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Encyclopedia > Human
Human[1]
Fossil range: Pleistocene - Recent

Humans depicted on the Pioneer plaque
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: H. sapiens
Subspecies: H. s. sapiens
Trinomial name
Homo sapiens sapiens
Linnaeus, 1758

Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise human" or "knowing human"[2]) in the family Hominidae (the great apes).[3][4] DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago.[5] Compared to other species, humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, and emotional suffering. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the forelimbs (arms) for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Humans now inhabit every continent on Earth, except Antarctica (although several governments maintain permanent research stations there, inhabited for short periods by scientists and other researchers). Humans also now have a continuous presence in low Earth orbit, occupying the International Space Station. The human population on Earth now amounts to over 6.6 billion, as of May 2008.[6] Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Look up Human in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Pioneer plaque - Man and woman NASA Image of the Pioneer plaque. ... The illustration on the Pioneer plaque The Pioneer plaques are a pair of aluminum plaques which were placed on board the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message from humanity, in case either Pioneer 10 or 11 are intercepted by extraterrestrial beings. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Bipedalism is standing, or moving for example by walking, running, or hopping, on two appendages (typically legs though it can also include hand walking). ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animals total body mass. ... This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... A forelimb is an anterior limb on an animals body. ... This article is about the instrument. ... ISS redirects here. ...


Like most primates, humans are social by nature. However, they are particularly adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression, exchanging of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws, which together form the basis of human society. Humans have a marked appreciation for beauty and aesthetics, which, combined with the desire for self-expression, has led to cultural innovations such as art, literature and music. See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


Humans are noted (by themselves) for their desire to understand and influence the world around them, seeking to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through science, philosophy, mythology and religion. This natural curiosity has led to the development of advanced tools and skills; humans are the only extant species known to build fires, cook their food, clothe themselves, and manipulate and develop numerous other technologies. Humans pass down their skills and knowledge to the next generations through education. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...

Contents

History

Origin

For more details on this topic, see Human evolution, Recent African Origin, and Archaic Homo sapiens.
A reconstruction of Australopithecus afarensis, a human ancestor that had developed bipedalism, but which lacked the large brain of modern humans.
A reconstruction of Australopithecus afarensis, a human ancestor that had developed bipedalism, but which lacked the large brain of modern humans.

The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and hominines as well, such as Australopithecus. "Modern humans" are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the only extant subspecies - our own - was formerly known as Homo sapiens sapiens (now simply known as Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as "elder wise human"), the other known subspecies, is now extinct.[7] Anatomically modern humans first appear in the fossil record in Africa about 200,000 years ago.[8][9] For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens, which consisted of the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neanderthal-like hominids of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids. ... Binomial name Johanson & White, 1978 Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominid which lived between 3. ... Bipedalism is standing, or moving for example by walking, running, or hopping, on two appendages (typically legs though it can also include hand walking). ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Tribes Gorillini Hominini and see text Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... For the song by Modest Mouse, see Sad Sappy Sucker. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Trinomial name †Homo sapiens idaltu White et al, 2003 Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as elderly wise man) is an extinct subspecies of Homo sapiens that lived almost 160,000 years ago in Pleistocene Africa. ...


The closest living relatives of Homo sapiens are the two chimpanzee species: the Common Chimpanzee and the Bonobo. Full genome sequencing has resulted in the conclusion that "after 6.5 [million] years of separate evolution, the differences between chimpanzee and human are just 10 times greater than those between two unrelated people and 10 times less than those between rats and mice". In fact, 96.4% of the human DNA sequence is identical to that of chimpanzees.[10][11][12][13] It has been estimated that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from that of gorillas about eight million years ago. However, a hominid skull discovered in Chad in 2001, classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is approximately seven million years old, which may indicate an earlier divergence.[14] Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Brunet et al, 2002 Sahelanthropus tchadensis is a fossil ape, thought to have lived approximately 7 million years ago. ...


The Recent African Origin (RAO), or "out-of-Africa", hypothesis proposes that modern humans evolved in Africa before later migrating outwards to replace hominids in other parts of the world. Evidence from archaeogenetics accumulating since the 1990s has lent strong support to RAO, and has marginalized the competing multiregional hypothesis, which proposed that modern humans evolved, at least in part, from independent hominid populations.[15] Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah propose that the variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species. They also propose that during the Late Pleistocene, the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs – no more than 10,000, and possibly as few as 1,000 – resulting in a very small residual gene pool. Various reasons for this hypothetical bottleneck have been postulated, one being the Toba catastrophe theory. Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Archaeogenetics, a term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular population genetics to the study of the human past. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Henry Harpending Henry C. Harpending is an anthropologist and population geneticist at the University of Utah, where he is a Distinguished Professor. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U or the UU), located in Salt Lake City, is the flagship public research university in the state of Utah, and one of 10 institutions that make up the Utah System of Higher Education. ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Eruption column rising, Mount Redoubt, Alaska According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent, large volcanic event. ...


Human evolution is characterized by a number of important morphological, developmental, physiological and behavioural changes, which have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The first major morphological change was the evolution of a bipedal locomotor adaptation from an arboreal or semi-arboreal one,[16] with all its attendant adaptations, such as a valgus knee, low intermembral index (long legs relative to the arms), and reduced upper-body strength.


Later, ancestral humans developed a much larger brain – typically 1,400 cm³ in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. Physical anthropologists argue that the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes are even more significant than their differences in size. In biology, heterochrony is defined as a developmental change in the timing of events, leading to changes in size and shape. ... For the academic journal, see Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... A human brain. ...


Other significant morphological changes included: the evolution of a power and precision grip;[17] a reduced masticatory system; a reduction of the canine tooth; and the descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, making speech possible. An important physiological change in humans was the evolution of hidden oestrus, or concealed ovulation, which may have coincided with the evolution of important behavioural changes, such as pair bonding. Another significant behavioural change was the development of material culture, with human-made objects becoming increasingly common and diversified over time. The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate.[18][19] In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... Human and bonobo females have concealed ovulation or hidden estrus. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: A material culture comprises physical objects from the past, the study of which is the basis of the discipline. ...


Rise of civilization

The rise of agriculture led to the foundation of stable human settlements.
The rise of agriculture led to the foundation of stable human settlements.
For more details on this topic, see History of the world.

The most widely accepted view among current anthropologists is that Homo sapiens originated in the African savanna around 200,000 BP (Before Present), descending from Homo erectus, had inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 BP, and finally inhabited the Americas approximately 14,500 years ago.[20] They displaced Homo neanderthalensis and other species descended from Homo erectus (which had inhabited Eurasia as early as 2 million years ago) through more successful reproduction and competition for resources. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1595 KB) Farmer plowing, by de:Benutzer:Marcela Einscharpflug aufgenommen am 12. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1595 KB) Farmer plowing, by de:Benutzer:Marcela Einscharpflug aufgenommen am 12. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ... This article is about grassland. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ...


Until c. 10,000 years ago, most humans lived as hunter-gatherers. They generally lived in small nomadic groups known as band societies. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution, when access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals and the use of metal tools. Agriculture encouraged trade and cooperation, and led to complex society. Because of the significance of this date for human society, it is the epoch of the Holocene calendar or Human Era. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... H.E. redirects here. ...


About 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. Military forces were formed for protection, and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and competed for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,000–3,000 years ago, some states, such as Persia, India, China and Rome, developed through conquest into the first expansive empires. Influential religions, such as Judaism, originating in the Middle East, and Hinduism, a religious tradition that originated in South Asia, also rose to prominence at this time. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies. In China, an advanced and urbanized economy promoted innovations such as printing and the compass, while the Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the 14th century. Over the next 500 years, exploration and imperialistic conquest brought much of the Americas, Asia, and Africa under European control, leading to later struggles for independence. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th – 19th centuries promoted major innovations in transport, such as the railway and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ...


As a result of such changes, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. Although this has encouraged the growth of science, art, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes, the development and use of weapons of mass destruction, and increased environmental destruction and pollution. Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


Habitat and population

For more details on this topic, see Demography and World population.
Humans have structured their environment in extensive ways in order to adapt to problems such as high population density, as shown in this image of Hong Kong.
Humans have structured their environment in extensive ways in order to adapt to problems such as high population density, as shown in this image of Hong Kong.

Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources, such as fertile land for growing crops and grazing livestock, or seasonally by hunting populations of prey. However, humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as through irrigation, urban planning, construction, transport, and manufacturing goods. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has become unnecessary, and in many places these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change. Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... // Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ...


Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to all climates. Within the last few decades, humans have explored Antarctica, the ocean depths, and space, although long-term habitation of these environments is not yet possible. With a population of over six billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%) and Europe (11%), with 0.5% in Oceania.


Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time. Between 1969 and 1972, two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of early 2008, no other celestial body has been visited by human beings, although there has been a continuous human presence in space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, 2000. Other celestial bodies have, however, been visited by human-made objects. An ecosphere Closed Ecological Systems (CES) are ecosystems that do not exchange matter with any part outside the system. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ISS redirects here. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Since 1800, the human population increased from one billion to over six billion.[21] In 2004, some 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in urban areas, and this percentage is expected to rise throughout the 21st century. Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime,[22] especially in inner city and suburban slums. Benefits of urban living include increased literacy, access to the global canon of human knowledge and decreased susceptibility to rural famines. Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ...


Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. It has been hypothesized that human predation has contributed to the extinction of numerous species. As humans stand at the top of the food chain and are not generally preyed upon, they have been described as superpredators.[23] Currently, through land development and pollution, humans are thought to be the main contributor to global climate change.[24] This is believed to be a major contributor to the ongoing Holocene extinction event, a mass extinction which, if it continues at its current rate, is predicted to wipe out half of all species over the next century.[25][26] Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late seventeenth century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ...


Biology

For more details on this topic, see Human biology.

Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. ...

Physiology and genetics

For more details on this topic, see Human anatomy, Human physical appearance, and Human genetics.
An old diagram of a male human skeleton.
An old diagram of a male human skeleton.

Human body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely determined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult human is about 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 feet) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place.[27][28] Unlike most other primates, humans are capable of fully bipedal locomotion, thus leaving their arms available for manipulating objects using their hands, aided especially by opposable thumbs. List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... A karyotype of a human male, showing 46 chromosomes including XY sex chromosomes. ... Image File history File links Skeleton_diagram. ... Image File history File links Skeleton_diagram. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Stature redirects here. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A number of animals have evolved so as to be able to travel over the ground. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ...


Although humans appear relatively hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head, underarms and pubic area, the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see.[29] This article is about the body feature. ... A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ...


The hue of human hair and skin is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins. Human skin hues can range from very dark brown to very pale pink, while human hair ranges from blond to brown to red to, most commonly, black,[30] depending on the amount of melanin (an effective sun blocking pigment) in the skin. Most researchers believe that skin darkening was an adaptation that evolved as a protection against ultraviolet solar radiation. More recently, however, it has been argued that particular skin colors are an adaptation to balance folate, which is destroyed by ultraviolet radiation, and vitamin D, which requires sunlight to form.[31] The skin pigmentation of contemporary humans is geographically stratified, and in general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation. Human skin also has a capacity to darken (sun tanning) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[32][33] Humans tend to be physically weaker than other similairly sized primates, with young, conditioned male humans having been shown to be unable to match the strength of female orangutans which are at least three times stronger.[34] Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... For other uses, see Blond (disambiguation). ... Brunette redirects here. ... Woman with red hair Man with red hair Red hair (also referred to as auburn, ginger, ranga or titian) varies from a deep orange-red through burnt orange to bright copper. ... Japanese man with black hair Indian girl with black hair Black hair is the darkest and most common color of human hair says Tom P. of Burr Ridge, IL. The vast majority of people of non-European descent (Except Veronica) have black hair. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... A woman sunbathing A suntanned arm showing browner skin where it has been exposed. ... This article is about the primate. ...


Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short 'flush' canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young specimens. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth, with some individuals having them congenitally absent.[35] The Canine teeth are the long, pointed teeth used for grabbing hold of and tearing apart foods, also called cuspids, dogteeth or fangs. Species that feature them, such as humans and dogs, usually have four, two in the top jaw, two in the lower, on either side of the Incisors. ... Wisdom teeth are the third molars that usually appear between the ages of 16 and 24. ...


The average sleep requirement is between seven and eight hours a day for an adult and nine to ten hours for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Experiencing less sleep than this is common in modern societies; this sleep deprivation can lead to negative effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort. For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ...


Humans are an eukaryotic species. Each diploid cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. By present estimates, humans have approximately 20,000 – 25,000 genes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. The X chromosome is larger and carries many genes not on the Y chromosome, which means that recessive diseases associated with X-linked genes, such as hemophilia, affect men more often than women. Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Ploidy is the number of homologous sets of chromosomes in a biological cell. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome (genetic algorithm). ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... For the discernment of an organisms sex, see sexing. ... Drosophila sex-chromosomes The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila) and some plants (Ginkgo). ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Male sex. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dominance relationship. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ...


Life cycle

A human embryo at 5 weeks
A human embryo at 5 weeks

The human life cycle is similar to that of other placental mammals. The fertilized egg divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a human fetus. After this span of time, the fully-grown fetus is birthed from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1874x2000, 1514 KB) This image was selected as a Featured Picture on the English language Wikipedia on 29 November 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1874x2000, 1514 KB) This image was selected as a Featured Picture on the English language Wikipedia on 29 November 2006. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ...


Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon and often leads to the death of the mother, or the child.[36] This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference (for housing the brain) and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis (a trait required for successful bipedalism, by way of natural selection).[37][38] The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain relatively hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately 100 times more common than in developed countries.[39] Parturition redirects here. ... The pelvis (pl. ... Natural childbirth is a childbirth philosophy that attempts to minimize medical intervention, particularly the use of anesthetic medications and surgical interventions such as episiotomies, forceps and ventouse deliveries and caesarean sections. ...

Two young American girls photographed at an Inter-racial Christmas Seals Camp in August 1943
Two young American girls photographed at an Inter-racial Christmas Seals Camp in August 1943[40]

In developed countries, infants are typically 3 – 4 kg (6 – 9 pounds) in weight and 50 – 60 cm (20 – 24 inches) in height at birth.[41] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions.[42] Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Compared to other primates, humans experience an unusually rapid growth spurt during adolescence, where the body grows 25% in size. Chimpanzees, for example, grow only 14%.[43] Image File history File links Two_young_girls_at_Camp_Christmas_Seals. ... Image File history File links Two_young_girls_at_Camp_Christmas_Seals. ... Baby weighed as AGA Birth weight is the weight of a baby at its birth. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Sexual maturity is the age/stage when an organism can reproduce. ... Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... Teen redirects here. ... Young Adulthood -- The Molding Of The Personal Identity Young adulthood (YA) is a period of life ranging approximately from the age of 18 (in most Western countries) to about 35 years of age, depending on the exact source/country that one is referring to. ... This article is about the human developmental stage. ... Paul Kruger in his old age. ...


There are significant differences in life expectancy around the world. The developed world generally aging, with the median age around 40 years (highest in Monaco at 45.1 years). In the developing world the median age is between 15 and 20 years. Life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong, China is 84.8 years for a female and 78.9 for a male, while in Swaziland, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes.[44] While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older.[45] The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.[46] At least one person, Jeanne Calment, is known to have reached the age of 122 years; higher ages have been claimed but they are not well substantiated. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 or older for every 100 women of that age group, and among the oldest, there are 53 men for every 100 women. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Hong Kong (香港; Cantonese IPA: ; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2; Yale: heūng góng; pinyin: Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles: Hsiang-kang) is one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... A centenarian is a person who has attained the age of 100 years or more. ... UN redirects here. ... Jeanne Louise Calment (February 21, 1875 – August 4, 1997) reached the longest confirmed lifespan in history at 122 years and 164 days. ...


Humans are unique in the widespread onset of female menopause during the latter stage of life. Menopause is believed to have arisen due to the Grandmother hypothesis, in which it is in the mother's reproductive interest to forgo the risks of death from childbirth at older ages in exchange for investing in the viability of her already living offspring.[47] The word menopause literally means the permanent physiological, or natural, cessation of menstrual cycles, from the Greek roots meno (month) and pausis (a pause, a cessation). ... The grandmother hypothesis is meant to explain why menopause, rare in mammal species, arose in human evolution, and how late life infertility could actually confer an evolutionary advantage. ...


The philosophical questions of when human personhood begins and whether it persists after death are the subject of considerable debate. The prospect of death causes unease or fear for most humans, distinct from the immediate awareness of a threat. Burial ceremonies are characteristic of human societies, often accompanied by beliefs in an afterlife or immortality. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...


Diet

Early Homo sapiens employed a hunter-gatherer method as their primary means of food collection, involving combining stationary plant and fungal food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. It is believed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food prior to eating since the time of their divergence from Homo erectus. Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ...


Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming both plant and animal products. A view of humans as omnivores is supported by the evidence that both a pure animal and a pure vegetable diet can lead to deficiency diseases in humans. A pure animal diet can, for instance, lead to scurvy, a vitamin C deficiency, while a pure plant diet may lead to vitamin B12 deficiency.[48] The biggest problem posed by a vitamin B12 deficiency is that it severely limits the body's ability to synthesize folic acid, a main source of B group carriage. In order to counter the constant folic acid deficiency, one must regularly consume large amounts of folic acid, as may be found in green, leafy vegetables. Properly planned vegetarian and vegan diets, however, have been found to completely satisfy nutritional needs in every stage of life,[49]and significantly reduce risks of major diseases. Omnivores are organisms that consume both plants and animals. ... Many diseases in humans are thought to be directly or indirectly related to nutrition, These include, but are not limited to, deficiency diseases, caused by a lack of essential nutrients. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ... Vegan redirects here. ...


The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science. In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. Lack of food remains a serious problem, with about 300,000 people starving to death every year.[50] Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease.[51] However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased to almost epidemic proportions, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) state that 32% of American adults over the age of 20 are obese, while 66.5% are obese or overweight. Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, with many attributing excessive weight gain to a combination of overeating and insufficient exercise. Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The calorie is a unit of energy, in particular heat. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ...


At least ten thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture,[52] which has substantially altered the kind of food people eat. This has led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased population density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, has varied widely by time, location, and culture. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


Psychology

A sketch of the human brain imposed upon the profile of Michelangelo's David. Sketch by Priyan Weerappuli.
A sketch of the human brain imposed upon the profile of Michelangelo's David. Sketch by Priyan Weerappuli.
For more details on this topic, see Human brain and Mind.

The human brain is the center of the central nervous system in humans, and acts as the primary control center for the peripheral nervous system. The brain controls "lower", or involuntary, autonomic activities such as the respiration, and digestion. The brain also controls "higher" order, conscious activities, such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction.[53] These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1803x1887, 269 KB) (Priyan Weerappuli, www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1803x1887, 269 KB) (Priyan Weerappuli, www. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The Statue of David, sculpted from 1501 to 1504, is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. It is the statue of the young Israelite king David alone that almost certainly holds the title of the most recognizable... A human brain. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... A human brain. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of abstraction in general. ... Mental functions and cognitive processes are terms often used interchangeably (although not always correctly so, the term cognitive tends to have specific implications - see cognitive and cognitivism) to mean such functions or processes as perception, introspection, memory, imagination, conception, belief, reasoning, volition, and emotion--in other words, all the different... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ...


Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While many animals are capable of creating structures and using simple tools — mostly through instinct and mimicry — human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time. Even the most ancient human tools and structures are far more advanced than any structure or tool created by any other animal.[54] Modern anthropology has tended to bear out Darwin's proposition that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind".[55] For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


Consciousness and thought

For more details on this topic, see Consciousness and Cognition.

The human ability to think abstractly may be unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Humans are one of only six species to pass the mirror test — which tests whether an animal recognizes its reflection as an image of itself — along with chimpanzees, orangutans, dolphins, and pigeons.[56] In October 2006, three elephants at the Bronx Zoo also passed this test.[57] Most human children will pass the mirror test at 18 months old.[58] However, the usefulness of this test as a true test of consciousness has been disputed (see mirror test), and this may be a matter of degree rather than a sharp divide. Monkeys have been trained to apply abstract rules in tasks.[59] The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above. The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative centre called the "mind", but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel.[60] Psychologist B.F. Skinner has argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior,[61] and that what are commonly seen as mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior.[62] Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The mirror test is a measure of self-awareness developed by Gordon Gallup Jr in 1970. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... For other uses, see Bronx (disambiguation). ... The mirror test is a measure of self-awareness developed by Gordon Gallup Jr in 1970. ... This article is about the senses of living organisms (vision, taste, etc. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For the feeling that one is being watched, see self-consciousness. ... Not to be confused with sapience. ... Not to be confused with sentience. ... In philosophy, the issue of personal identity concerns many numbers of loosely related issues, in particular persistence, change, time, and sameness. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research centers on philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ...


Humans study the more physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, in the field of neurology, the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely-defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... AI redirects here. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ...


The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well-researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mental functions and cognitive processes are terms often used interchangeably (although not always correctly so, the term cognitive tends to have specific implications - see cognitive and cognitivism) to mean such functions or processes as perception, introspection, memory, imagination, conception, belief, reasoning, volition, and emotion--in other words, all the different... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach to understanding the mind, which argues that mental function can be understood by quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, and that such functions can be described as information processing models. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience. ... Experimental psychology approaches psychology as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Kohlbergs stages of moral development were developed by Lawrence Kohlberg to explain the development of moral reasoning. ...


Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience.[63] Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when they say "I am conscious." Access consciousness is being conscious of something in relation to abstract concepts, such as when one says "I am conscious of these words." Various forms of access consciousness include awareness, self-awareness, conscience, stream of consciousness, Husserl's phenomenology, and intentionality. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ... Redness is the canonical quale. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. ... A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... Human ecology is an academic discipline that deals with the relationship between humans and their natural, social and created environments. ... // An academic discipline, or field of study, is a branch of knowledge which is taught or researched at the college or university level. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... The social environment is the direct influence of a group of individuals and their contributions to this environment, as both groups and individuals who are in frequent communication with each other within their cultural or socio-economical strata, which create role identity(-ies) and guide the individuals self (sociology...


Motivation and emotion

Goya's Tío Paquete (1820) displays an adult male smiling.
Goya's Tío Paquete (1820) displays an adult male smiling.
For more details on this topic, see Motivation and Emotion.

Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of human beings. Motivation is based on emotion — specifically, on the search for satisfaction (positive emotional experiences), and the avoidance of conflict. Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: a person may be driven to self-injury or violence because their brain is conditioned to create a positive response to these actions. Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses. Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics motivation is often seen to be based on financial incentives, moral incentives, or coercive incentives. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (806x975, 73 KB) Tío Paquete c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (806x975, 73 KB) Tío Paquete c. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... Action, as a concept in philosophy, is what an agent can do, as for instance humans as agents can do. ... Look up satisfaction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of force. ...


Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition which a human can have — a condition of mental and physical health. Others define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society. For other uses, see Freedom. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked. Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, such as love, admiration, or joy, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow. There is often a distinction made between refined emotions which are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers (in particular, the poet and astronomer Omar Khayyám) felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy. Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... This article is about informal use of the term. ...


In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered to be a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and on-domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime.


Sexuality and love

For more details on this topic, see Love and Human sexuality.

Human sexuality, besides ensuring biological reproduction, has important social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds, and hierarchies among individuals; may be directed to spiritual transcendence (according to some traditions); and in a hedonistic sense to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. Sexual desire, or libido, is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompanied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy. The extreme importance of sexuality in the human species can be seen in a number of physical features, among them hidden ovulation, strong sexual dimorphism when compared to the chimpanzees, permanent secondary sexual characteristics, the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure and sexual ability in females outside of ovulation. These adaptations indicate that the importance of sexuality in humans is on par with that found in the Bonobo, and that the complex human sexual behaviour has a long evolutionary history. For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


As with other human self-descriptions, humans propose that it is high intelligence and complex societies of humans that have produced the most complex sexual behaviors of any animal, including a great many behaviors that are not directly connected with reproduction.


Human sexual choices are usually made in reference to cultural norms, which vary widely. Restrictions are sometimes determined by religious beliefs or social customs. The pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously perverse, which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosexual development (and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process). For Alfred Kinsey, another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation (with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual). Recent studies of neurology and genetics suggest people may be born with one sexual orientation or another, so there is not currently a clear consensus among sex researchers.[64][65] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The concept of psychosexual development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, is a central element in the theory of psychology. ... The concept of psychosexual development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, is a central element in the theory of psychology. ... Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956), was an American biologist and professor of entomology and zoology who in 1947 founded the Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University, now called the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction. ...


Culture

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Human society statistics
World population 6,670,000,000 (April 2008 est.)
Population density 12.7 per km² (4.9 mi²) by total area
43.6 per km² (16.8 mi²) by land area
Largest agglomerations Tokyo, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Jakarta, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila, Cairo, New York City, Los Angeles, Seoul, Mumbai, Moscow, London, Paris
Major languages by number of native speakers (2000 est.) Mandarin Chinese 14.37 %
Hindi 6.02 %
English 5.61 %
Spanish 5.59 %
Portuguese 4.9 %
Russian 4.63 %
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Currencies

United States dollar, Euro, Japanese yen, Pound sterling, Indian Rupee, Australian Dollar, Russian Ruble, Canadian Dollar, Chinese Yuan among many others. Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about the Brazilian state, São Paulo. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Constantinople Ottoman period 1453 as Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages Turkish Republic period 1923 as Constantinople, officially renamed as Istanbul in... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For exchange rates, see here. ... USD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Yen redirects here. ... GBP redirects here. ... “INR” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... C$ redirects here. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ...

GDP (nominal) $36,356,240 million USD
($5,797 USD per capita)
GDP (PPP) $51,656,251 million IND
($8,236 per capita)
For more details on this topic, see Culture.

Culture is defined here as a set of distinctive material, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual features of a social group, including art, literature, lifestyles, value systems, traditions, rituals, and beliefs. The link between human biology and human behavior and culture is often very close, making it difficult to clearly divide topics into one area or the other; as such, the placement of some subjects may be based primarily on convention. Culture consists of values, social norms, and artifacts. A culture's values define what it holds to be important or ethical. Closely linked are norms, expectations of how people ought to behave, bound by tradition. Artifacts, or material culture, are objects derived from the culture's values, norms, and understanding of the world. The mainstream anthropological view of culture implies that most experience a strong resistance when reminded that there is an animal as well as a spiritual aspect to human nature.[55] Nominal value is the value of anything expressed in money of the day, versus real value which removes the effect of inflation. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... The international dollar is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power that the U.S. dollar has in the United States at a given point in time. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Value redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ...


Language

For more details on this topic, see Language.

The capacity humans have to transfer concepts, ideas and notions through speech and writing is unrivaled in known species. Unlike the call systems of other primates which are closed, human language is far more open, and gains variety in different situations. The human language has the quality of displacement, using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but elsewhere or at a different time.[35] Technology has even advanced so as to allow the communication of mass data upon request and over great distance through data-nets and programs such as Wikipedia. In this way data networks are important to the continuing development of language; changing it as just as Gutenberg did with the printing press. The faculty of speech is a defining feature of humanity, possibly predating phylogenetic separation of the modern population. Language is central to the communication between humans, as well as being central to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. The invention of writing systems at least 5,000 years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major step in cultural evolution. Language is closely tied to ritual and religion (cf. mantra, sacred text). The science of linguistics describes the structure of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately 6,000 different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are considered extinct. A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... For other uses, see Mantra (disambiguation). ... Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are the Word of God, often feeling that the texts are wholly divine or spiritually inspired in origin. ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ...


Spirituality and religion

For more details on this topic, see Spirituality and Religion.

Religion—sometimes used interchangeably with "faith"—is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural, sacred or divine, and moral codes, practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. In the course of its development, religion has taken on many forms that vary by culture and individual perspective. Some of the chief questions and issues religions are concerned with include life after death (commonly involving belief in an afterlife), the origin of life (the source of a variety of creation myths), the nature of the universe (religious cosmology) and its ultimate fate (eschatology), and what is moral or immoral. A common source in religions for answers to these questions are transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic — many are nontheistic or ambiguous on the topic, particularly among the Eastern religions. Spirituality, belief or involvement in matters of the soul or spirit, is one of the many different approaches humans take in trying to answer fundamental questions about humankind's place in the universe, the meaning of life, and the ideal way to live one's life. Though these topics have also been addressed by philosophy, and to some extent by science, spirituality is unique in that it focuses on mystical or supernatural concepts such as karma and God. Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Believe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morality. ... There are a number of models regarding the ways in which religions come into being and develop. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... For the definition, see Life. ... A creation myth is a supernatural mytho-religious story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony),[1] usually as a deliberate act of creation by a supreme being. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Religious cosmologies are ways of explaining the history and evolution of the universe based, at least in part, on the acceptance of principles that cannot be justified by accepted scientific arguments (those are otherwise generally considered via physical cosmology). ... This box:      The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... Eastern religion refers to religions that are mostly either Indian or Chinese in origin: The Dharma faiths of Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism; and the Chinese religious philosophies of Taoism and Confucianism. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of the meaning of life. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Although a majority of humans profess some variety of religious or spiritual belief, some are irreligious, that is lacking or rejecting belief in the supernatural or spiritual. Additionally, although most religions and spiritual beliefs are clearly distinct from science on both a philosophical and methodological level, the two are not generally considered to be mutually exclusive; a majority of humans hold a mix of both scientific and religious views. The distinction between philosophy and religion, on the other hand, is at times less clear, and the two are linked in such fields as the philosophy of religion and theology. Other humans have no religious beliefs and are atheists. This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Atheist redirects here. ...

The Thinker, Artist's rendering of the sculpture by Auguste Rodin.
The Thinker, Artist's rendering of the sculpture by Auguste Rodin.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x1000, 62 KB) Summary Artists rendering of Rodins statue The Thinker From photo of the original statue. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x1000, 62 KB) Summary Artists rendering of Rodins statue The Thinker From photo of the original statue. ... The Thinker original cast at the Musée Rodin in Paris. ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Philosophy and self-reflection

For more details on this topic, see Philosophy, Human self-reflection, and Human nature.

Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. It is the discipline searching for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative means. The core philosophical disciplines are logic, ontology or metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology, which includes the branches of ethics and aesthetics. Philosophy covers a very wide range of approaches, and is also used to refer to a worldview, to a perspective on an issue, or to the positions argued for by a particular philosopher or school of philosophy. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Thinker by Auguste Rodin: An artists impression of Homo sapiens Human self-reflection is the basis of philosophy and is present from the earliest historical records. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... Axiology, from the Greek axia (αξια, value, worth), is the study of value or quality. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... This article is about the radio show. ...

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles, being and existence (ontology). In between the doctrines of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw logical conclusions about the nature of the universe, humanity, god, and/or their connections based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from religion and/or observation. Humans often consider themselves to be the dominant species on Earth, and the most advanced in intelligence and ability to manage their environment. This belief is especially strong in modern Western culture. Alongside such claims of dominance is often found radical pessimism because of the frailty and brevity of human life. Download high resolution version (804x1052, 186 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (804x1052, 186 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The School of Athens or in Italian is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... In a formal logical system, that is, a set of propositions that are consistent with one another, it is probable that some of the statements can be deduced from one another. ... In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Cosmology is the branch of philosophy and metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... This article is about life in general. ...


Humanism is a philosophy which defines a socio-political doctrine the bounds of which are not constrained by those of locally developed cultures, but which seeks to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. Because spiritual beliefs of a community often manifests as religious doctrine, the history of which is as factious as it is unitive, secular humanism grew as an answer to the need for a common philosophy that transcended the cultural boundaries of local moral codes and religions. Many humanists are religious, however, and see humanism as simply a mature expression of a common truth present in most religions. Humanists affirm the possibility of an objective truth and accept that human perception of that truth is imperfect. The most basic tenets of humanism are that humans matter and can solve human problems, and that science, freedom of speech, rational thought, democracy, and freedom in the arts are worthy pursuits or goals for all peoples. Humanism depends chiefly on reason and logic without consideration for the supernatural. For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... This article is about the general concept. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ...


Art, music, and literature

Allegory of Music (ca. 1594), a painting of a woman writing sheet music by Lorenzo Lippi.
Allegory of Music (ca. 1594), a painting of a woman writing sheet music by Lorenzo Lippi.
For more details on this topic, see Art, Music, and Literature.

Artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind, from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. Art is one of the most unusual aspects of human behavior and a key distinguishing feature of humans from other species, In fact the only species to do so. Art has only been around for the last 35,000 years which could suggest that this was the time when humans started to 'think'. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2397, 376 KB) Description: Title: de: Allegorie der Musik Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 86 × 72 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Sammlung A. Busiri Vici Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2397, 376 KB) Description: Title: de: Allegorie der Musik Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 86 × 72 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Sammlung A. Busiri Vici Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... Lorenzo Lippi Lorenzo Lippi (1606, Florence - 1664, Florence) was an Italian painter and poet. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Find-a-Drug (often abbreviated as FAD) is a not for profit distributed computing project which was set up by Treweren Consultants, the company who developed the THINK software. ...

Sculpture by Malvina Hoffman of an Asian human male meditating.
Sculpture by Malvina Hoffman of an Asian human male meditating.

As a form of cultural expression by humans, art may be defined by the pursuit of diversity and the usage of narratives of liberation and exploration (i.e. art history, art criticism, and art theory) to mediate its boundaries. This distinction may be applied to objects or performances, current or historical, and its prestige extends to those who made, found, exhibit, or own them. In the modern use of the word, art is commonly understood to be the process or result of making material works which, from concept to creation, adhere to the "creative impulse" of human beings. Art is distinguished from other works by being in large part unprompted by necessity, by biological drive, or by any undisciplined pursuit of recreation. Download high resolution version (427x639, 83 KB)Photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran Malvina Hoffman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (427x639, 83 KB)Photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran Malvina Hoffman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tibetan for Lhasa, Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois Malvina Hoffman (1885 – 1966) Biography Malay Woman, Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois Malvina Hoffman was an American sculptor, born in New York City on June 15, 1885, the daughter of concert pianist Richard Hoffman. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... A narrative is a construct created in a suitable medium (speech, writing, images) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max. ... The Mona Lisa Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. ...


Music is a natural intuitive phenomenon based on the three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody. Listening to music is perhaps the most common and universal form of entertainment for humans, while learning and understanding it are popular disciplines. There are a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics. Literature, the body of written — and possibly oral — works, especially creative ones, includes prose, poetry and drama, both fiction and non-fiction. Literature includes such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, and folklore. Intuition is an unconscious form of knowledge. ... For other uses, see Discipline (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ...


Science and technology

In the mid- to late 20th century, humans achieved a level of technological mastery sufficient to leave the atmosphere of Earth for the first time, explore space and walk on the moon.
For more details on this topic, see Science and Technology.

Science is the discovery of knowledge about the world by verifiable means. Technology is the objects humans make to serve their purposes. Human cultures are both characterized and differentiated by the objects that they make and use. Archaeology attempts to tell the story of past or lost cultures in part by close examination of the artifacts they produced. Early humans left stone tools, pottery and jewelry that are particular to various regions and times. Improvements in technology are passed from one culture to another. For instance, the cultivation of crops arose in several different locations, but quickly spread to be an almost ubiquitous feature of human life. Similarly, advances in weapons, architecture and metallurgy are quickly disseminated. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (432x652, 76 KB) Buzz Aldrin in his spacesuit during the Apollo 11 moonwalk File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (432x652, 76 KB) Buzz Aldrin in his spacesuit during the Apollo 11 moonwalk File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... Pottery on display in Dilli Haat, Delhi, India. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ...

Space science provides a new perspective on human significance
Space science provides a new perspective on human significance

Although such techniques can be passed on by oral tradition, the development of writing, itself a kind of technology, made it possible to pass information from generation to generation and from region to region with greater accuracy. Together, these developments made possible the commencement of civilization and urbanization, with their inherently complex social arrangements. Eventually this led to the institutionalization of the development of new technology, and the associated understanding of the way the world functions. This science now forms a central part of human culture. In recent times, physics and astrophysics have come to play a central role in shaping what is now known as physical cosmology, that is, the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. This discipline, which focuses on the universe as it exists on the largest scales and at the earliest times, begins by arguing for the big bang, a sort of cosmic expansion from which the universe itself is said to have erupted ~13.7 ± 0.2 billion (109) years ago. After its violent beginnings and until its very end, scientists then propose that the entire history of the universe has been an orderly progression governed by physical laws. Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Write redirects here. ... Central New York City. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Many religions have postulated an end to the Universe. ... A physical law or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations. ...


Race and ethnicity

For more details on this topic, see Race (classification of human beings), Race and genetics, Historical definitions of race, and Ethnic group.

Humans often categorize themselves in terms of race or ethnicity, although the validity of human races as true biological categories is questionable.[66] Human racial categories are based on both ancestry and visible traits, especially skin color and facial features. These categories may also carry some information on non-visible biological traits, such as the risk of developing particular diseases such as sickle-cell disease.[67] Currently available genetic and archaeological evidence is generally interpreted as supportive of a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa.[68] Current genetic studies have demonstrated that humans on the African continent are most genetically diverse.[69] However, compared to many other animals, human gene sequences are remarkably homogeneous.[70][71][72][73] It has been repeatedly demonstrated that the great majority of genetic variation occurs within "racial groups", with only 5 to 15% of total variation occurring between racial groups.[74] However, this remains an area of active debate.[75][76] Ethnic groups, on the other hand, are more often linked by linguistic, cultural, ancestral, and national or regional ties. Self-identification with an ethnic group is based on kinship and descent. Race and ethnicity can lead to variant treatment and impact social identity, giving rise to racism and the theory of identity politics. For other uses, see Race. ... In the last few centuries science has had an important influence on everyday notions of race. ... The historical definition of race was an immutable and distinct type or species, sharing distinct racial characteristics such as constitution, temperament, and mental abilities. ... For other uses, see Race. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... Human skin colour can range from almost black to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... sickle cell redirects here. ... Genetic anthropology is a new branch of scientific study which deals with combining DNA data with available physical evidence and past histories of civilizations. ... Map of early human migrations according to mitochondrial population genetics In paleoanthropology, the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH, or Out-of-Africa model, or Replacement Hypothesis) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Social Identity Theory is a theory formed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ...


Society, government, and politics

The United Nations complex in New York City, which houses one of the largest human political organizations in the world.
The United Nations complex in New York City, which houses one of the largest human political organizations in the world.
For more details on this topic, see Society.
For more details on this topic, see Government, Politics, and State.

Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans. A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. Recognition of the state's claim to independence by other states, enabling it to enter into international agreements, is often important to the establishment of its statehood. The "state" can also be defined in terms of domestic conditions, specifically, as conceptualized by Max Weber, "a state is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the 'legitimate' use of physical force within a given territory."[77] Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... UN redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...


Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforcing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy. Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Many different political systems exist, as do many different ways of understanding them, and many definitions overlap. The most common form of government worldwide is a republic, however other examples include monarchy, social democracy, military dictatorship and theocracy. All of these issues have a direct relationship with economics. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sociological concept. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ...

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 humans.
The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 humans.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...

War

For more details on this topic, see War.

War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organizations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterized by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. It is estimated that during the 20th century between 167 and 188 million humans died as a result of war.[78] A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or other issues. A war said to liberate an occupied country is sometimes characterized as a "war of liberation", while a war between internal elements of a state is a civil war. Full scale pitched-battle wars between adversaries of comparable strength appear to have nearly disappeared from human activity, with the last major one in the Congo region winding down in the late 1990s. Nearly all war now is asymmetric warfare, in which campaigns of sabotage, guerrilla warfare and sometimes acts of terrorism disrupt control and supply of better-equipped occupying forces, resulting in long low-intensity wars of attrition. For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... A War of Liberation is a conflict which is primarily intended to bring freedom or independence to a nation or group. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


War is one of the main catalysts for human advances in technology. Throughout human history there has been a constant struggle between defense and offence, including the technologies behind armour and weapons designed to penetrate it. Modern examples include the bunker buster bomb and the bunkers which they are designed to destroy. Important inventions such as medicine, navigation, metallurgy, mass production, nuclear power, rocketry and computers have been completely or partially driven by war. In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... A bunker buster bomb is designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ... The tower of a personal computer. ...


There have been a wide variety of rapidly advancing tactics throughout the history of war, ranging from conventional war to asymmetric warfare to total war and unconventional warfare. Techniques include hand to hand combat, the use of ranged weapons, and ethnic cleansing. Military intelligence has often played a key role in determining victory and defeat. Propaganda, which often includes factual information, slanted opinion and disinformation, plays a key role in maintaining unity within a warring group, and/or sowing discord among opponents. In modern warfare, soldiers and armoured fighting vehicles are used to control the land, warships the sea, and air power the sky. These fields have also overlapped in the forms of marines, paratroopers, naval aircraft carriers, and surface-to-air missiles, among others. Satellites in low Earth orbit have made outer space a factor in warfare as well, although no actual warfare is currently carried out in space. The military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is a theory about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organizational recommendations for change in the United States military and others. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Unconventional warfare (abbreviated UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Close Quarters Combat. ... A ranged weapon is any weapon that launches a projectile or that is a projectile itself. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ...


Trade and economics

Buyers and sellers bargain in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.
Buyers and sellers bargain in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.
For more details on this topic, see Trade and Economics.

Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods, services and a form of economics. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Because of specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of manufacturing or service, trading their labour for products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have an absolute or comparative advantage in the production of some tradeable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production. Download high resolution version (1200x720, 199 KB)Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ... Download high resolution version (1200x720, 199 KB)Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ... Chichicastenango, also known as Santo Tomás Chichicastenango, is a town in the El Quiché department of Guatemala, known for its traditional Maya Indian culture. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Barter is a type of trade that do not use any medium of exchange, in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods and/or services. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Credit as a financial term, used in such terms as credit card, refers to the granting of a loan and the creation of debt. ... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ...


Economics is a social science which studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on measurable variables, and is broadly divided into two main branches: microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value. Mainstream economics focuses on how prices reflect supply and demand, and uses equations to predict consequences of decisions. The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... In economics, aggregate supply is the total supply of goods and services by a national economy during a specific time period. ... In economics, aggregate demand is the total demand for goods and services in the economy (Y) during a specific time period. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In strategic planning, a resource-allocation decision is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future. ... For other uses, see Competition (disambiguation). ... In general, the economic value of something is how much a product or service is worth to someone relative to other things (often measured in money). ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ...


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Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Frans B.M. de Waal, PhD (b. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist (Myrmecology, a branch of entomology), researcher (sociobiology, biodiversity), theorist (consilience, biophilia), and naturalist (conservationism). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jared M. Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American evolutionary biologist, physiologist, and biogeographer. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence is a Pulitzer prize[1] winning 1977 book by Carl Sagan. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. ... Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... This article is about the primate. ... This article is about the primate. ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... Tribes Gorillini Hominini and see text Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932 – December 26, 1985) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. ... Dr Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC Ph. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1466 × 1636 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Skelett des Menschen (1) und des Gorillas (2), unnatürlich gestreckt. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Mythic humanoids are mythic creatures that are human-like, half-human, or fictional apes. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... This article is about the book. ...



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