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Encyclopedia > Laws of war

The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Original document. ... Jus ad bellum (Latin for Justice of War; see also Just War Theory) are a set of criteria that are consulted before engaging in war, in order to determine whether entering into war is justifiable. ...


These laws are theoretically applicable only to nations which approve and consent to bind to them, usually in the form of international organizations or diplomacy, but in practice all nations are expected to follow the laws of war. Geopolitical conditions of a particular era often dictate which laws are enforced, and by whom. Diplomat redirects here. ... Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ...

Contents

Sources of the laws of war

Positive international humanitarian law consists of international agreements which directly affect the laws of war, foremost the United Nations Charter, the Geneva Conventions and the Hague conventions, bind consenting nations and have achieved widespread consent. There are also customary laws of war, many of which were explored at the Nuremberg War Trials. These laws define both the permissive rights of states as well as prohibitions on their conduct when dealing with irregular forces and non-signatories. International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Original document. ... The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ...


In addition, the Nuremberg War Trial judgment on "The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity"[1] held, under the guidelines Nuremberg Principles, that treaties like the Hague Convention of 1907, having been widely accepted by "all civilised nations" for about half a century, were by then part of the customary laws of war and binding on all parties whether the party was a signatory to the specific treaty or not. The Nuremberg Principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitues a war crime. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...


Interpretations of international humanitarian law change over time and this also affects the laws of war. For example Carla del Ponte, the chief prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia pointed out in 2001 that although there is no specific treaty ban on the use of depleted uranium projectiles, there is a developing scientific debate and concern expressed regarding the impact of the use of such projectiles and it is possible that, in future, there will be a consensus view in international legal circles that use of such projectiles violate general principles of the law applicable to use of weapons in armed conflict.[2] This is because in future it may be the consensus view that depleted uranium projectiles breaches one or more of the following treaties: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the Charter of the United Nations; the Genocide Convention; the United Nations Convention Against Torture; the Geneva Conventions including Protocol I; the Convention on Conventional Weapons of 1980; the Chemical Weapons Convention; and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.[3] Procureur (Prosecutor) of the ICTY Carla del Ponte Carla Del Ponte (born February 9, 1947 in Lugano, Switzerland) is currently a Chief UN War Crimes Prosecutor. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (also UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, December 10, 1948), outlining basic human rights. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... Original document. ... Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... The United Nations Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or that have indiscriminate effects. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ...


Purposes of the laws

It has often been commented that creating laws for something as inherently lawless as war seems like a lesson in absurdity. However, based on the adherence to what amounted to customary international law by warring parties through the ages, it was felt that codifying laws of war would be beneficial.


Some of the central principles underlying laws of war are:

  • Wars should be limited to achieving the political goals that started the war (e.g., territorial control) and should not include unnecessary destruction
  • Wars should be brought to an end as quickly as possible
  • People and property that do not contribute to the war effort should be protected against unnecessary destruction and hardship

To this end, laws of war are intended to mitigate the evils of war by: In religion, evil refers to anything against the will or law of the god(s). ...

  • Protecting both combatants and noncombatants from unnecessary suffering;
  • Safeguarding certain fundamental human rights of persons who fall into the hands of the enemy, particularly prisoners of war, the wounded and sick, and civilians; and
  • Facilitating the restoration of peace.

Conduct of warfare

Among other issues, the laws of war address declaration of war, acceptance of surrender and the treatment of prisoners of war; military necessity along with distinction, and proportionality; and the prohibition of certain inhumane weapons which cause unnecessary suffering. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Military necessity along with distinction, and proportionality are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ...


It is a violation of the laws of war to engage in combat without meeting certain requirements, among them the wearing of a distinctive uniform or other distinctive signs visible at a distance, and the carrying of weapons openly. Impersonating soldiers of the other side by wearing the enemy's uniform is allowed, though fighting in that uniform, like fighting under a white flag, is perfidy which is forbidden, as is the taking of hostages. A uniform is a set of standard clothing worn by members of an organisation whilst participating in that organisations activity. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Police often train to recover hostages taken by force, as in this exercise For the 2005 film, see Hostage (film). ...


Declaration of war

Some treaties, notably the UN charter (1945) Article 2, and some other articles in the charter, seek to curtail the right of member states to declare war; as does the older Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 for those nations who ratified it. The Kellogg-Briand Pact was used against those charged at the Nuremberg War Trials in Germany post-WW2 for waging an aggressive war. President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ...


Violations and applicability

Parties are bound by the laws of war to the extent that such compliance does not interfere with achieving legitimate military goals. For example, they are obliged to make every effort to avoid damaging people and property not involved in combat, but they are not guilty of a war crime if a bomb mistakenly hits a residential area.


By the same token, combatants that use protected people or property as shields or camouflage are guilty of violations of laws of war and are responsible for damage to those that should be protected.[citation needed]


Prohibitory effects

Well-known examples of such laws include the prohibition on attacking doctors or ambulances displaying a Red Cross, a Red Crescent or other emblem related to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (this sometimes leads to confusion when the British military is involved, where certain regiments use the English flag, which is also a red cross). It is also prohibited to fire at a person or vehicle bearing a white flag, since that indicates an intent to surrender or a desire to communicate. In either case, the persons protected by the Red Cross or white flag are expected to maintain neutrality, and may not engage in warlike acts; in fact, engaging in war activities under a white flag or red cross is itself a violation of the laws of war known as perfidy. An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


Remedies for violations

During conflict, punishment for violating the laws of war may consist of a specific, deliberate and limited violation of the laws of war in reprisal. Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war. ...


Soldiers who break specific provisions of the laws of war lose the protections and status afforded as prisoners of war but only after facing a "competent tribunal" (GC III Art 5). At that point they become an unlawful combatant but they must still be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial", because they are still covered by GC IV Art 5. For example in 1976 foreign soldiers fighting for FNLA were captured by the MPLA in the civil war that broke out when Angola gained independence from Portugal in 1975. After "a regularly constituted court" found them guilty of being mercenaries, three Britons and an American were shot by a firing squad on July 10, 1976. Nine others were imprisoned for terms of 16 to 30 years. This article is about a military rank. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention (or GCIII) of 1949, one of the Geneva Conventions, is a treaty agreement that primarily concerns the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), and also touched on other topics. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... External links Party website Categories: Politics stubs | Angolan political parties ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national of a Party to the conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Spies and terrorists may be subject to civilian law or military tribunal for their acts and in practice have been subjected to torture and/or execution. The laws of war neither approve nor condemn such acts, which fall outside their scope. However, nations that have signed the UN Convention Against Torture have committed themselves not to use torture on anyone for any reason. Citizens and soldiers of nations which have not signed the Fourth Geneva Convention are also not protected by it (Article 4: "Nationals of a State which is not bound by the Convention are not protected by it".), whether they are spies or terrorists. Also, citizens and soldiers of nations which have not signed and do not abide by the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions are not protected by them. (Article 2, of both Conventions: "[The High Contracting Parties] shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to [a Power which is not a contracting party], if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof". note: emphasis added) Spies may refer to: Spies (Coldplay), a song by the rock group Coldplay. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has... The United Nations Convention Against Torture is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ...


If someone is (or is suspected to be) a citizen or soldier of a nation which has signed or abides by the Fourth Geneva Convention (see Art. 2 and Art. 4 citations above), or is (or is suspected to be) a "prisoner of war" (POW) per the definitions of such "protected persons" in the Third Geneva Convention (see Art. 4 and Art. 5), the following applies: A POW who breaks specific provisions of the laws of war may be penalized, but not penalized worse than the tribunal would penalize its own soldiers for the same offense (and usually a disciplinary, not judicial, punishment if its own soldiers normally wouldn't be brought to trial for a particular offense) and POW's may not be penalized based on rank or gender, nor with corporal punishment, collective punishments for individual acts, lack of daylight, or torture/cruelty (GC IV, Art. 82 through Art. 88). Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


After a conflict has ended, persons who have committed or ordered any breach of the laws of war, especially atrocities, may be held individually accountable for war crimes through process of law. Also, nations which signed the Geneva Conventions are required to search for, then try and punish, anyone who has committed or ordered certain "grave breaches" of the laws of war. (see GC III, Art. 129 and Art. 130) An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ...


In general, the laws of war are most strictly applied to the losers of war, with only the victorious faction having the power to prosecute themselves for their own violations, which tends to be less harsh than the prosecution of the losers.[opinion needs balancing] POV, as opposed to NPOV, in an article means that it is affected by an editors point of view. ...


International treaties on the laws of war

see also List of international declarations

List of declarations, conventions, treaties and judgements and on the laws of war:[4][5][6] This page is an index list of articles describing various international declarations. ...

The Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law of 16 April 1856 was issued to abolish privateering. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: First Geneva Convention The First Geneva Convention is one of several Geneva Conventions. ... Upon the invitation of Alexander Gorchakov, for the purpose of considering the existing rules of war, a conference of delegates representing Austria-Hungary, Bavaria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, the North German Confederation, Russia, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, and Württemberg met at Saint... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... The Institut de droit international (Institute of International Law) is an organization devoted to the study and development of international law. ... President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. ... The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which to regulate submarine warfare and limited military shipbuilding. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Second London Naval Disarmament Conference opened in England on December 9, 1935. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: First Geneva Convention The First Geneva Convention is one of several Geneva Conventions. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Second Geneva Convention The Second Geneva Convention of 1906, Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea (Geneva, 6 July 1906) extended the principles from the First Geneva Convention of 1864 on... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention (or GCIII) of 1949, one of the Geneva Conventions, is a treaty agreement that primarily concerns the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), and also touched on other topics. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ... The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict is an international treaty that was signed at The Hague, Netherlands, on May 14, 1954, and entered into force August 7, 1956. ... note - abbreviated as Environmental Modification opened for signature - December 10, 1976 entered into force - October 5, 1978 objective - to prohibit the military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques in order to further world peace and trust among nations parties - (66) Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria... Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... Protocol II: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts. ... The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980 and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or that have indiscriminate effects. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... An advisory opinion, in civil procedure, is an opinion issued by a court that does not have the effect of resolving a specific legal case, but merely advises on the constitutionality or interpretation of a law. ... The Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons[1] was an advisory opinion handed down by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on 8 July 1996. ...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The Ottawa Treaty or the Mine Ban Treaty, formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). ... The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International Criminal Court (ICC). ... Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, crime of aggression, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...

See also

Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Debellatio (also debellation) (lat. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ... Islamic military jurisprudence consists of the basic religious laws governing warfare and the military conduct of those who participate in it. ... The doctrine of the just war has its foundations in ancient Greek society and was first developed in the Christian tradition by Augustine in Civitas Dei, The City of God, in reaction to the absolutist pacifist strain of Christian ethics based on the doctrine of Turn the other cheek espoused... The Law of Land Warfare is that part of the Laws of War applicable to the conduct of warfare on land and to relationships between belligerents and neutral States. ... The portions of the law of war which particularly relate to military occupation may be called the law of occupation. ... The Lieber Code of 24th of April, 1863, also known as General Order Number 100 and named after Francis Lieber, was an instruction to the Union Forces of the USA during the Civil War that dictated how soldiers should conduct themselves in war time. ... This is a list of current and past military scandals. ... The right of conquest is the purported right of a conqueror to territory taken by force of arms. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...

References

  • Roberts, Adam and Guelff, Richard (Editors); Documents on the Laws of War; Third Edition; Oxford University press; ISBN 0-19-876390-5
  • Texts and commentaries of 1949 Geneva Conventions & Additional Protocols

Further reading

A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Judgement : The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity contained in the Avalon Project archive at Yale Law School.
  2. ^ The Final Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Use of Depleted Uranium Projectiles
  3. ^ E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/38 Human rights and weapons of mass destruction, or with indiscriminate effect, or of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering (backup)
  4. ^ Roberts and Guelff References
  5. ^ ICRCTreaties & Documents by date
  6. ^ Joan T. Phillips. List of documents and web links relating to the law of armed conflict in air and space operations, May 2006. Bibliographer, Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center Maxwell (United States) Air Force Base, Alabama.
  7. ^ Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War. Brussels, 27 August 1874
  8. ^ Brussels Conference of 1874 - International Declaration Concerning Laws and Customs of War Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Project on Chemical and Biological Warfare
  9. ^ a b Brussels Conference of 1874 ICRC cites D.Schindler and J.Toman, The Laws of Armed Conflicts, Martinus Nihjoff Publisher, 1988, pp.22-34.
  10. ^ Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. Geneva, 17 June 1925.
  11. ^ Protection of Civilian Populations Against Bombing From the Air in Case of War, Unanimous resolution of the League of Nations Assembly, 30 September 1938
  12. ^ Draft Convention for the Protection of Civilian Populations Against New Engines of War. Amsterdam, 1938
  13. ^ Explosive remnants of war and international humanitarian law on the website of the International Committee of the Red Cross
  14. ^ by Louise Doswald-Beck San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflict at Sea 31 December 1995 International Review of the Red Cross no 309, p.583-594
  15. ^ Guidelines for Military Manuals and Instructions on the Protection of the Environment in Times of Armed Conflict 30 April 1996 International Review of the Red Cross no 311, p.230-237
  16. ^ Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel



The Avalon Project is Yale Law Schools digital library of Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is historically a committee of Swiss nationals, although non-Swiss nationals have recently been allowed (the committee appoints new members to itself to replace those who resign or die) which leads the international Red Cross movement (often simply known after its symbol... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was founded in 1966 to commemorate 150 years of unbroken peace in Sweden. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is historically a committee of Swiss nationals, although non-Swiss nationals have recently been allowed (the committee appoints new members to itself to replace those who resign or die) which leads the international Red Cross movement (often simply known after its symbol... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Review of the Red Cross (ISSN 1560-7755) is a quarterly periodic journal published by the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement which, according to its publisher, aims to promote debate, reflection and critical analysis on international humanitarian law, humanitarian action and policy during international armed conflict... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Review of the Red Cross (ISSN 1560-7755) is a quarterly periodic journal published by the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement which, according to its publisher, aims to promote debate, reflection and critical analysis on international humanitarian law, humanitarian action and policy during international armed conflict...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague II); July 29, 1899 (3432 words)
Every prisoner of war, if questioned, is bound to declare his true name and rank, and if he disregards this rule, he is liable to a curtailment of the advantages accorded to the prisoners of war of his class.
Prisoners of war may be set at liberty on parole if the laws of their country authorize it, and, in such a case, they are bound, on their personal honor, scrupulously to fulfill, both as regards their own Government and the Government by whom they were made prisoners, the engagements they have contracted.
Any prisoner of war, who is liberated on parole and recaptured, bearing arms against the Government to whom he had pledged his honor, or against the allies of that Government, forfeits his right to be treated as a prisoner of war, and can be brought before the Courts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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