation with sunlight and UVB exposure. One possible explanation is a preventative effect of vitamin D (which is produced in the skin on exposure to sunlight).[107] Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ...


History

Lung cancer was extremely rare before the advent of cigarette smoking; it was not even recognized as a distinct disease until 1761.[108] Different aspects of lung cancer were described further in 1810.[109] Malignant lung tumors made up only 1% of all cancers seen at autopsy in 1878, but had risen to 10–15% by the early 1900s.[110] Case reports in the medical literature numbered only 374 worldwide in 1912,[111] but a review of autopsies showed that the incidence of lung cancer had increased from 0.3% in 1852 to 5.66% in 1952.[112] In Germany, in 1929 physician Fritz Lickint recognized the link between smoking and lung cancer,[110] which led to an aggressive anti-smoking campaign.[113] The British Doctors Study, published in the 1950s, was the first solid epidemiological evidence of the link between lung cancer and smoking.[114] As a result, in 1964 the Surgeon General of the United States recommended that smokers should stop smoking.[115] The British doctors study is the generally accepted name of a prospective clinical trial which has been running from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... US Public Health Service US Public Health Service Collar Device US Public Health Service Cap Device The Surgeon General of the United States is the head of the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the U.S...


The connection with radon gas was first recognized among miners in the Ore Mountains near Schneeberg, Saxony. Silver has been mined there since 1470, and these mines are rich in uranium, with accompanying radium and radon gas. Miners developed a disproportionate amount of lung disease, eventually recognized as lung cancer in the 1870s and an estimated 75% of former miners died from lung cancer. Despite this discovery, mining continued into the 1950s due to the USSR's demand for uranium.[116] For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... Winter scene in the Ore Mountains. ... Schneeberg is a town in the Aue-Schwarzenberg district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


Treatment

The first successful pneumonectomy for lung cancer was carried out in 1933 [117] and initially, pneumonectomy was the surgical treatment of choice.[118] However, with improvements in cancer staging and surgical techniques, lobectomy with lymph node dissection has now become the treatment of choice.[119][120] A pneumonectomy (or pneumectomy) is an surgical procedure to remove a lung. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... Lobectomy of the lung is a surgical operation where a lobe of the lung is removed. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ...


Palliative radiotherapy has been used since the 1940s.[118] Radical radiotherapy, initially used in the 1950s, was an attempt to use larger radiation doses in patients with relatively early stage lung cancer, but who were otherwise unfit for surgery.[121] In 1997, continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) was seen as an improvement over conventional radical radiotherapy.[79] Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...


With small cell lung carcinoma, initial attempts in the 1960s at surgical resection[122] and radical radiotherapy[123] were unsuccessful. In the 1970s, successful chemotherapy regimens were developed.[124]


References

  1. ^ [[World Health Organization|WHO]] (2004). Deaths by cause, sex and mortality stratum (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  2. ^ Lung Cancer Facts (Women). National Lung Cancer Partnership (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  3. ^ [[World Health Organization|WHO]] (February 2006). Cancer. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Minna, JD (2004). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw-Hill, 506–516. DOI:10.1036/0071402357. ISBN 0071391401. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Vaporciyan, AA; Nesbitt JC, Lee JS et al. (2000). Cancer Medicine. B C Decker Inc., 1227–1292. ISBN 1-55009-113-1. 
  6. ^ a b c Lung Carcinoma: Tumors of the Lungs. Merck Manual Professional Edition, Online edition. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  7. ^ Gorlova, OY; Weng SF, Zhang Y et al. (July 2007). "Aggregation of cancer among relatives of never-smoking lung cancer patients". International Journal of Cancer 121 (1): 111–118. PMID 17304511. 
  8. ^ Hackshaw, AK; Law MR, Wald NJ (October 1997). "The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke". British Medical Journal 315 (7114): 980–988. PMID 9365295. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  9. ^ a b Catelinois, O; Rogel A, Laurier D et al. (May 2006). "Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposure in France: Impact of the Risk Models and Uncertainty Analysis". Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (9): 1361–1366. National Institute of Environmental Health Science. doi:10.1289/ehp.9070. PMID 16966089. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  10. ^ a b O'Reilly, KM; Mclaughlin AM, Beckett WS, Sime PJ (March 2007). "Asbestos-related lung disease". American Family Physician 75 (5): 683–688. PMID 17375514. Retrieved on 2007-08-18. 
  11. ^ a b Kabir, Z; Bennett K, Clancy L (February 2007). "Lung cancer and urban air-pollution in dublin: a temporal association?". Irish Medical Journal 100 (2): 367–369. PMID 17432813. 
  12. ^ Coyle, YM; Minahjuddin AT, Hynan LS, Minna JD (September 2006). "An ecological study of the association of metal air pollutants with lung cancer incidence in Texas.". Journal of Thoracic Oncology 1 (7): 654–661. PMID 17409932. 
  13. ^ a b Chiu, HF; Cheng MH, Tsai SS et al. (December 2006). "Outdoor air pollution and female lung cancer in Taiwan.". Inhalation Toxicology 18 (13): 1025–1031. PMID 16966302. 
  14. ^ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. "The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General", 2006; One of the major conclusions of the Surgeon General Report is: "Secondhand smoke exposure causes disease and premature death in children and adults who do not smoke."
  15. ^ WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer "Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking" IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 83, 2002; the evaluation of the Monograph is: "There is sufficient evidence that involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans. [...] Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1)."
  16. ^ a b c d e f Travis, WD; Travis LB, Devesa SS (January 1995). "Lung cancer". Cancer 75 (Suppl. 1): 191–202. PMID 8000996. 
  17. ^ Morandi, U; Casali C, Rossi G (2006). "Bronchial typical carcinoid tumors". Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 18 (3): 191–198. PMID 17185178. 
  18. ^ Etienne-Mastroianni, B; Falchero L, Chalabreysse L et al. (December 2002). "Primary sarcomas of the lung: a clinicopathologic study of 12 cases". Lung Cancer 38 (3): 283–289. PMID 12445750. 
  19. ^ Sánchez-Mora, N; Parra-Blanco V, Cebollero-Presmanes M et al. (January 2007). "Mucoepidermoid tumors of the bronchus. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study". Histology and Histopathology 22 (1): 9–13. PMID 17128406. 
  20. ^ Moran, CA; Suster S, Koss MN (March 1994). "Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lung. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 16 cases". Cancer 73 (5): 1390–1397. PMID 7509254. 
  21. ^ Subramanian, J; Govindan R (February 2007). "Lung cancer in never smokers: a review". Journal of Clinical Oncology 25 (5): 561–570. American Society of Clinical Oncology. PMID 17290066. 
  22. ^ a b Raz, DJ; He B, Rosell R, Jablons DM (March 2006). "Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a review". Clinical Lung Cancer 7 (5): 313–322. Cancer Information Group. PMID 16640802. 
  23. ^ Veronesi G; Morandi U, Alloisio M et al. (July 2006). "Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a retrospective analysis of 144 surgical cases". Lung Cancer 53 (1): 111–115. doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2006.03.007. PMID 16697073. 
  24. ^ a b Collins, LG; Haines C, Perkel R, Enck RE (January 2007). "Lung cancer: diagnosis and management". American Family Physician 75 (1): 56–63. American Academy of Family Physicians. PMID 17225705. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  25. ^ Rosti, G; Bevilacqua G, Bidoli P et al. (March 2006). "Small cell lung cancer". Annals of Oncology 17 (Suppl. 2): 5–10. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdj910. PMID 16608983. Retrieved on 2007-09-06. 
  26. ^ Barbone, F; Bovenzi M, Cavallieri F, Stanta G (December 1997). "Cigarette smoking and histologic type of lung cancer in men" (PDF). Chest 112 (6): 1474–1479. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 9404741. Retrieved on 2007-09-07. 
  27. ^ Seo, JB; Im JG, Goo JM et al. (2001). "Atypical pulmonary metastases: spectrum of radiologic findings". Radiographics 21 (2): 403–417. PMID 11259704. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. 
  28. ^ Mountain, CF; Libshitz HI, Hermes KE (2003). A Handbook for Staging, Imaging, and Lymph Node Classification. Charles P Young Company. Retrieved on 2007-09-01. 
  29. ^ Hamilton, W; Peters TJ, Round A, Sharp D (December 2005). "What are the clinical features of lung cancer before the diagnosis is made? A population based case-control study". Thorax 60 (12): 1059–1065. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.. PMID 16227326. 
  30. ^ Honnorat, J; Antoine JC (May 2007). "Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2: 22. BioMed Central Ltd.. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-2-22. PMID 17480225. Retrieved on 2007-09-05. 
  31. ^ Jones, DR; Detterbeck FC (July 1998). "Pancoast tumors of the lung". Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 4 (4): 191–197. PMID 10813231. 
  32. ^ Samet, JM; Wiggins CL, Humble CG, Pathak DR (May 1988). "Cigarette smoking and lung cancer in New Mexico". American Review of Respiratory Disease 137 (5): 1110–1113. PMID 3264122. 
  33. ^ Villeneuve, PJ; Mao Y (November 1994). "Lifetime probability of developing lung cancer, by smoking status, Canada". Canadian Journal of Public Health 85 (6): 385–388. PMID 7895211. 
  34. ^ Hecht, S (October 2003). "Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer". Nature Reviews. Cancer 3 (10): 733–744. Nature Publishing Group. doi:10.1038/nrc1190. PMID 14570033. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  35. ^ US Department of Health and Human Services (1990), The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: a Report of the Surgeon General, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Office on Smoking and Health., pp. vi, 130, 148, 152, 155, 164, 166, <http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/C/T/_/nnbbct.pdf>. Retrieved on 18 November 2007 
  36. ^ Peto R, R; Lopez AD, Boreham J et al. (2006). Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950–2000: Indirect estimates from National Vital Statistics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-262535-7. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  37. ^ Nordquist, LT; Simon GR, Cantor A et al. (August 2004). "Improved survival in never-smokers vs current smokers with primary adenocarcinoma of the lung". Chest 126 (2): 347–351. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 15302716. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  38. ^ Tammemagi, CM; Neslund-Dudas C, Simoff M, Kvale P (January 2004). "Smoking and lung cancer survival: the role of comorbidity and treatment". Chest 125 (1): 27–37. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 14718417. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  39. ^ CDC (December 1986). 1986 Surgeon General's report: the health consequences of involuntary smoking. CDC. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
    * National Research Council (1986). Environmental tobacco smoke: measuring exposures and assessing health effects. National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-07456-8. 
    * EPA (1992). "Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: lung cancer and other disorders". EPA. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
    * California Environmental Protection Agency (1997). "Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke". Tobacco Control 6 (4): 346–353. PMID 9583639. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
    * CDC (December 2001). "State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults, and policies and attitudes about secondhand smoke—United States, 2000". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50 (49): 1101–1106. CDC. PMID 11794619. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
    * Alberg, AJ; Samet JM (January 2003). "Epidemiology of lung cancer". Chest 123 (S1): 21S-49S. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 12527563. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  40. ^ Boffetta, P; Agudo A, Ahrens W et al. (October 1998). "Multicenter case-control study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in Europe". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90 (19): 1440–1450. Oxford University Press. PMID 9776409. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  41. ^ Report of the Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health. Department of Health (March 1998). Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
    * Hackshaw, AK (June 1998). "Lung cancer and passive smoking". Statistical Methods in Medical Research 7 (2): 119–136. PMID 9654638. 
  42. ^ National Health and Medical Research Council (April 1994). "The health effects and regulation of passive smoking". Australian Government Publishing Service. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  43. ^ Schick, S; Glantz S (December 2005). "Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke". Tobacco Control 14 (6): 396–404. PMID 16319363. 
  44. ^ EPA (October 2006). Radiation information: radon. EPA. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  45. ^ Field, RW; Steck DJ, Smith BJ et al. (June 2000). "Residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study". American Journal of Epidemiology 151 (11): 1091–1102. Oxford Journals. PMID 10873134. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. 
  46. ^ EPA (June 2000). Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study. EPA. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  47. ^ Darnton, AJ; McElvenny DM, Hodgson JT (January 2006). "Estimating the number of asbestos-related lung cancer deaths in Great Britain from 1980 to 2000". Annals of Occupational Hygiene 50 (1): 29–38. PMID 16126764. Retrieved on 2007-09-07. 
  48. ^ Leroux, C; Girard N, Cottin V et al. (Mar-April 2007). "Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus (JSRV): from virus to lung cancer in sheep". Veterinary Research 38 (2): 211–228. PMID 17257570. 
  49. ^ Palmarini, M; Fan H (November 2001). "Retrovirus-induced ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, an animal model for lung cancer". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93 (21): 1603–1614. Oxford University Press. PMID 11698564. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. 
  50. ^ Cheng, YW; Chiou HL, Sheu GT et al. (April 2001). "The association of human papillomavirus 16/18 infection with lung cancer among nonsmoking Taiwanese women". Cancer Research 61 (7): 2799–2803. American Association for Cancer Research. PMID 11306446. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. 
  51. ^ Zheng, H; Aziz HA, Nakanishi Y et al. (May 2007). "Oncogenic role of JC virus in lung cancer". Journal of Pathology 212 (3): 306–315. PMID 17534844. 
  52. ^ Giuliani, L; Jaxmar T, Casadio C et al. (September 2007). "Detection of oncogenic viruses (SV40, BKV, JCV, HCMV, HPV) and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in lung carcinoma". Lung Cancer 57 (3): 273–281. PMID 17400331. 
  53. ^ Fong, KM; Sekido Y, Gazdar AF, Minna JD (October 2003). "Lung cancer. 9: Molecular biology of lung cancer: clinical implications". Thorax 58 (10): 892–900. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.. PMID 14514947. 
  54. ^ Salgia, R; Skarin AT (March 1998). "Molecular abnormalities in lung cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology 16 (3): 1207–1217. PMID 9508209. 
  55. ^ Aviel-Ronen, S; Blackhall FH, Shepherd FA, Tsao MS (July 2006). "K-ras mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a review". Clinical Lung Cancer 8 (1): 30–38. Cancer Information Group. PMID 16870043. 
  56. ^ Devereux, TR; Taylor JA, Barrett JC (March 1996). "Molecular mechanisms of lung cancer. Interaction of environmental and genetic factors". Chest 109 (Suppl. 3): 14S-19S. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 8598134. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. 
  57. ^ Engels, EA; Wu X, Gu J et al. (July 2007). "Systematic evaluation of genetic variants in the inflammation pathway and risk of lung cancer". Cancer Research 67 (13): 6520–6527. American Association for Cancer Research. PMID 17596594. 
  58. ^ Wenzlaff, AS; Cote ML, Bock CH et al. (December 2005). "CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: a population-based study". Carcinogenesis 26 (12): 2207–2212. Oxford University Press. PMID 16051642. 
  59. ^ Son, JW; Kang HK, Chae MH et al. (September 2006). "Polymorphisms in the caspase-8 gene and the risk of lung cancer". Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 169 (2): 121–127. PMID 16938569. 
  60. ^ Yin, J; Vogel U, Ma Y et al. (May 2007). "The DNA repair gene XRCC1 and genetic susceptibility of lung cancer in a northeastern Chinese population". Lung Cancer 56 (2): 153–160. PMID 17316890. 
  61. ^ Vineis, P; Hoek G, Krzyzanowski M et al. (February 2007). "Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study". Environmental Health 6: 7. BioMed Central. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-6-7. PMID 17302981. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. 
  62. ^ Pandey, G (February 2005). Bhutan's smokers face public ban. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  63. ^ Gray, N (February 2003). "A global approach to tobacco policy". Lung Cancer 39 (2): 113–117. BioMed Central. PMID 12581561. 
  64. ^ Slatore CG, Littman AJ, Au DH, Satia JA, White E (2008). "Long-term use of supplemental multivitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E, and folate does not reduce the risk of lung cancer". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177 (5): 524–30. doi:10.1164/rccm.200709-1398OC. PMID 17989343. 
  65. ^ Gohagan, JK; Marcus PM, Fagerstrom RM et al. (January 2005). "Final results of the Lung Screening Study, a randomized feasibility study of spiral CT versus chest X-ray screening for lung cancer". Lung Cancer 47 (1): 9–15. doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2004.06.007. PMID 15603850. 
  66. ^ Strand, TE; Rostad H, Damhuis RA, Norstein J (June 2007). "Risk factors for 30-day mortality after resection of lung cancer and prediction of their magnitude". Thorax. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.. PMID 17573442. 
  67. ^ El-Sherif, A; Gooding WE, Santos R et al. (August 2006). "Outcomes of sublobar resection versus lobectomy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a 13-year analysis". Annals of Thoracic Surgery 82 (2): 408–415. PMID 16863738. 
  68. ^ Fernando, HC; Santos RS, Benfield JR et al. (February 2005). "Lobar and sublobar resection with and without brachytherapy for small stage IA non-small cell lung cancer". Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 129 (2): 261–267. PMID 15678034. 
  69. ^ Clegg, A; Scott DA, Hewitson P et al. (January 2002). "Clinical and cost effectiveness of paclitaxel, docetaxel, gemcitabine, and vinorelbine in non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review". Thorax 57 (1): 20–28. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. PMID 11809985. 
  70. ^ Murray, N; Turrisi AT (March 2006). "A review of first-line treatment for small-cell lung cancer". Journal of Thoracic Oncology 1 (3): 270–278. PMID 17409868. 
  71. ^ Azim, HA; Ganti AK (March 2007). "Treatment options for relapsed small-cell lung cancer". Anticancer drugs 18 (3): 255–261. PMID 17264756. 
  72. ^ MacCallum, C; Gillenwater HH (July 2006). "Second-line treatment of small-cell lung cancer". Current Oncology Reports 8 (4): 258–264. PMID 17254525. 
  73. ^ Winton, T; Livingston R, Johnson D et al. (June 2005). "Vinorelbine plus cisplatin vs. observation in resected non-small-cell lung cancer". New England Journal of Medicine 352 (25): 2589–2597. Massachusetts Medical Society. PMID 15972865. 
  74. ^ Douillard, JY; Rosell R, De Lena M et al. (September 2006). "Adjuvant vinorelbine plus cisplatin versus observation in patients with completely resected stage IB-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association [ANITA]): a randomised controlled trial". Lancet Oncology 7 (9): 719–727. Elsevier. PMID 16945766. 
  75. ^ Tsuboi, M; Ohira T, Saji H et al. (April 2007). "The present status of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected non-small cell lung cancer" (PDF). Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 13 (2): 73–77. PMID 17505412. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. 
  76. ^ Horn, L; Sandler AB, Putnam JB Jr, Johnson DH (May 2007). "The rationale for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I non-small cell lung cancer". Journal of Thoracic Oncology 2 (5): 377–383. PMID 17473651. 
  77. ^ Wakelee, HA; Schiller JH, Gandara DR (July 2006). "Current status of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer: implications for the New Intergroup Trial". Clinical Lung Cancer 8 (1): 18–21. Cancer Information Group. PMID 16870041. 
  78. ^ BMJ (December 2005). Clinical Evidence Concise. BMJ Publishing Group, 486–488. ISBN 1-905545-00-2. 
  79. ^ a b Saunders, M; Dische S, Barrett A et al. (July 1997). "Continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) versus conventional radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised multicentre trial". Lancet 350 (9072): 161–165. Elsevier. PMID 9250182. 
  80. ^ Wagner, H (January 1998). "Radiation therapy in the management of limited small cell lung cancer: when, where, and how much?". Chest 113 (Suppl. 1): 92S–100S. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 9438697. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. 
  81. ^ "Postoperative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer" (2005). Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (2): CD002142. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002142.pub2. PMID 15846628. 
  82. ^ Lally, BE; Zelterman D, Colasanto JM et al. (July 2006). "Postoperative Radiotherapy for Stage II or III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database". Journal of Clinical Oncology 24 (19): 2998–3006. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. PMID 16769986. 
  83. ^ Ng, M; Chong J, Milner A et al. (June 2007). "Tolerability of accelerated chest irradiation and impact on survival of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer: review of a single institution's experience". Journal of Thoracic Oncology 2 (6): 506–513. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. PMID 17545845. 
  84. ^ Slotman, B; Faivre-Finn C, Kramer G et al. (August 2007). "Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small-cell lung cancer". New England Journal of Medicine 357 (7): 664–672. PMID 17699816. 
  85. ^ Simon, CJ; Dupuy DE, DiPetrillo TA et al. (April 2007). "Pulmonary radiofrequency ablation: long-term safety and efficacy in 153 patients". Radiology 243 (1): 268–275. PMID 17392258. 
  86. ^ Feld, R; Sridhar SS, Shepherd FA et al. (May 2006). "Use of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review". Journal of Thoracic Oncology 1 (4): 367–376. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. PMID 17409886. 
  87. ^ Bencardino, K; Manzoni M, Delfanti S et al. (March 2007). "Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: results and open issues". Internal and Emergency Medicine 2 (1): 3–12. PMID 17551677. 
  88. ^ Sandler, A; Gray R, Perry M et al. (December 2006). "Paclitaxel–carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non–small cell lung cancer". New England Journal of Medicine 355 (24): 2542–2550. Massachusetts Medical Society. PMID 17167137. 
  89. ^ Edelman, MJ (September 2006). "Novel cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer". Journal of Thoracic Oncology 1 (7): 752–755. PMID 17409954. 
  90. ^ Danesi, R; Pasqualetti G, Giovannetti E, Del Tacca M (May 2007). "The role of pharmacogenetics in adjuvant treatment of non-small cell lung cancer". Journal of Thoracic Oncology 2 (5 Suppl.): S27–S30. PMID 17457227. 
  91. ^ Blackhall, FH; Shepherd FA (March 2007). "Small cell lung cancer and targeted therapies". Current Opinion in Oncology 19 (2): 103–108. PMID 17272981. 
  92. ^ Lee, JM; Mao JT, Krysan K, Dubinett SM (April 2007). "Significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in prognosis, targeted therapy and chemoprevention of NSCLC". Future Oncology 2 (2): 149–153. PMID 17381414. 
  93. ^ Whitehead, CM; Earle KA, Fetter J et al. (May 2003). "Exisulind-induced Apoptosis in a Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Orthotopic Lung Tumor Model Augments Docetaxel Treatment and Contributes to Increased Survival". Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2: 479–488. American Association for Cancer Research. PMID 12748310. Retrieved on 2007-09-01. 
  94. ^ Scagliotti, G (June 2006). "Proteasome inhibitors in lung cancer". Critical Reviews in Oncology/Haematology 58 (3): 177–189. PMID 16427303. 
  95. ^ Dragnev, KH; Petty WJ, Shah SJ et al. (March 2007). "A proof-of-principle clinical trial of bexarotene in patients with non-small cell lung cancer". Clinical Cancer Research 13 (6): 1794–1800. American Association for Cancer Research. PMID 17363535. 
  96. ^ Albright, C; Garst J (July 2007). "Vaccine therapy in non-small cell lung cancer". Current Oncology Reports 9 (4): 241–246. PMID 17588347. 
  97. ^ Sun, S; Schiller JH, Spinola M, Minna JD (October 2007). "New molecularly targeted therapies for lung cancer". Journal of Clinical Investigation 117 (10): 2740–2750. American Society for Clinical Investigation. PMID 17909619. Retrieved on 2007-10-15. 
  98. ^ National Cancer Institute PDQ for Professionals.
  99. ^ [http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/small-cell-lung/healthprofessional National Cancer Institute PDQ for Professionals].
  100. ^ Mountain, CF (1997). "Revisions in the international system for staging lung cancer" (PDF). Chest 111: 1710–1717. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 9187198. Retrieved on 2007-08-09. 
  101. ^ SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2002 - Search. Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  102. ^ Commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Cancer Research UK (Apr 2005). Retrieved on 2008-01-11.
  103. ^ Parent, ME; Rousseau MC, Boffetta P et al. (January 2007). "Exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and the risk of lung cancer". American Journal of Epidemiology 165 (1): 53–62. PMID 17062632. 
  104. ^ Gender in lung cancer and smoking research (PDF). World Health Organization (2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  105. ^ Liu, BQ; Peto R, Chen ZM et al. (November 1998). "Emerging tobacco hazards in China: 1. Retrospective proportional mortality study of one million deaths". British Medical Journal 317 (7170): 1411–1422. PMID 9822393. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  106. ^ Behera, D; Balamugesh T (2004). "Lung cancer in India". Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences 46 (4): 269-281. PMID 15515828. 
  107. ^ Mohr, SB; Garland CF, Gorham ED et al. (2008). "Could ultraviolet B irradiance and vitamin D be associated with lower incidence rates of lung cancer?". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 62 (1): 69–74. doi:10.1136/jech.2006.052571. PMID 18079336. 
  108. ^ Morgagni, GB (1761). De sedibus et causis morborum per antomen indagatis. 
  109. ^ Bayle, GL (1810). Recherches sur la phtisie pulmonaire. 
  110. ^ a b Witschi, H (November 2001). "A short history of lung cancer". Toxicological Sciences 64 (1): 4–6. PMID 11606795. 
  111. ^ Adler, I (1912). Primary Malignant Growths of the Lungs and Bronchi. New York: Longmans, Green, and Company. OCLC 14783544, cited in Spiro SG, Silvestri GA (2005). "One hundred years of lung cancer". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 172 (5): 523–9. doi:10.1164/rccm.200504-531OE. PMID 15961694. 
  112. ^ Grannis, FW. History of cigarette smoking and lung cancer. smokinglungs.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  113. ^ Proctor, R (2000). The Nazi War on Cancer. Princeton University Press, 173–246. ISBN 0-691-00196-0. 
  114. ^ Doll, R; Hill AB (November 1956). "Lung cancer and other causes of death in relation to smoking; a second report on the mortality of British doctors". British Medical Journal 2 (5001): 1071–1081. PMID 13364389. 
  115. ^ US Department of Health Education and Welfare (1964), Smoking and health: report of the advisory committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office 
  116. ^ Greaves, M (2000). Cancer: the Evolutionary Legacy. Oxford University Press, 196–197. ISBN 0-19-262835-6. 
  117. ^ Office of the Home Secretary (1976). Biographical Memoirs. National Academy of Sciences. ISBN 0-309-02349-1. 
  118. ^ a b Edwards, AT (1946). "Carcinoma of the bronchus". Thorax 1: 1–25. 
  119. ^ Scott, WJ; Howington J, Movsas B (January 2003). "Treatment of stage II non-small cell lung cancer". Chest 123 (Suppl. 1): 188S–201S. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 12527579. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
  120. ^ Smythe, WJ (January 2003). "Treatment of stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma". Chest 123 (Suppl. 1): 181S–187S. American College of Chest Physicians. PMID 12527578. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
  121. ^ Kabela, M (1956). "Experience with radical irradiation of bronchial cancer". Ceskoslovenská Onkológia 3 (2): 109–115. PMID 13383622. 
  122. ^ Lennox, SC; Flavell G, Pollock DJ et al. (November 1968). "Results of resection for oat-cell carcinoma of the lung". Lancet 2 (7575): 925–927. Elsevier. PMID 4176258. 
  123. ^ Miller, AB; Fox W, Tall R (September 1969). "Five-year follow-up of the Medical Research Council comparative trial of surgery and radiotherapy for the primary treatment of small-celled or oat-celled carcinoma of the bronchus". Lancet 2 (7619): 501–505. Elsevier. PMID 4184834. 
  124. ^ Cohen, M; Creaven PJ, Fossieck BE Jr et al. (1977). "Intensive chemotherapy of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma". Cancer Treatment Reports 61 (3): 349–354. PMID 194691. 

WHO redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Surgeon General can have several different meanings. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EPA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EPA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EPA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Chest Radiology Lung cancer tutorial
  • Lung cancer at the Open Directory Project
  • LungCancer.org - free resources and support services
  • OutWithCancer LGBT Cancer Support - free cancer support services
  • National Cancer Insitute
  • Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking, Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation 2004 by the IARC
  • Lung Cancer Articles & Information Stop Smoking Articles & Information at National Institutes of Health
Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Adrenocortical carcinoma is a carcinoma of the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland. ... A phaeochromocytoma (pheochromocytoma in the US) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine in the US). ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cancer research is research into cancer in order to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatments and cure. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
lung cancer (0 words)
Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for up to 3 million deaths annually.
Although lung cancer was previously an illness that predominantly affected males, the incidence in women has been increasing in the last few decades, which has been attributed to the rising ratio of female to male smokers.
Lung cancer is the second most commonly occurring form of cancer in most western countries, and it is the leading cancer-related cause of death for men and women.
Lung cancer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3588 words)
Lung cancer is a cancer of the lungs characterized by the presence of malignant tumours.
Lung cancer is the second most commonly occurring form of cancer in most western countries, and it is the leading cancer-related cause of death for men and women.
Not all cases of lung cancer are due to smoking, but the role of passive smoking is increasingly being recognised as a risk factor for lung cancer, leading to policy interventions to decrease undesired exposure of non-smokers to others' tobacco smoke.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m