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Encyclopedia > Kidney
Kidney
Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed
Latin ren
Gray's subject #253 1215
Artery renal artery
Vein renal vein
Nerve renal plexus
MeSH Kidney
Dorlands/Elsevier k_03/12470097

Major function-filter blood. The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles. Their primary role is to maintain the homeostatic balance of bodily fluids by filtering and secreting metabolites (such as urea) and minerals from the blood and excreting them, along with water, as urine. Because the kidneys are poised to sense plasma concentrations of ions such as sodium, potassium, hydrogen, oxygen, and compounds such as amino acids, creatine, bicarbonate, and glucose, they are important regulators of blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and erythropoiesis (the process by which red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced). The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases of the kidney is called nephrology[1]. The prefix nephro- meaning kidney is from the Ancient Greek word nephros (νεφρός); the adjective renal meaning related to the kidney is from Latin rēnēs, meaning kidneys. [2] Position of kidneys, view from behind with spine removed. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The renal arteries normally arise off the abdominal aorta and supply the kidneys with blood. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The renal plexus is formed by filaments from the celiac plexus, the aorticorenal ganglion, and the aortic plexus . ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... Metabolomics is the systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind - specifically, the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the properties of water. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... For the use of creatine to enhance athletic performance, please see Creatine supplements. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


In humans, the kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdomen. There is one on each side of the spine; the right kidney sits just below the liver, the left below the diaphragm and adjacent to the spleen. Above each kidney is an adrenal gland (also called the suprarenal gland). The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left one while the left kidney is located slightly more medial. This article is about modern humans. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... The abdomen in a human and an ant. ... The vertebral column seen from the side The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines...


The kidneys are retroperitoneal and range from 9 to 13 cm in diameter; the left slightly larger than the right. They are approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3. The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney and adrenal gland are surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) and the renal fascia which help to cushion it. Congenital absence of one or both kidneys, known as unilateral (on one side) or bilateral (on both the sides) renal agenesis, can occur. Retroperitoneal is an anatomical term that refers to the relationship of the contents of the abdominal cavity to the peritoneal space. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... The human rib cage. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... The kidney and the adipose capsule are enclosed in a sheath of fibrous tissue continuous with the subperitoneal fascia, and named the renal fascia (also known as Gerotas fascia). ... The absence of one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) kidneys at birth. ...

Contents

Functions

Main article: Renal physiology

This illustration demonstrates the normal kidney physiology. ...

Excretion of waste products

The kidneys excrete a variety of waste products produced by metabolism, including the nitrogenous wastes: urea (from protein catabolism) and uric acid (from nucleic acid metabolism) and water. Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ...


Homeostasis

The kidney is one of the major organs involved in whole-body homeostasis. Among its homeostatic functions are acid-base balance, regulation of electrolyte concentrations, control of blood volume, and regulation of blood pressure. The kidneys accomplish these homeostatic functions independently and through coordination with other organs, particularly those of the endocrine system. The kidney communicates with these organs through hormones secreted into the bloodstream. Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Blood volume is a term describing the amout of blood (including both red blood cells and plasma) in a persons circulatory system. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ...


Acid-base balance

The kidneys regulate the pH of blood by adjusting H+ ion levels, referred as augmentation of mineral ion concentration, as well as water composition of the blood. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Blood pressure

Main article: Renin-angiotensin system

Sodium ions are controlled in a homeostatic process involving aldosterone which increases sodium ion reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubules. Schematic depicting how the RAAS works. ... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ...


Plasma volume

Any significant rise or drop in plasma osmolality is detected by the hypothalamus, which communicates directly with the posterior pituitary gland. A rise in osmolality causes the gland to secrete antidiuretic hormone, resulting in water reabsorption by the kidney and an increase in urine concentration. The two factors work together to return the plasma osmolality to its normal levels.the kidney gives the bladder its urine. Plasma osmolality is a measure of the concentration of substances such as sodium, chloride, potassium, urea, glucose, and other ions in human blood. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ...


Hormone secretion

The kidneys secrete a variety of hormones, including erythropoietin, urodilatin, renin and vitamin D. Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Urodilantin is a hormone that causes diuresis through increasing renal blood flow (RBF). ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ...


Embryology

The mammalian kidney develops from intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development, also called nephrogenesis, proceeds through a series of three successive phases, each marked by the development of a more advanced pair of kidneys: the pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros.[3] (The plural forms of these terms end in -oi.) In prenatal development, the urinary and reproductive organs are developed from the intermediate mesoderm. ... Intermediate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate. ...


Pronephros

Main article: Pronephros

During approximately day 22 of human gestation, the paired pronephroi appear towards the cranial end of the intermediate mesoderm. In this region, epithelial cells arrange themselves in a series of tubules called nephrotomes and join laterally with the pronephric duct, which does not reach the outside of the embryo. Thus the pronephros is considered nonfunctional in mammals because it cannot excrete waste from the embryo. Pronephros the most primitive of the three excretory organs that develop in vertebrate, corresponding to the first stage of kidney development. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... The nephrotome is a section of the mesoderm. ... In the outer part of the intermediate cell-mass, immediately under the ectoderm, in the region from the fifth cervical to the third thoracic segments, a series of short evaginations from each segment grows dorsalward and extends caudalward, fusing successively from before backward to form the pronephric duct. ...


Mesonephros

Main article: Mesonephros

Each pronephric duct grows towards the tail of the embryo, and in doing so induces intermediate mesoderm in the thoracolumbar area to become epithelial tubules called mesonephric tubules. Each mesonephric tubule receives a blood supply from a branch of the aorta, ending in a capillary tuft analogous to the glomerulus of the definitive nephron. The mesonephric tubule forms a capsule around the capillary tuft, allowing for filtration of blood. This filtrate flows through the mesonephric tubule and is drained into the continuation of the pronephric duct, now called the mesonephric duct or Wolffian duct. The nephrotomes of the pronephros degenerate while the mesonephric duct extends towards the most caudal end of the embryo, ultimately attaching to the cloaca. The mammalian mesonephros is similar to the kidneys of aquatic amphibians and fishes. The mesonephros (Latin for middle kidney) is one of three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. ... The mesonephros (Latin for middle kidney) is one of three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ... A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... The Wolffian duct (also known as archinephric duct, Leydigs duct, and the mesonephric duct) is an organ found in humans during fetal development. ... The Wolffian duct (also known as archinephric duct, Leydigs duct, mesonephric duct, or nephric duct) is a paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis. ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Metanephros

During the fifth week of gestation, the mesonephric duct develops an outpouching, the ureteric bud, near its attachment to the cloaca. This bud, also called the metanephrogenic diverticulum, grows posteriorly and towards the head of the embryo. The elongated stalk of the ureteric bud, the metanephric duct, later forms the ureter. As the cranial end of the bud extends into the intermediate mesoderm, it undergoes a series of branchings to form the collecting duct system of the kidney. It also forms the major and minor calyces and the renal pelvis. The Ureteric bud is a portion of the mesonephric duct. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of: The connecting tubule The cortical collecting duct The medullary collecting duct Categories: | ... Calyx can refer to: Minor calyx Major calyx Category: ... The renal pelvis represents the dilated proximal part of the ureter. ...


The portion of undifferentiated intermediate mesoderm in contact with the tips of the branching ureteric bud is known as the metanephrogenic blastema. Signals released from the ureteric bud induce the differentiation of the metanephrogenic blastema into the renal tubules. As the renal tubules grow, they come into contact and join with connecting tubules of the collecting duct system, forming a continuous passage for flow from the renal tubule to the collecting duct. Simultaneously, precursors of vascular endothelial cells begin to take their position at the tips of the renal tubules. These cells differentiate into the cells of the definitive glomerulus. Nephron of the kidney A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... In the kidney, the collecting tubule (CNT, or junctional tubule, or arcuate renal tubule) is a tubular segment of the renal collecting duct system that connects the distal convoluted tubule to the cortical collecting duct. ... The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ...


Terms

Microscopic photograph of the renal cortex.
Microscopic photograph of the renal cortex.
Microscopic photograph of the renal medulla.
Microscopic photograph of the renal medulla.
  • renal capsule: The membranous covering of the kidney.
  • cortex: The outer layer over the internal medulla. It contains blood vessels, glomeruli (which are the kidneys' "filters") and urine tubes and is supported by a fibrous matrix.
  • hilus: The opening in the middle of the concave medial border for nerves and blood vessels to pass into the renal sinus.
  • renal column: The structures which support the cortex. They consist of lines of blood vessels and urinary tubes and a fibrous material.
  • renal sinus: The cavity which houses the renal pyramids.
  • calyces: The recesses in the internal medulla which hold the pyramids. They are used to subdivide the sections of the kidney. (singular - calyx)
  • papillae: The small conical projections along the wall of the renal sinus. They have openings through which urine passes into the calyces. (singular - papilla)
  • renal pyramids: The conical segments within the internal medulla. They contain the secreting apparatus and tubules and are also called malpighian pyramids.
  • renal artery: Two renal arteries come from the aorta, each connecting to a kidney. The artery divides into five branches, each of which leads to a ball of capillaries. The arteries supply (unfiltered) blood to the kidneys. The left kidney receives about 60% of the renal bloodflow.
  • renal vein: The filtered blood returns to circulation through the renal veins which join into the inferior vena cava.
  • renal pelvis: Basically just a funnel, the renal pelvis accepts the urine and channels it out of the hilus into the ureter.
  • ureter: A narrow tube 40 cm long and 4 mm in diameter. Passing from the renal pelvis out of the hilus and down to the bladder. The ureter carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder by means of peristalsis.
  • renal lobe: Each pyramid together with the associated overlying cortex forms a renal lobe

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2693 KB) Author own picture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2693 KB) Author own picture. ... The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2622 KB) Author own picture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2622 KB) Author own picture. ... The renal medulla is the innermost part of the kidney. ... The renal capsule is a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney and covered in a thick layer of perinephric adipose tissue. ... In anatomy and zoology the cortex is the outermost (or superficial) layer of an organ. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... A hilum (formerly called a hilus) is a depression or pit at the part of an organ where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter. ... The renal column is tissue between the renal pyramids that allows for support of the renal cortex. ... The renal sinus is a cavity within the kidney which is occupied by the renal pelvis, renal calices, blood vessels, nerves and fat. ... A calyx is a part in the kidney. ... The renal sinus is a cavity within the kidney which is occupied by the renal pelvis, renal calices, blood vessels, nerves and fat. ... In the kidney, the renal papilla is the location where the kidneys converge at a traffic intersection. ... Renal pyramids are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney. ... Renal pyramids (or malpighian pyramids) are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The renal arteries normally arise off the abdominal aorta and supply the kidneys with blood. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... The renal pelvis represents the dilated proximal part of the ureter. ... A typical kitchen funnel. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents through the digestive tract. ... The renal lobe is a portion of a kidney consisting of a renal pyramid and the renal cortex above it. ...

Diseases and disorders

Congenital

Horseshoe kidney is a congenital disorder, affecting about 1 in 500 to 1 in 600 people, in which a persons two kidneys fuse together to form a horseshoe-shape. ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a progressive, genetic disorder of the kidneys. ... Renal Dysplasia This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a condition that results from the malformation of the kidney during fetal development. ...

Acquired

drawing of an enlarged kidney by John Hunter
drawing of an enlarged kidney by John Hunter

Engraving of John Hunter (1728 – 1793) taken from the original portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which is in the Royal College of Surgeons. ... Diabetic nephropathy (nephropatia diabetica), also known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome and intercapillary glomerulonephritis, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. ... Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis and abbreviated GN, is a primary or secondary immune-mediated renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys. ... Hydronephrosis is distention and dilation of the renal pelvis, usually caused by obstruction of the free flow of urine from the kidney. ... Interstitial nephritis (or Tubulo-interstitial nephritis) is a form of nephritis affecting the interstititum of the kidneys surrounding the tubules. ... “Bladder stone” redirects here. ... Wilms tumor is a neoplasm of the kidneys that typically occurs in children. ... Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidney caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a disease of the immune system. ... Minimal change disease or nil disease (lipoid nephrosis) is a disease of the kidney which causes nephrotic syndrome and usually affects children (peak incidence at 2-3 years of age). ... The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Pyelonephritis is an ascending urinary tract infection that has reached the pyelum (pelvis) of the kidney (nephros in Greek). ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years through five stages. ...

The failing kidney

Generally, humans can live normally with just one kidney, as one has more functioning renal tissue than is needed to survive, possibly due to the nature of the prehistoric human diet. Only when the amount of functioning kidney tissue is greatly diminished will Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease develop. If the glomerular filtration rate (a measure of renal function) has fallen very low ( Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease), or if the renal dysfunction leads to severe symptoms, then renal replacement therapy is indicated, either dialysis or kidney transplantation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years through five stages. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years through five stages. ... Renal replacement therapy is a term used to encompass treatments for renal disease. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ...


Medical terminology

  • Medical terms related to the kidneys involve the prefixes renal- and nephro-.
  • Surgical removal of the kidney is a nephrectomy, while a radical nephrectomy is removal of the kidney, its surrounding tissue, lymph nodes, and potentially the adrenal gland. A radical nephrectomy is performed for the removal of the cancers.

Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...

Histology

Human cell types found in the kidney include:

The thick ascending limb of loop of Henle (or distal straight tubule) can be divided into two parts: that in the renal medulla, and that in the renal cortex. ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter. ... After filtrate leaves the distal convoluted tubule of a nephron, it enters the collecting duct portion of the collecting system. ...

Animal kidneys as food

The kidneys of animals can be cooked and eaten by humans (along with other offal). If prepared properly, they can be nutritious and pleasant tasting. Veal kidneys and lamb kidneys are particularly prized for their tenderness and flavour. Kidneys can be grilled or sautéed, though they become tough and unpleasant if overcooked. Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Scrapple sandwich at the Delaware state fair Offal is the entrails and internal organs of a butchered animal. ...


See also

“Bladder stone” redirects here. ... This illustration demonstrates the normal kidney physiology. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  1. ^ Nephrology. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  2. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  3. ^ Bruce M. Carlson (2004). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology, 3rd edition, Saint Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0-323-03649-X. 
  4. ^ mednote.co

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek ουρήθρα - ourethra) is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... Human development may refer to: Human development (biology) Human development (psychology) see Developmental psychology Occasionally, it may refer to both, but because each of these is already an immense area, few if any contemporary academic discussions attempt to tackle both with any completeness. ... In prenatal development, the urinary and reproductive organs are developed from the intermediate mesoderm. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
UK National Kidney Federation - Kidney Disease (1816 words)
This is a common cause of a small kidney detected in childhood or in a young adult.
Many other diseases which damage the kidney, such as glomerulonephritis (click here for more details), can cause a kidney to shrink and become small, but glomerulonephritis usually affects both kidneys equally, and this section of medical information is really concerned with conditions where one kidney is smaller than the other.
If a small kidney is providing more than 25% (one quarter) of the total level of kidney function (this can be measured using a test called a radioisotope scan), doctors often suggest trying to control any problems caused by the kidney with drugs (such as long term antibiotics for infection), before removing the kidney.
Kidney Stones - UrologyChannel (829 words)
Kidney stones (calculi) are hardened mineral deposits that form in the kidney.
Kidney stones form when there is a high level of calcium (hypercalciuria), oxalate (hyperoxaluria), or uric acid (hyperuricosuria) in the urine; a lack of citrate in the urine; or insufficient water in the kidneys to dissolve waste products.
Kidney stones are most prevalent in patients between the ages of 30 and 45, and the incidence declines after age 50.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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