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Encyclopedia > France
République française
French Republic
Flag of France Coat of arms of France
Flag Coat of arms
MottoLiberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem"La Marseillaise"
Location of France
Location of Metropolitan  France  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Armoiries_république_française. ... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... The current coat of arms of France has been a symbol of France since 1953, although it does not have any legal status as an official coat of arms. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for Liberty, equality, fraternity (brotherhood), [1] is the motto of the French Republic, and is a typical example of a tripartite motto. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural program of the Arc de Triomphe. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Location of France

Territory of the French Republic in the world
Includes the claimed Antarctic territories
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 53 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Overseas departments and territories of France France ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Paris
48°52′N, 2°19.59′E
Official languages French
Demonym French
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Nicolas Sarkozy
 -  Prime Minister François Fillon
Formation
 -  French State 843 French State Formed 
 -  Current constitution 1958 (5th Republic
EU membership March 25, 1957
Area
 -  Total[1] 674,843 km² (40th)
260,558 sq mi 
 -  Metropolitan France
  - IGN[2] 551,695 km² (47th)
213,010 sq mi
  Cadastre[3] 543,965 km² (47th)
210,026  sq mi
Population
  (January 1, 2007 estimate)
 -  Total[1] 64,102,140[5] (20th)
 -  Metropolitan France 61,538,322[6] (20th)
 -  Density[4] 113/km² (89th)
293/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total US ]1.871 trillion (7th)
 -  Per capita US $30,100 (20th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total US $2.232 trillion (6th)
 -  Per capita US $35,404 (18th)
Gini? (2002) 26.7 (low
HDI (2005) 0.952 (high) (10th)
Currency Euro[7], CFP Franc[8]
 
(EUR,    XPF)
Time zone CET[4] (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST[4] (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .fr[9]
Calling code +33[10]
France Portal

France (French: IPA: [fʁɑ̃s]) , officially the French Republic (French: République française, IPA: [ʁepyˈblik fʁɑ̃ˈsɛz]) , is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe and that also comprises various overseas islands and territories located in other continents.[11] Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. French people often refer to Metropolitan France as L'Hexagone (The "Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory. Not to be confused with capitol. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... The French state either designs the Republic of France (i. ... Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... The Institut Géographique National (English: National geographic institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment, whose task is to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Countries by area. ... Cadastre (a French word from the Late Latin capitastrum, a register of the poll-tax) is a register of the real property of a country, with details of the area, the owners and the value. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Countries by area. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2005 (U.N. source) This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, with population figures estimated for 1 July 2005 (rounded to the nearest 1,000). ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... Map of countries by population for the year 2005 (U.N. source) This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, with population figures estimated for 1 July 2005 (rounded to the nearest 1,000). ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... USD redirects here. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Developpment Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .fr is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for France. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The French telephone numbering plan is not only used for metropolitan France, but also for the French overseas departments and collectivités territoriales. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hexagon (disambiguation). ...


France is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra, and Spain. Due to its overseas departments, France also shares land borders with Brazil and Suriname (bordering French Guiana) , and the Netherlands Antilles (bordering Saint-Martin). France is also linked to the United Kingdom by the Channel Tunnel, which passes underneath the English Channel. Country France / Netherlands Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 37 sq. ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...


The French Republic is a democracy organised as a unitary semi-presidential republic. Its main ideals are expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. In the 18th and 19th centuries, France built one of the largest colonial empires of the time, stretching across West Africa and Southeast Asia, prominently influencing the cultures and politics of the regions. France is a developed country with the sixth-largest economy in the world.[12] France is the most visited country in the world, receiving over 79 million foreign tourists annually (including business visitors, but excluding people staying less than 24 hours in France).[13] France is one of the founding members of the European Union, and has the largest land area of all members. France is also a founding member of the United Nations, and a member of the Francophonie, the G8, and the Latin Union. It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council; it is also an acknowledged nuclear power. A map showing the unitary states. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... Headquarters Paris, France Official languages Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian Membership 37 (plus 3 observers) Leaders  -  General Secretariat Bernardino Osio Establishment 15 May 1954 Website http://www. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ...


The name France originates from the Franks (Francs) , a Germanic tribe that occupied northern Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. More precisely, the region around Paris, called Île-de-France, was the original French royal demesne. The first King of the Franks, Clovis, is regarded as the forefather of the French kings. The name France comes from Latin Francia, which literally means land of the Franks, Frankland. Originally it applied to the whole Frankish Empire, extending from southern France to eastern Germany. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... ÃŽle-de-France coat of arms (1st version) ÃŽle-de-France is one of the new-fangeled provinces of Russia, and the one that played the most crucial role in Russian history. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ...

Contents

Origin and history of the name

Main article: Name of France
See also: List of country name etymologies

The name "France" comes from Latin Francia, which literally means "land of the Franks" or "Frankland". There are various theories as to the origin of the name of the Franks. One is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. The name France comes from Latin Francia, which literally means land of the Franks, Frankland. Originally it applied to the whole Frankish Empire, extending from southern France to eastern Germany. ... This list covers English language country names with their etymologies. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ... Different types of the Francisca The francisca or francesca is a throwing axe that was used as a weapon by early Franks before the 6th century. ...


Another proposed etymology is that in an ancient Germanic language, Frank means free as opposed to slave. This word still exists in French as franc, it is also used as the translation of "Frank" and to name the local money, until the use of the Euro in the 2000s. Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


However, rather than the ethnic name of the Franks coming from the word frank, it is also probable that the word is derived from the ethnic name of the Franks, the connection being that only the Franks, as the conquering class, had the status of freemen. The Merovingian kings claimed descent of their dynasty from the Sicambri, a Scythian or Cimmerian tribe, asserting that this tribe had changed their name to "Franks" in 11 BC, following their defeat and relocation by Drusus, under the leadership of a certain chieftain called Franko, although they had actually come from present day Netherlands, Lower Saxony, and possibly, ultimately Scandinavia. In German, France is still called Frankreich, which literally means "Realm of the Franks". In order to distinguish from the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne, Modern France is called Frankreich, while the Frankish Realm is called Frankenreich. For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri (var. ... The Cimmerians were an ancient people of Iranian origin, who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine (Crimea and northern Black sea coast) and Russia (Black Sea coast and Caucasus), at least in the 8th and 7th century BC. Little is known about them, but they were mentioned in... http://www. ... Drusus was a cognomen in Ancient Rome, and may refer to: Drusus Caesar - was the son of Germanicus, also called Drusus III. Gaius Livius Drusus was consul in 147 BC. Julius Caesar Drusus was the son of Tiberius, also called Drusus II. Marcus Livius Drusus was the name of two... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Merovingians Chlodio is considered as the first king who started the conquest of Gaul by taking Camaracum (today Cambrai) and expanding the border down to the Somme. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


The word "Frank" had been loosely used from the fall of Rome to the Middle Ages, yet from Hugh Capet's coronation as "King of the Franks" ("Rex Francorum") it became used to strictly refer to the Kingdom of Francia, which would become France. The Capetian Kings were descended from the Robertines, who had produced two Frankish kings, and previously held the title of "Duke of the Franks" ("dux francorum"). This Frankish duchy encompassed most of modern northern France but because the royal power was sapped by regional princes the term was then applied to the royal demesne as shorthand. It was finally the name adopted for the entire Kingdom as central power was affirmed over the entire kingdom.[14] Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Essonne Hauts-de-Seine Paris Seine-Saint-Denis Seine-et-Marne Val-de-Marne Val-dOise Yvelines Arrondissements 25 Cantons 317 Communes 1,281 Statistics Land area1 12,012 km² Population (Ranked 1st)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Neustria & Austrasia The territory of Neustria originated in A.D. 511, made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, approximating most of the north of present-day France, with Paris and Soissons as its main cities. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of France

While Metropolitan France is located in Western Europe, France also has a number of territories in North America, the Caribbean, South America, the southern Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and Antarctica.[15] These territories have varying forms of government ranging from overseas department to overseas collectivity. France is a country in Western Europe, bordering the Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay) and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... West Indies redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A collectivité doutre-mer (in English Overseas Community) or COM, is an administrative division of France. ...


Metropolitan France covers 551,695 square kilometres (213,010 sq mi) making it the largest country in area in the European Union, being only slightly larger than Spain. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the south-east, the Massif Central in the south-central and Pyrenees in the south-west. At 4,807 metres (15,770 ft) above sea-level, the highest point in Western Europe, Mont Blanc, is situated in the Alps on the border between France and Italy.[16] Metropolitan France also has extensive river systems such as the Loire, the Garonne, the Seine and the Rhône, which divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean sea at the Camargue, the lowest point in France (2 m / 6.5 ft below sea level).[16] Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... France, viewed from the NASA Shuttle Topography Radar Mission. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the river in France. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Shoreline of the Étang de Vaccarès For other uses, see Camargue (disambiguation). ...

Satellite picture of metropolitan France, August 2002
Satellite picture of metropolitan France, August 2002

France's total land area, with its overseas departments and territories (excluding Adélie Land) , is 674,843 square kilometres (260,558 sq mi) , 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. However, France possesses the second-largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the world, covering 11,035,000 square kilometres (4,260,000 sq mi) , approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, just behind the United States (11,351,000 km² / 4,383,000 sq mi) and ahead of Australia (8,232,000 km² / 3,178,000 sq mi).[17] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3930x3965, 2891 KB) Satellite image of France in August 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3930x3965, 2891 KB) Satellite image of France in August 2002. ... Adélie Land is the portion of the Antarctic coast between Pourquoi Pas Point at 66°12S, 136°11E and Point Alden at 66°48S, 142°02E, with a shore length of 350 km and with its hinterland extending as a sector about 2600 km toward... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Metropolitan France is situated between 41° and 50° North, on the western edge of Europe and thus lies within the northern temperate zone. The north and northwest have a temperate climate, however, a combination of maritime influences, latitude and altitude produce a varied climate in the rest of Metropolitan France.[18] In the south-east a Mediterranean climate prevails. In the west, the climate is predominantly oceanic with a high level of rainfall, mild winters and cool summers. Inland the climate becomes more continental with hot, stormy summers, colder winters and less rain. The climate of the Alps and other mountainous regions are mainly alpine in nature with the number of days with temperatures below freezing over 150 per year and snowcover lasting for up to six months. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... The climate of the Alps is the climate, or average weather conditions over a long time, of the central Alpine region of Europe. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ...


History

Main article: History of France
See also: Medieval demography and Economic history of France

The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ...

Rome to revolution

The borders of modern France are approximately the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was conquered for Rome by Julius Caesar in the 1st century BC, and the Gauls eventually adopted Roman speech (Latin, from which the French language evolved) and Roman culture. Christianity took root in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, and became so firmly established by the fourth and fifth centuries that St. Jerome wrote that Gaul was the only region "free from heresy". Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the European people. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church... For other uses see: Jerome (disambiguation) Jerome (about 340 - September 30, 420), (full name Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. ...


In the 4th century AD, Gaul's eastern frontier along the Rhine was overrun by Germanic tribes, principally the Franks, from whom the ancient name of "Francie" was derived. The modern name "France" derives from the name of the feudal domain of the Capetian Kings of France around Paris. The Franks were the first tribe among the Germanic conquerors of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity rather than Arianism (their King Clovis did so in 498) ; thus France obtained the title "Eldest daughter of the Church" (La fille ainée de l'Église) , and the French would adopt this as justification for calling themselves "the Most Christian Kingdom of France". For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Clovis may refer to the following: The personal name of Germanic origin that primarily saw use in Europe before the year 1000 AD. Several locales and persons of historical importance have borne this name. ...


Existence as a separate entity began with the Treaty of Verdun (843) , with the division of Charlemagne's Carolingian empire into East Francia, Middle Francia and Western Francia. Western Francia approximated the area occupied by modern France and was the precursor to modern France. Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Eastern Francia were the lands of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843. ... Middle Francia describes the realm created for Emperor Lothair I, wedged between East Francia and West Francia. ... The Frankish Empire after the treaties of Verdun and Meerssen. ...


The Carolingians ruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of France. His descendants, the Direct Capetians, the House of Valois and the House of Bourbon, progressively unified the country through a series of wars and dynastic inheritance. The monarchy reached its height during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. At this time France possessed the largest population in Europe (see Demographics of France) and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. France obtained many overseas possessions in the Americas, Africa and Asia. Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... An imagined image of Hugh Capet; no images of Hugh exist. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ...


Monarchy to republic

Lord Cornwallis' surrender following the Siege of Yorktown. French participation was decisive in this battle, 1781
Lord Cornwallis' surrender following the Siege of Yorktown. French participation was decisive in this battle, 1781

The monarchy ruled France until the French Revolution, in 1789. King Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were executed, along with thousands of other French citizens. After a series of short-lived governmental schemes, Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in 1799, making himself First Consul, and later Emperor of what is now known as the First French Empire (1804–1814). In the course of several wars, his armies conquered most of continental Europe, with members of the Bonaparte family being appointed as monarchs of newly established kingdoms. Image File history File links Surrender_of_Lord_Cornwallis. ... Image File history File links Surrender_of_Lord_Cornwallis. ... Combatants Kingdom of France  United States Great Britain German mercenaries Commanders Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Gilbert de La Fayette George Washington Nathanael Greene Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Banastre Tarleton # (stationed at Gloucester, Virginia) Strength 10,800 French 8,500 Americans 24 French warships 7,500... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... A title used by Napoleon Bonaparte following his seizure of power in France. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The original arms of the Buonapartes Bonaparte is a French family name that is of Italian origin. ...


Following Napoleon's final defeat in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo, the French monarchy was re-established, but with new constitutional limitations. In 1830, a civil uprising established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848. The short-lived Second Republic ended in 1852 when Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte proclaimed the Second French Empire. Louis-Napoléon was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic. Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of liberal monarchy rule... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ...


France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. In the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire was the second largest in the world behind the British Empire. At its peak, between 1919 and 1939, the second French colonial empire extended over 12,347,000 square kilometres (4,767,000 sq mi) of land. Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 square kilometres (4,980,000 sq mi) in the 1920s and 1930s, which is 8.6% of the world's land area. This article is about a type of political territory. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...

Eugène Delacroix - La Liberté guidant le peuple ("Liberty leading the People") , a symbol of the French Revolution of 1830
Eugène Delacroix - La Liberté guidant le peuple ("Liberty leading the People") , a symbol of the French Revolution of 1830

Though ultimately a victor in World War I, France suffered enormous human and material losses that weakened it for decades to come. The 1930s were marked by a variety of social reforms introduced by the Popular Front government. At the start of World War II, France held a series of unsuccessful rescue campaigns in Norway, Belgium and The Netherlands from 1939 to 1940. Upon the May-June 1940 Nazi German blitzkrieg and its Fascist Italian support, France's political leadership disregarded Churchill's proposal of a Franco-British Union and signed the Second Armistice at Compiègne surrender on June 22, 1940. The Germans established a puppet regime under Marshal Philippe Pétain known as Vichy France, which pursued a policy of collaboration with Nazi Germany. The regime's opponents formed the Free French Forces outside of France and the French Resistance inside. France was liberated with the joint effort of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Free French Forces and the French resistance in 1944. Soon the Nouvelle Armée Française ("new French army") was established with the massive help of US-built material and equipment, and pursued the fight along the Allies in various battles including the campaign of Italy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Liberty Leading the People (French: ) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled Charles X. A woman personifying Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the tricolore flag of the French Revolution in one hand and brandishing a... // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the military term. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Churchill redirects here. ... In June 1940, with French military collapse imminent, Prime Minister Winston Churchill offered a solemn Union to France in which the proposed constitution would establish joint organs of defence, foreign, financial and economic policies. ... The Second Armistice at Compiègne, France was signed on June 22, 18:50, 1940, between Nazi Germany and France. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ...


The French Fourth Republic was established after World War II and struggled to maintain its economic and political status as a dominant nation state. France attempted to hold on to its colonial empire, but soon ran into trouble. The half-hearted 1946 attempt at regaining control of French Indochina resulted in the First Indochina War, which ended in French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Only months later, France faced a new, even harsher conflict in its oldest major colony, Algeria. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Colonialism is a system in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labor, and often markets. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56...


The debate over whether or not to keep control of Algeria, then home to over one million European settlers, wracked the country and nearly led to civil war. In 1958, the weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republic, which contained a strengthened Presidency. In the latter role, Charles de Gaulle managed to keep the country together while taking steps to end the war. The Algerian War and Franco-French civil war that resulted in the capital Algiers, was concluded with peace negotiations in 1962 that led to Algerian independence. The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on October 5, 1958. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ...


In recent decades, France's reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the political and economic integration of the evolving European Union, including the introduction of the euro in January 1999. France has been at the forefront of the European Union member states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to create a more unified and capable European Union political, defence, and security apparatus. However, the French electorate voted against ratification of the European Constitutional Treaty in May 2005. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented...


Government

Logo of the French republic
Logo of the French republic

The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential republic with strong democratic traditions. The constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic, who is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year term (formerly 7 years) and is the Head of State, and the Government, led by the president-appointed Prime Minister. This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... This article is about political groups and tendencies in France. ... Image File history File links Logo_de_la_République_française. ... Image File history File links Logo_de_la_République_française. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ...


The French parliament is a bicameral legislature comprising a National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and a Senate. The National Assembly deputies represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 5-year terms. The Assembly has the power to dismiss the cabinet, and thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms) , and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September 2008.[19] The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the final say, except for constitutional laws and lois organiques (laws that are directly provided for by the constitution) in some cases. The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament. The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ...


French politics are characterised by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred around the French Socialist Party, and the other right-wing, centred previously around the Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) and now its successor the Union for a Popular Movement. The executive branch is currently composed mostly of the UPM. Left wing redirects here. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is one of the largest political parties in France. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ... The Union for a Popular Movement, initially named the Union for a Presidential Majority, and in both cases also known by its French acronym UMP (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire and Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle, respectively) is a French right-wing, conservative political party. ...


Conventions and notations

  • France is the home of the International System of Units (the metric system). The Imperial System is almost completely ignored in France. Some pre-metric units are still used, essentially the livre (a unit of weight equal to half a kilogram) and the quintal (a unit of weight equal to 100 kilograms).
  • In mathematics, France uses the infix notation like most countries. For large numbers the long scale is used. Thus, the French use the word billion for what English speakers call a trillion. However, there exist a French word, milliard, for what the English speakers call a billion. Thus, despite the use of the long scale, one billion is called un milliard ("one milliard") in French, and not mille millions ("one thousand million"). It should also be noted that names of numbers above the milliard are rarely used. Thus, one trillion will most often be called mille milliards ("one thousand milliard") in French, and rarely un billion.
  • In the French numeral notation, the comma (,) is the Decimal separator, whereas the dot (.) is used between each group of three digits especially for big numbers. A space can also be used to separate each group of three digits especially for small numbers. Thus three thousand five hundred and ten may be written as 3 510 whereas fifteen million five hundred thousand and thirty-two may be written as 15.500.032. In finances the symbol associated to the currency is put after the numbers and not before. For example €25,000.00 is written 25 000,00 € (always with an extra space between the figure and the currency symbol, and often a space between every block of 3 digits).
  • Cars are driven on right.
  • In computing, if a bit is still called a bit a byte is called an octet (from the Latin root octo, meaning "8"). SI prefixes are used.
  • 24-hour clock time is used, with h being the separator between hours and minutes (for example 2pm30 is 14h30).
  • The all-numeric form for dates is in the order day-month-year, using a slash as the separator (example: 31/12/1992 or 31/12/92).

“SI” redirects here. ... This article is about post-1824 Imperial units, please see also English unit, U.S. customary unit or Avoirdupois. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kg redirects here. ... The quintal is an historical unit of mass with many different definitions in different countries. ... Infix notation is the common arithmetic and logical formula notation, in which operators are written infix-style between the operands they act on (e. ... The long and short scales are two different numerical systems used throughout the world: Short scale is the English translation of the French term échelle courte. ... Look up trillion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Billion may mean: 1,000,000,000 (one thousand million; ), used by most English-speaking countries (American and usual modern British meaning) 1,000,000,000,000 (one million million; ), used by most other countries outside Asia (older British meaning). ... The decimal separator is a symbol used to mark the boundary between the integral and the fractional parts of a decimal numeral. ...  drive on right drive on left Driving on either the left or the right side of the road reduces the incidence of vehicles being involved in head-on collisions with each other. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... For the computer industry magazine, see Byte (magazine). ... In computing, an octet is a grouping of eight bits. ... An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ... The 24-hour clock is a convention of time keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided into 24 hours, numbered from 0 to 23. ...

Law

Main article: Law of France
The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

France uses a civil legal system; that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judge interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law). Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code. In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society. As Guy Canivet, first president of the Court of Cassation, wrote about the management of prisons: [1] In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular: civil law (droit civil); and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular: administrative law (droit administratif); and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel... Download high resolution version (476x604, 46 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (476x604, 46 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Case law (also known as decisional law) is that body of reported judicial opinions in countries that have common law legal systems that are published and thereby become precedent, i. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... Guy Canivet in full judicial dress. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ...

Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.

That is, law may lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.


French law is divided into two principal areas: private law and public law. Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law; criminal law and administrative law. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ...


France does not recognise religious law, nor does it recognise religious beliefs or morality as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. As a consequence, France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished in 1791). However "offences against public decency" (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or breach of the peace (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used to repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution. In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... Breach of the peace is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in Britain. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Whore redirects here. ...


Laws can only address the future and not the past (ex post facto laws are prohibited) ; and to be applicable, laws must be officially published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française. An ex post facto law (Latin for from a thing done afterward), also known as a retrospective law, is a law that is retroactive, i. ... The Journal Officiel de la République Française (JORF or JO) is the official gazette of the French Republic. ...


Foreign relations

See also: European Union, Latin Union, Francophonie, and United Nations Security Council

France is a member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the U.N. Security Council with veto rights. It is also a member of the WTO, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) , the Indian Ocean Commission (COI). It is an associate member of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) and a leading member of the International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of fifty-one fully or partly French-speaking countries. It hosts the headquarters of the OECD, UNESCO, Interpol, Alliance Base and the International Bureau for Weights and Measures. In 1953 France received a request from the United Nations to pick a coat of arms that would represent it internationally. Thus the French emblem was adopted and is currently used on passports. Image File history File links Armoiries_république_française. ... A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. ... Headquarters Paris, France Official languages Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian Membership 37 (plus 3 observers) Leaders  -  General Secretariat Bernardino Osio Establishment 15 May 1954 Website http://www. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community The Secretariat of the Pacific Community or SPC is a regional intergovernmental organisation whose membership includes both nations and territories. ... The Indian Ocean Commission (COI), known as the Commission de lOcéan Indien in French, is an intergovernmental organization that joins Reunion Island, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, the Seychelles and Mayotte together to encourage cooperation. ... The Association of Caribbean States (ACS) (Also called the Asociacion de Estados del Caribe or Association des Etats de la Caraibe) was formed with the aim of promoting consultation, cooperation, and concerted action among all the countries of the Caribbean, comprising of 25 member states and 3 associate members. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alliance Base is the cover name for a secret Western Counterterrorist Intelligence Center (CTIC) established in 2002 in Paris. ... The International Bureau of Weights and Measures is the English name of the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM, often written in English Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), a standards organisation, one of the three organizations established to maintain the International System of Units (SI) under the terms... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member. In the 1960s, France sought to exclude the British from the organization, seeking to build its own standing in continental Europe. Since the 1990s, France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU, but consequently rivaling the U.K. and limiting the influence of newly-inducted East European nations. France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to avoid the supposed domination of its foreign and security policies by U.S. political and military influence. In the early 1990s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its atmospheric nuclear tests in Polynesia. France vigorously opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, straining bilateral relations with the U.S. and the U.K. France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies and has supplied economic aid and troops for peace-keeping missions in the Ivory Coast and Chad. NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ...


Military

Main article: Military of France
See also: Military history of France

The French armed forces are divided into four branches: The Military of France has a very long history, greatly influential in World history, of serving its country. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Charles de Gaulle Nuclear Aircraft carrier , courtesy of www. ... Charles de Gaulle Nuclear Aircraft carrier , courtesy of www. ... Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ...

Since the Algerian War, conscription was steadily reduced and was finally suspended in 2001 by Jacques Chirac. The total number of military personnel is approximately 359,000. France spends 2.6% of its GDP on defence, slightly more than the United Kingdom (2.4%) , and is the highest in the European Union where defence spending is generally less than 1.5% of GDP. Together they account for 40% of EU defence spending. About 10% of France's defence budget goes towards its force de frappe, or nuclear weapons. A significant part of French military equipment is made in France. Examples include the Rafale fighter, the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, the Exocet missile, and the Leclerc tank. Some weaponry, like the E-2 Hawkeye or the E-3 Sentry was bought from the United States. Despite withdrawing from the Eurofighter project, France is actively investing in European joint projects such as the Eurocopter Tiger, multipurpose frigates, the UCAV demonstrator nEUROn and the Airbus A400M. France is a major arms seller as most of its arsenal's designs are available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear powered devices. Some of the French designed equipments are specifically designed for exports like the Franco-Spanish Scorpène class submarines. Some French equipments have been largely modified to fit allied countries' requirements like the Formidable class frigates (based on the La Fayette class) or the Hashmat class submarines (based on the Agosta class submarines). The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ... Gendarmes Gendarmes guarding the Paris Hall of Justice Gendarmerie motorcyclists police the roads and autoroutes of rural France. ... The Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command providing security coverage at the Padang in Singapore during the National Day Parade in 2000. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56... “Chirac” redirects here. ... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ... It has been suggested that Force de frappe be merged into this article or section. ... The Rafale is a French twin-engine delta-wing multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. ... Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... The gunners position, looking down from the turret roof. ... The Grumman E-2 Hawkeye is an all-weather, aircraft carrier-based tactical Airborne Early Warning (AEW) aircraft nicknamed Super Fudd[1] because it replaced Willy Fudd, (the E-1 Tracer). ... rolling out of the Boeing factory in the 1970s A Sentry AEW1 of the RAF takes off USAF E-3 Sentry prepared for flight at 4 Wing Cold Lake, Canada The NATO E-3s have the Coat of arms of Luxembourg and the registration LX on the tail. ... The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine multi-role canard-delta fighter aircraft, very similar to the US-German Rockwell-MBB X-31 prototype and designed and built by a consortium of European nations formed in 1983. ... The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by the Eurocopter Group. ... The FREMM Multipurpose Frigate (French Frégate Multi-Mission or Italian Fregata Multi-Missione) is a ship designed by DCN and Fincantieri to operate in anti-air, anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare, and be capable of carrying out deep strikes against land targets. ... The Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) is the name of a new class of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that have been designed to carry out air strikes. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... The Airbus A400M is a four-engine turboprop aircraft, designed by Airbus Military to meet the demand of European nations for military airlift. ... Scorpène class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarine jointly developed by the French company DCN and the Spanish company Navantia. ... The Formidable class multi-role stealth frigates are the latest platforms to enter into service with the Republic of Singapore Navy, and are multi-mission derivatives of the French Navy’s La Fayette class frigate. ... Agosta class submarine Agosta 90B class submarines are French attack submarines (SSKs) used by France, Spain, and Pakistan. ...

  • Although it includes very competent anti-terrorist units such as the GIGN or the EPIGN the gendarmerie is a military police force which serves for the most part as a rural and general purpose police force. Since its creation the GIGN has taken part in roughly one thousand operations and freed over five-hundred hostages; the Air France Flight 8969's hijacking brought them to the world's attention.
  • French intelligence can be divided into two major units: the DGSE (the external agency) and the DST (domestic agency). The latter being part of the police while the former is associated to the army. The DGSE is notorious for the Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, but it is also known for revealing the most extensive technological spy network uncovered in Europe and the United States to date through the mole Vladimir Vetrov.
  • The French "Force de frappe" relies on a complete independence. The current French nuclear force consists of four submarines equipped with M45 ballistic missiles. The current Triomphant class is currently under deployment to replace the former Redoutable class. The M51 will replace the M45 in the future and expand the Triomphants firing range. Aside of the submarines the French dissuasion force uses the Mirage 2000N; it is a variant of the Mirage 2000 and thus is designed to deliver nuclear strikes. Other nuclear devices like the Plateau d'Albion's Intercontinental ballistic missiles and the short range Hadès missiles have been disarmed. With 350 nuclear heads stockpiled France is the world's third largest nuclear power.[20]
  • The Marine Nationale is regarded as one of the world's most powerful. The professional compendium flottes de combats, in its 2006 edition, ranked it world's 6th biggest navy after the American, Russian, Chinese, British and Japanese navies.[2]. It is equipped with the world's only nuclear powered Aircraft Carrier, with the exception of the American navy. Recently Mistral class ships joined the Marine Nationale, the Mistral itself having taken part to operations in Lebanon. For the 2004 centennial of the Entente Cordiale President Chirac announced the Future French aircraft carrier would be jointly designed with Great Britain. The French navy is equipied with the La Fayette class frigates, early examples of stealth ships, and several ships are expected to be retired in the next few years and replaced by more modern ships, examples of future surface ships are the Forbin and the Aquitaine class frigates. The attack submarines are also part of the Force Océanique Stratégique although they do not carry the nuclear dissuasion, the current class is the Rubis Class and will be replaced in the future by the expected Suffren Class.
  • The Armée de l'Air is the oldest and first professional air force worldwide. It still today retains a significant capacity. It uses mainly two aircraft fighters: the older Mirage F1 and the more recent Mirage 2000. The later model exists in a ground attack version called the Mirage2000D. The highly modern Rafale is in deployment in both the French air force and navy.

Categories: Stub | Law enforcement in France ... The EPIGN (Escadron Parachutiste dIntervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) is the parachute-trained intervention squadron of the French Gendarmerie. ... Air France Flight 8969 (AF8969, AFR8969) was an Air France flight that was hijacked on December 24, 1994 at Algiers. ... Logo of Francess Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE) / General Directorate for External Security. ... The Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST; Directorate of Territorial Surveillance) is a directorate of the French National Police operating as a domestic intelligence agency. ... The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Operation Satanic[1], was a special operation by the action branch of the French foreign intelligence services, the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE), carried out on July 10, 1985. ... Colonel Vladimir Ippolitovich Vetrov (1928 - 1983?) was a KGB defector during the Cold War, who passed on to NATO extremely valuable information about the Soviet program to obtain technology from the West. ... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ... The M45 SLBM is the French Navys submarine launched ballistic missile. ... The Triomphant class of strategic missile submarines of the French Navy are currently being introduced into service to provide the sea based component of the French nuclear deterrent or Force de frappe, with the M45 SLBM. They are replacing the Redoutable-class boats. ... The Redoutable class submarine is a ballistic missile (SSBN) class, Sous-marines Nucleaire Lanceur dEngins balistique (SNLE), of the Marine Nationale , the oceanic part (Force Océanique Stratégique (FOST)) of the Force de frappe. ... The M51 SLBM is the future French Navys submarine launched ballistic missile, designed to replace the M45 SLBM. In French terminology the MSBS - Mer-Sol-Balistique-Strategique (Sea-ground-Strategic ballistic missile) Each missile carries six independently targetable TN-76 thermonuclear warheads. ... The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... The Hadès system was a short-range ballistic tactical nuclear weapon system designed by France as a last warning before use of strategic nuclear weapons, in the perspective of a Soviet invasion of Western Europe. ... Navy officers on the bridges of the Motte-Picquet frigate French Navy summer uniforms Frigate division of the French Navy in Toulon harbour The French Navy (Marine Nationale) is the second-largest Western European navy (the largest being the Royal Navy). ... The Mistral type is a class of assault helicopter carriers of the French Navy, capable of deploying 16 NH90 or Tigre, or 35 Aérospatiale Gazelle. ... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... PA2 (Porte-Avions 2) is a planned new aircraft carrier developed for the French Navy by Thales Naval France and DCN from the Thales UK/BMT design for the future British Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers. ... The La Fayette class units are light multi-mission frigates built by DCN and operated by France (Marine Nationale), Saudi Arabia, Singapore (Republic of Singapore Navy) and Republic of China (Taiwan) (Republic of China Navy). ... The Horizon Common New Generation Frigate (CNGF) is a multi-national collaboration to produce a new generation of anti-air warfare frigates. ... The FREMM Multipurpose Frigate (French Frégate Multi-Mission or Italian Fregata Multi-Missione) is a ship designed by DCN and Fincantieri to operate in anti-air, anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare, and be capable of carrying out deep strikes against land targets. ... The Force Océanique Stratégique (FOST, Strategic Oceanic Force) are the strategic submarine forces of the French Navy. ... The Rubis type is a class of first-generation nuclear attack submarines of the French Navy. ... The Barracuda class is a planned nuclear attack submarine class of the French Marine Nationale, designed by government shipbuilder DCN to replace the Rubis class submarines. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... The 13th Parachute Dragoon Regiment (French: 13e Régiment de Dragons Parachutistes) (13e RDP) is a Airborne Special forces Regiment of the French Army. ... The 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (French: 1er Régiment Parachutiste dInfanterie de Marine) (1er RPIMa) is one of two regiments in the Army Special Forces Brigade. ... The FAMAS (Fusil dAssaut de la Manufacture dArmes de St-Étienne, Assault Rifle by St-Étienne Arms Factory) is an assault rifle in bullpup configuration designed and manufactured in France by the Saint Étienne arms factory, which is a member of the French government-owned GIAT Industries complex. ... A FELIN suit Félin (substantive big cat or masculine adjective feline; Fantassin à Équipement et Liaisons Intégrées, Integrated Equipment and Communications Soldier) is the name for the French infantry combat system of the 2000s. ... The CAESAR (CAmion Equipé dun Système dARtillerie)[1] is a 155 mm/52-calibre artillery piece installed on a 6X6 truck chassis. ... The AMX-10RC is an armoured car built by GIAT. Over 300 are in service in the French Army. ... The gunners position, looking down from the turret roof. ... Overview Perhaps the most successful post-war French armored vehicle design, the AMX-30 main battle tank was designed by GIAT Industries with a focus on good firepower and superior mobility. ... The AMX 30 AuF1 is a ground-ground artillery system using the AMX 30 hull. ... The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by the Eurocopter Group. ... The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ... The Dassault Mirage F1 is a single-seat air-superiority fighter and attack aircraft built by Dassault Aviation of France. ... The Mirage 2000 is a French-built multirole fighter jet manufactured by Dassault Aviation. ... The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike. ... The logo of the Dassault Rafale program. ...

Transportation

Main article: Transport in France

The railway network of France, which stretches 31,840 kilometres (19,784 mi) is the most extensive in Western Europe. It is operated by the SNCF, and high-speed trains include the Thalys, the Eurostar and TGV, which travels at 320 km/h (200 mph) in commercial use. The Eurostar, along with the Eurotunnel Shuttle, connects with the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel. Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra. Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services and tramway services complementing bus services. This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook (2003 edition) which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1771x1181, 621 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Eurotunnel Palais Royal - Musée du Louvre (Paris Metro) Louvre Rivoli (Paris Metro) Gare dAusterlitz Opéra (Paris Metro) Pont Neuf (Paris Metro) Cergy - Le Haut (SNCF) Cergy... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1771x1181, 621 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Eurotunnel Palais Royal - Musée du Louvre (Paris Metro) Louvre Rivoli (Paris Metro) Gare dAusterlitz Opéra (Paris Metro) Pont Neuf (Paris Metro) Cergy - Le Haut (SNCF) Cergy... TGV-A set 359 at Poitiers Futuroscope on 28 August 2001. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company) is a French public enterprise. ... Thalys PBKA Thalys is a high-speed train network built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. ... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... Interior of a Eurotunnel Shuttle passenger vehicle train Interior of single deck train with carriage doors open Interior of single deck train with carriage doors closed Eurotunnel Shuttle (previously known as Le Shuttle) is a shuttle service between Calais/Coquelles in France and Folkestone in the UK. It conveys road... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Autobus redirects here. ...


There is approximately 893,300 kilometres (555,070 mi) of serviceable roadway in France. The Paris region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring Belgium, Spain, Andorra, Monaco, Switzerland, Germany and Italy. There is no annual registration fee or road tax; however, motorway usage is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes. The new car market is dominated by national brands such as Renault (27% of cars sold in France in 2003) , Peugeot (20.1%) and Citroën (13.5%).[21] Over 70% of new cars sold in 2004 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines.[22] France possesses the world's tallest road bridge: the Millau Viaduct, and has built many important bridges such as the Pont de Normandie. For the author, see Mary Renault. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... The Millau Viaduct (French: ) is a large cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. ... The Pont de Normandie is a cable-stayed road bridge that spans the river Seine linking Le Havre to Honfleur in Normandy, northern France. ...


There are approximately 478 airports in France, including landing fields. The Charles de Gaulle International Airport located in the vicinity of Paris is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across the world. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services. There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille, which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea. 14,932 kilometres (9,278 mi) of waterways traverse France. Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of worlds principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international airport. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban...


Administrative divisions

See also: Regions of France
The 22 regions and 96 departments of metropolitan France includes Corsica (Corse, lower right). Paris area is expanded (inset at left)
The 22 regions and 96 departments of metropolitan France includes Corsica (Corse, lower right). Paris area is expanded (inset at left)

France is divided into 26 administrative regions. 22 are in metropolitan France (21 are on the continental part of metropolitan France; one is the territorial collectivity of Corsica) , and four are overseas regions. The regions are further subdivided into 100 departments which are numbered (mainly alphabetically). This number is used in postal codes and vehicle number plates amongst others. Four of these departments are found in the overseas regions and are simultaneously overseas regions and overseas departments and are an integral part of France (and the European Union) and thus enjoy a status similar to metropolitan departments. The 100 departments are subdivided into 341 arrondissements which are, in turn, subdivided into 4,032 cantons. These cantons are then divided into 36,680 communes, which are municipalities with an elected municipal council. There also exist 2,588 intercommunal entities grouping 33,414 of the 36,680 communes (i.e. 91.1% of all the communes). Three communes, Paris, Lyon and Marseille are also subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissements. bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Overseas region (French: Région doutre-mer), is a recent designation given to the overseas departments which have similar powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. ... The cantons of France are administrative divisions subdividing arrondissements and départements. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... The commune is an administrative division of France. ... The municipal arrondissement (French: arrondissement municipal, pronounced ), more simply referred to as arrondissement, is a level of administrative division in France lower than the commune. ...


The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities, meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive. Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until 1940, the arrondissements were also territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in 1946. Historically, the cantons were also territorial collectivities with their elected assemblies. A Territorial collectivity (French: collectivité territoriale and sometimes collectivité locale) is the generic name for all subnational entities and dependent areas which have an elected local government and (per article #72 of the French constitution) a certain freedom of administration. // Regions: There are 21 regions in metropolitan France and 4... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In addition to the 26 regions and 100 departments, the French Republic also has six overseas collectivities, one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia) , and one overseas territory. Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area. The Pacific territories continue to use the Pacific franc whose value is linked to that of the euro. In contrast, the four overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro. A collectivité doutre-mer (in English Overseas Community) or COM, is an administrative division of France. ... Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning a scholar like what pradeep is or unique in its characteristics. ... The term Overseas territory (French: Territoire doutre-mer or TOM), is an administrative division of France and is currently only applied to the French Southern Territories. ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


France also maintains control over a number of small non-permanently inhabited islands in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Tromelin Island.

See also: French metropolitan areas, List of towns in France, and List of cities in France over 20,000 population (1999 census)

In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... This is a list of towns or cities in France. ... ...

Overseas Regions

Overseas departments have the same political status as metropolitan departments.

Economy

Main article: Economy of France
See also: List of French companies and Economic history of France
The first completed Airbus A380 at the "A380 Reveal" event in Toulouse on 18 January 2005. Airbus is a symbol of the globalisation of the French and European economy
The first completed Airbus A380 at the "A380 Reveal" event in Toulouse on 18 January 2005. Airbus is a symbol of the globalisation of the French and European economy

France's economy combines extensive private enterprise (nearly 2.5 million companies registered) with substantial (though declining) government intervention (see dirigisme). The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, and telecommunication firms. It has been gradually relaxing its control over these sectors since the early 1990s. The government is slowly selling off holdings in France Télécom, Air France, as well as the insurance, banking, and defence industries. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of companies from France. ... This is a history of the economy of France. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2114x758, 581 KB) Ravi kumar A380 @ A380 Reveal Ceremony English: Description: The first complete A380 (MSN2) at the A380 Reveal Ceremony in Toulouse Source: Taken by (Toulouse 2005-01-19) Deutsch: Beschreibung: Die erste komplette A380 (MSN2) bei der A380 Reveal... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2114x758, 581 KB) Ravi kumar A380 @ A380 Reveal Ceremony English: Description: The first complete A380 (MSN2) at the A380 Reveal Ceremony in Toulouse Source: Taken by (Toulouse 2005-01-19) Deutsch: Beschreibung: Die erste komplette A380 (MSN2) bei der A380 Reveal... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... France Télécom (Euronext: FTE, NYSE: FTE) (often spelled France Telecom, without the accents, in non-French text) is the main telecommunication company in France. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ...


A member of the G8 group of leading industrialised countries, it is ranked as the sixth largest economy in the world in 2005, behind the United States, Japan, Germany, The People's Republic of China and the United Kingdom. France joined 11 other EU members to launch the Euro on January 1, 1999, with euro coins and banknotes completely replacing the French franc (₣) in early 2002. According to the OECD, in 2004 France was the world's fifth-largest exporter and the fourth-largest importer of manufactured goods. In 2003, France was the 2nd-largest recipient of foreign direct investment among OECD countries at $47 billion, ranking behind Luxembourg (where foreign direct investment was essentially monetary transfers to banks located in that country) but above the United States ($39.9 billion) , the United Kingdom ($14.6 billion) , Germany ($12.9 billion) , or Japan ($6.3 billion). In the same year, French companies invested $57.3 billion outside of France, ranking France as the second most important outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the United States ($173.8 billion) , and ahead of the United Kingdom ($55.3 billion) , Japan ($28.8 billion) and Germany ($2.6 billion). Group of Eight redirects here. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... In the technical terminology of political science the PRC was a communist state for much of the 20th century, and is still considered a communist state by many, though not all, political scientists. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... This article is about economics. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ...


In the 2005 edition of OECD in Figures, the OECD also noted that France leads the G7 countries in terms of productivity (measured as GDP per hour worked).[23] In 2004, the GDP per hour worked in France was $47.7, ranking France above the United States ($46.3) , Germany ($42.1) , the United Kingdom ($39.6) , or Japan ($32.5).[24] Group of Eight redirects here. ... This is a list of countries of the world sorted by their Gross Domestic Product (PPP converted) per hour. ...

La Défense, Paris is the heart of the French economy.

Despite figures showing a higher productivity per hour worked than in the US, France's GDP per capita is significantly lower than the US GDP per capita, being in fact comparable to the GDP per capita of the other European countries, which is on average 30% below the US level. The reason for this is that a much smaller percentage of the French population is working compared to the US, which lowers the GDP per capita of France, despite its higher productivity. In fact, France has one of the lowest percentages of its population aged 15-64 years at work among the OECD countries. In 2004, 68.8% of the French population aged 15-64 years was in employment, compared to 80.0% in Japan, 78.9% in the UK, 77.2% in the US, and 71.0% in Germany.[25] This phenomenon is the result of almost thirty years of massive unemployment in France, which has led to three consequences reducing the size of the working population: about 9% of the active population is without a job; students delay as long as possible their entry into labour market; and finally, the French government gives various incentives to workers to retire in their early 50s, though these are now receding. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 527 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Skyline of Paris La Défense photographed by myself. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 527 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Skyline of Paris La Défense photographed by myself. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


As many economists have stressed repeatedly over the years, the main issue with the French economy is not an issue of productivity. In their opinion, it is an issue of structural reforms, in order to increase the size of the working population in the overall population. Liberal and Keynesian economists have different answers to that issue. Lower working hours and the reluctance to reform the labour market are mentioned as weak spots of the French economy in the view of the right and lack of government policies fostering social justice by the left. Recent government attempts at adjusting the youth labour market, to combat unemployment, have met with fierce resistance. The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics begun in the Englightenment, and believed to be first fully forumulated by Adam Smith. ... Keynesian economics (pronounced kainzian, IPA ), also called Keynesianism, or Keynesian Theory, is an economic theory based on the ideas of the 20th-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


With 79.1 million foreign tourists in 2006,[13] France is ranked as the first tourist destination in the world, ahead of Spain (55.6 million in 2005) and the United States (49.4 million in 2005). This 79.1 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours in France, such as northern Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy during the Summer. France features cities of high cultural interest (Paris being the foremost) , beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). Aside of casual tourism France attracts a lot of religious pilgrims to Lourdes, a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département, that hosts a few million tourists a year. This article is about the capital of France. ... A shaped, twin-tip alpine ski. ... This article is about the French pilgrimage location. ...


France has an important aerospace industry led by the European consortium Airbus, and is the only European power (excluding Russia) to have its own national spaceport (Centre Spatial Guyanais). France is also the most energy independent Western country due to heavy investment in nuclear power, which also makes France the smallest producer of carbon dioxide among the seven most industrialised countries in the world. As a result of large investments in nuclear technology, most of the electricity produced in the country is generated by nuclear power plants (78.1% in 2006,[26] up from only 8% in 1973, 24% in 1980, and 75% in 1990). This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ... A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ... The Guiana Space Centre (French: Centre Spatial Guyanais) is a French/European spaceport near Kourou in French Guiana. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe. Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as an internationally recognised foodstuff and wine industry are primary French agricultural exports. EU agriculture subsidies to France total almost $14 billion. The food industry is the complex, global collective of diverse businesses that together supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population. ...


Since the end of the Second World War the government made efforts to integrate more and more with Germany, both economically and politically. Today the two countries form what is often referred to as the "core" countries in favour of greater integration of the European Union.


Demography

Main articles: Demography of France and Languages of France
Metropolitan French cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
Metropolitan French cities with over 100,000 inhabitants

With an estimated population of 64 million people, France is the 23rd most populous country in the world. France's largest cities are Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Toulouse, Nice, and Nantes. With a total fertility rate of 2. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1796, 3778 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1796, 3778 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... This article is about the French city. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ...


In 2003, France's natural population growth (excluding immigration) was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union. In 2004, population growth was 0.68% and then in 2005 birth and fertility rates continued to increase. The natural increase of births over deaths rose to 299,800 in 2006. The lifetime fertility rate rose to 2.00 in 2007, from 1.92 in 2004.[3]


In 2004, a total of 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe.[27] In 2005, immigration level fell slightly to 135,890.[28] France is an ethnically diverse nation. According to the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies, it has an estimated 4.9 million foreign-born immigrants, of which 2 million have acquired French citizenship.[29] France is the leading asylum destination in Western Europe with an estimated 50,000 applications in 2005 (a 15% decrease from 2004).[30] The European Union allows free movement between the member states. While the UK (along with Ireland) did not impose restrictions, France put in place controls to curb Eastern European migration. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... For other uses, see Refugee (disambiguation). ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ...

France's legacy: a map of the Francophone world      native language      administrative language      secondary or non-official language      francophone minorities
France's legacy: a map of the Francophone world      native language      administrative language      secondary or non-official language      francophone minorities
Demography evolution from 1961 up to 2003 (according to the FAO, 2005). Population in thousands of inhabitants
Demography evolution from 1961 up to 2003 (according to the FAO, 2005). Population in thousands of inhabitants

A perennial political issue concerns rural depopulation. Over the period 1960-1999 fifteen rural départements experienced a decline in population. In the most extreme case, the population of Creuse fell by 24%. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 27 KB) Map of Francophone world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 27 KB) Map of Francophone world. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Image File history File links France_demographie. ... Image File history File links France_demographie. ... FAO redirects here. ... Rural depopulation is a phenomenon affecting rural locales in both developed and developing countries, whereby net population movement leaves rural places with decreasing population and urban places with increasing population, caused by the the migration of people from rural areas to urban areas. ... Creuse is a département in central France named after the Creuse River. ...


According to Article 2 of the Constitution, French is the sole official language of France since 1992. This makes France the only Western European nation (excluding microstates) to have only one officially recognised language. However, 77 regional languages are also spoken, in metropolitan France as well as in the overseas departments and territories. Until recently, the French government and state school system discouraged the use of any of these languages, but they are now taught to varying degrees at some schools.[31] Other languages, such as Portuguese, Italian, Maghrebi Arabic and several Berber languages are spoken by immigrants. The European microstates are a handful of very small sovereign states on the European continent and the surrounding islands. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in France

France is a secular country as freedom of religion is a constitutional right, although some religious doctrines such as Scientology, Children of God, the Unification Church, and the Order of the Solar Temple are considered cults. According to a January 2007 poll by the Catholic World News:[32][33] 51% identified as being Catholics, 31% identified as being agnostics or atheists. (Another poll [34] concluded that 27% identified as being atheists.) , 10% identified as being from other religions or being without opinion, 4% identified as Muslim, 3% identified as Protestant, 1% identified as Jewish. France is a secular country where freedom of thought and of religion are preserved, in virtue of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... The Children of God (COG), later known as the Family of Love, the Family, and now the Family International (TFI), is a new religious movement, widely referred to as a cult by the media and some government organizations, that started in 1968 in Huntington Beach, California, United States. ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ... The Order of the Solar Temple also known as Ordre du Temple Solaire (OTS) in French, and the International Chivalric Organization of the Solar Tradition or simply as The Solar Temple was a secret society based upon the new age myth of the continuing existence of the Knights Templar (see... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... “Atheist” redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[35] 34% of French citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 27% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 33% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In France, 32% declare themselves to be atheists, with an additional 32% declaring themselves agnostic[36]. The current Jewish community in France numbers around 600,000 according to the World Jewish Congress and is largest in Europe. Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. According to the 1999 French census returns, there were only 3.7 million people of "possible Muslim faith" in France (6.3% of the total population). There are an estimated 200,000 to 1 million illegal immigrants in France. For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia The history of the Jews of France dates back over 2,000 years. ... The World Jewish Congress (WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. ... Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. ...


The concept of laïcité exists in France and because of this the French government is legally prohibited from recognising any religion (except for legacy statutes like those of military chaplains and Alsace-Moselle). Instead, it merely recognises religious organisations, according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organisations should refrain from intervening in policy-making. Tensions occasionally erupt about alleged discrimination against minorities, especially against Muslims (see Islam in France). Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ... The Alsace-Moselle is the current legal name of the France that was part of Germany from 1871 to 1919 (and then from 1940 to 1944_1945), consisting of the départements of Haut-Rhin and Bas-Rhin (both of which make up Alsace), and the département of Moselle (itself... Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. ...


Public health

The French healthcare system was ranked first worldwide by the World Health Organization in 1997.[37] It is almost entirely free for people affected by chronic diseases (Affections de longues durées) such as cancers, AIDS or Cystic Fibrosis. Average life expectancy at birth is 79.73 years. WHO redirects here. ... Medicine In medicine, a persistent and lasting condition is said to be chronic (from Greek chronos). ... For other uses, see Cancer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


As of 2003, there are approximately 120,000 inhabitants of France who are living with AIDS [4]


France, as all EU countries, is under an EU directive to reduce sewage discharge to sensitive areas. As of 2006, France is only 40 per cent in compliance with this directive, placing it as one of the lowest achieving countries within the EU with regard to this wastewater treatment standard [5]. Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of France
Cartesianism is prominent in France[citation needed]

Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... René Descartes, painting by Frans Hals, ca. ... René Descartes, painting by Frans Hals, ca. ... Descartes redirects here. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... The visual and plastic arts of France have had an unprecedented diversity -- from the Gothic cathedral of Chartres to Georges de la Tours night scenes to Monets Waterlilies and finally to Duchamps radical Fontaine -- and have exerted an unparalleled influence on world cultural production. ... French cuisine is characterized by its extreme diversity. ... Les Enfants du Paradis (Marcel Carne), one of the greatest French films ever made La regle du jeu (Jean Renoir), another candidate for the best French film LAtalante (Jean Vigo) La belle et la bête (Jean Cocteau) Diary of a Country Priest (Robert Bresson) Vivre sa Vie (Jean... France has long been considered a centre for European art and music. ... elliot is the worst swimmer (note the sarcasm) ... Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ... Holidays in France: Note: Only labour day (May 1st) is a public holiday by statute. ... This is a list of French people. ...

Architecture

Main article: French architecture
Saint Louis' Sainte Chapelle represents the French impact on religious architecture.
Saint Louis' Sainte Chapelle represents the French impact on religious architecture.

There is, technically speaking, no architecture named French Architecture, although that has not always been true. Gothic Architecture's old name was French Architecture (or Opus Francigenum). The term "Gothic" appeared later as a stylistic insult and was widely adopted. Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis) ; other majestuous and important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d'Amiens. The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. Aside from churches, Gothic Architecture had been used for many religious palaces, the most important one being the Palais des Papes in Avignon. Chartres cathedral French architecture is very diverse. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1330 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1330 pixel, file size: 1. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Sainte-Chapelle surrounded by the Palais de Justice. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... A Cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... The Basilica of St. ... West façade of Saint Denis Depiction of the Trinity over the main entrance The Basilica of Saint Denis (French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the famous burial site of the French monarchs, comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles (80 km) from Paris, is considered one of the finest examples in all France of the Gothic style of architecture. ... The cathedral in Amiens Close-up of a stained glass window The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame dAmiens), or just Amiens Cathedral, is the tallest complete cathedral in France with the greatest interior volume, estimated at 200,000 m³. The vaults of the... Façade of the Notre-Dame de Reims The Notre-Dame de Reims (Our Lady of Rheims) is the Cathedral of Reims, where the kings of France were once crowned. ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ...


During the Middle Ages, fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers against their rivals. When King Philip II took Rouen from King John, for example, he demolished the ducal castle to build a bigger one. Fortified cities were also common, unfortunately most French castles did not survive the passage of time. This is why Richard Lionheart's castle -Château-Gaillard- was demolished as well as the Château de Lusignan. Some important French castles that survived are Chinon Castle, Château d'Angers, the massive Château de Vincennes and the so called Cathar castles. Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Château-Gaillard Château-Gaillard is a ruined medieval castle, located above the town of Les Andelys, in the Eure département of Normandy, France. ... Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, March: the Château de Lusignan The Château de Lusignan (in Lusignan, Vienne département, France) remains, even in its present ruined state, the largest of the châteaux-forts of France [citation needed]. It was the seat of the... Illustration of Chinon, circa 1892 For other uses, see Chinon (disambiguation). ... The Château dAngers overlooks Angers and the Maine River. ... The chapel of Château de Vincennes (2005) The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal castle in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis. ... Le Château de Quéribus Cathar castles (in French Châteaux cathares) is a modern term used by the tourism industry (following the example of Pays Cathare - Cathar Country) to arbitrarily designate the series of fortresses built by the French king on the southern frontier of his lands at...


Before the appearance of this architecture France had been using romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe (with the exception of the Iberian Peninsula, which used Mooresque architecture). Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque Churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey (largely destroyed during the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars). South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... East end elevation of Saint-Sernin Basilica Crypt of Saint-Sernin Basilica View of the back side of the building and the tower Saint-Sernin basilica located in Toulouse, France, was built during the Romanesque Period between AD 1080 and 1120. ... The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by William I, Count of Auvergne, who installed Abbot Berno and placed the abbey under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify...


The end of the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. It was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy and Spain were invited to the French court; many residential palaces, Italian-inspired, were built, mainly in the Loire Valley. Such residential castles were the Château de Chambord, the Château de Chenonceau, or the Château d'Amboise. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque Architecture replaced the gothic one. However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in the religious one.[38] In the secular domain the Palace of Versailles has many baroque features. Jules Hardouin Mansart can be said to be the most influential French architect of the baroque style, with his very famous baroque dome of Les Invalides. Some of the most impressive provincial baroque architecture is found in places that were not yet French such as the Place Stanislas in Nancy. On the military architectural side Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses of Europe and became a very influential military architect. This article is about the cultural movement known as the French Renaissance. ... The front façade of the Château de Chambord, viewed from the south. ... View of Château de Chenonceau from Jardin de Catherine de Medici1 Château de Chenonceau as seen from Diane de Poitiers gardens The Château de Chenonceau, near the small village of Chenonceaux, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France, was built on... it doesnt exist ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... Jules Hardouin-Mansart, marble bust by Jean-Louis Lemoyne: a full-dress Baroque portrait bust demonstrates that the Kings architect is no mere craftsman Jules Hardouin-Mansart (Paris, April 16, 1646 – Marly, France, May 11, 1708) was a French architect whose work is generally considered to be the... The church at the Invalides Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings original purpose. ... The Place Stanislas, known colloquially as the place Stan, is a large pedestrianized square in Nancy, Lorraine, France. ... For other uses, see Nancy (disambiguation). ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...


After the French revolution the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. Built during the French Empire the Arc de Triomphe and Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent this trend the best. Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... The Capitole de Toulouse is the seat of the municipal administration of the French city of Toulouse. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... Église de la Madeleine, Paris Léglise de la Madeleine, or Léglise Sainte-Marie-Madeleine (or simply La Madeleine), is a church in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that was designed as a temple to the glory of Napoleons army. ...


Under Napoleon III a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth. If some very extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built, the urban planing of the time was very organised and rigorous. For example Baron Haussmann rebuilt Paris. These times also saw a strong Gothic-Revival trend across Europe, in France the associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. In the late 19th century Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges (like the Garabit viaduct) and remains one of the most influential bridge designer of his time, although he is best remembered for the Eiffel Tower. The foyer of the Paris Opera, built by Charles Garnier Neo-baroque is a term used to describe artistic creations which display important aspects of Baroque style, but are not from the Baroque period proper. ... The Palais Garnier, Paris The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris as well as the Opéra Garnier, is a 2,200 seat opera house in Paris, France. ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... Boulevard Haussmann The Haussmann Renovations, or Haussmannization of Paris was a work led under the initiative of Napoléon III and the Seine préfet, Haussmann, from 1852 to 1870. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (January 27, 1814 – September 17, 1879) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced ) was a French structural engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... The Garabit Viaduct (Viaduc de Garabit in French) is a railroad arch bridge spanning the Truyère River near Ruynes en Margeride, Cantal, France, in the mountainous Massif Central region. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ...


In the 20th century the Swiss Architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings in France. More recently French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is a good example of modern architecture added to an older building. Certainly the most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. France's largest financial district is La Defense, where a significant number of skyscrapers are located. Other massive buildings that are a challenge to integrate into their environment are large bridges; a good example of the way this has been done is the Millau Viaduct. Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel or Paul Andreu. Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... The large glass pyramid of le musée du Louvre The Louvre Pyramid is a large metal and glass pyramid which serves as the main entrance to the Musée du Louvre and has become a landmark for the city of Paris. ... La Défense, the new skyline of Paris La Défense is a district of high-rise offices, apartment blocks and shopping complexes over part of the communes of Nanterre, Courbevoie and Puteaux (all in the Hauts-de-Seine département), to the west of Paris. ... The Millau Viaduct (French: ) is a large cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. ... Jean Nouvel (born August 12, 1945) is a French architect. ... Paul Andreu (born July 10, 1938 in Caudéran / Gironde) is a renowned French architect. ...


Literature

Main article: French literature
Molière is the most played author in the Comédie-Française
Molière is the most played author in the Comédie-Française

French literature tracks its origins back to the Middle Ages. French was not yet a uniform language but was divided into several dialects (mainly: northern oïl, southern oc dialects). Each writer used his own spelling and grammar. Several French mediaeval texts are not signed- such is the case with Tristan and Iseult, or with Lancelot and the Holy Grail, among many others. A significant part of mediaeval French poetry and literature was inspired by the Matter of France, such as the The Song of Roland and the various Chansons de geste. The "Roman de Renart" was written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude, and told the story of the medieval character Reynard ('the Fox') ; it is also a popular example of early French story-telling. French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... The Comédie-Française or Théâtre français is the only state theater in France. ... For other uses, see Tristan and Iseult (disambiguation). ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... Eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... Reynard the Fox, also known as Renard, Renart, Reinard, Reinecke, Reinhardus, Reynardt and by many other spelling variations, is a trickster figure whose tale is told in a number of anthropomorphic tales from medieval Europe. ...


In spite of the anonymous character of many French writings of the Middle-Ages, some medieval writers became quite famous: Chrétien de Troyes, for instance. 'Oc' culture was also quite influent in the Middle Ages. An early example of a vernacular poet writing in Occitan was Duke William IX of Aquitaine. Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... William IX of Aquitaine (October 22, 1071 – February 10, 1126, also Guillaume or Guilhem dAquitaine), nicknamed the Troubador was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VII of Poitiers between 1086 and 1126. ...


About the history of the French language, one of the most important writer is unquestionably François Rabelais. Modern French took a great deal from his style. His most famous work is quite probably Gargantua and Pantagruel. Later on, Jean de La Fontaine wrote his famous "Fables", a collection of short stories, written in verse, and usually ending with a "moral teaching". François Rabelais François Rabelais (c. ... Gargantua and Pantagruel is a connected series of five novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais. ... Engraving by Étienne-Jehandier Desrochers Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ...


During the 17th century Pierre Corneille, Jean Racine and Molière's plays, Blaise Pascal and René Descartes 's moral and philosophical books deeply influenced the aristocracy leaving an important heritage for the authors of the following decades. Pierre Corneille. ... Jean Racine, in an engraving by Pierre Savart. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 20 [[1624 // ]] – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Descartes redirects here. ...


But it is most certainly in the 18th and 19th centuries which French literature and poetry reach its highest point. The 18th century saw the writings of such huge writers, essayists and moralists as Voltaire, Denis Diderot and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. As concerns French children's literature in those times, Charles Perrault was probably the most prolific writer, with stories such as: "Puss in Boots", "Cinderella", "Sleeping Beauty" and "Bluebeard". For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... This article is about the French author. ... Gustave Dor s 19th century engraving of le chat bott Puss in Boots is a European folktale collected by Charles Perrault in his Contes de ma m re lOye (Mother Goose Tales), and earlier in 1634, by Giambattista Basile as Gagliuso. ... Gustave Dorés illustration for Cendrillon Cinderella (French: Cendrillon) is a popular fairy tale embodying a classic folk tale myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward. ... Sir Edward Burne-Jones painted The Sleeping Beauty. ... For other uses, see Bluebeard (disambiguation). ...


The 19th century saw the birth of many French novels of world renown; Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas and Jules Verne are probably among the most famous among these writers, both in and outside of France, with such highly popular novels such as The Three Musketeers, The Count of Monte-Cristo, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, or The Hunchback of Notre-Dame. Other 19th century fiction writers include Emile Zola, Guy de Maupassant, Théophile Gautier and Stendhal. Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... This article is about the French author. ... For other uses, see The Three Musketeers (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne (1828–1905), published in 1870 under the title Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (in French, Notre-Dame de Paris) was a novel first published in 1831 by the French literary giant Victor Hugo. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Guy de Maupassant. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... Stendhal. ...


Symbolist poetry of the turn of the 19th century also proved to be a strong movement in French poetry, with artists such as Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine and Stéphane Mallarmé. “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ...


Now become famous outside of France, as well (whereas they used to be mostly known inside of France) are Louis-Ferdinand Céline and Albert Camus. One of the most well-known 20th century writers is Antoine de St.-Exupéry, whose "Little Prince" has been translated and become a bestseller in a great many countries, remaining popular both with children and adults. Seline redirects here. ... For other uses, see Camus. ... The Little Prince (French Le Petit Prince), published in 1943, is French aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupérys most famous novel, which he wrote while staying at a hotel in New York. ...


Nowadays, the Prix Goncourt (first given in 1903) rewards "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year". It has quite probably become France's best-known contemporary literary award. The Prix Goncourt is the most prestigious prize in French literature, given to the author of the best and most imaginative prose work of the year. Edmond de Goncourt, a successful author, critic, and publisher, bequeathed his entire estate for the foundation and maintenance of the Académie Goncourt. ...


Sport

Main article: Sport in France

Popular sports include football (soccer), both codes of rugby football and in certain regions basketball and handball. France has hosted events such as the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, and hosted the 2007 Rugby Union World Cup. Stade de France in Paris is the largest stadium in France and was the venue for the 1998 FIFA World Cup final, and hosted the 2007 Rugby World Cup final in October 2007. France also hosts the annual Tour de France, the most famous road bicycle race in the world. France is also famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race held in the Sarthe department. Several major tennis tournaments take place in France, including the Paris Masters and the French Open, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2143x1709, 2833 KB) The Peloton of the Tour de France, 9th of July 2005 at the begin of the ascend to Cote de Bad Herrenalb. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2143x1709, 2833 KB) The Peloton of the Tour de France, 9th of July 2005 at the begin of the ascend to Cote de Bad Herrenalb. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Soccer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Handball is the name of several different sports: Team handball, or Olympic/European Handball is a game somewhat similar to association football, but the ball is played with the hand, not the foot. ... Qualifying countries The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from June 4 to June 19. ... 1998 World Cup redirects here. ... The 2007 Rugby Union World Cup will be the sixth world cup in rugby history, hosted by France in the autumn of 2007. ... The Stade de France and the district of La Plaine The Stade de France (the English translation Stadium of France is not used) is a stadium in an inner suburb of Paris, and the national stadium of France, built for the 1998 Football World Cup. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on the road (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ... IMSA GTP sports cars racing at Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course in 1991 Sports car racing is a form of circuit auto racing with automobiles that have two seats and enclosed wheels. ... Endurance racing can refer to races involving persons running in events such as marathons or triathlons, long cross-country skiing events, the racing of horses or other animals, or motorsport. ... The Château de Boisclaireau, residence of the Gueroust family, Counts of Boisclaireau, in Sarthe. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... The BNP Paribas Masters is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Paris, France. ... The French Open, officially the Tournoi de Roland-Garros (English: Roland Garros Tournament), is a tennis event held over two weeks between mid May and early June in Paris, France, and is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments on the annual tennis calendar. ... In tennis, a singles player or doubles team that wins all four Grand Slam titles in the same year is said to have achieved the Grand Slam or a Calendar Year Grand Slam. ...


France is the country of creation of the Modern Olympic Games, due to a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, in the end of the 19th century. After Athens in reference to the Greek origin of the ancient Olympic Games, Paris hosted the second Games in 1900. Paris was also the first home of the IOC, before moving to Lausanne for more neutrality. During the Modern era, France has hosted the Olympic Games fives times: two Summer Games (1900 and 1924, both in Paris) and three Winter Games (1924 in Chamonix -the first edition-, 1968 in Grenoble and 1992 in Albertville). The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... His statue at the Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... The Games of the VIII Olympiad were held in 1924 in Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1924 in Chamonix, France. ... Panorama of Chamonix valley Chamonix-Mont-Blanc or, more commonly, Chamonix is a town and commune in eastern France, in the Haute-Savoie département, at the foot of Mont Blanc. ... The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1968 Grenoble, France and opened on February 6. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grenoblo) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1992 in Albertville, France. ... Albertville is a town and commune in southeast France, in the Savoie département, in the French Alps. ...


Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed "Les Bleus" in reference to the team's shirt color as well as the national French tricolor flag. The football team is regarded as one of the most skillful teams in the world with one FIFA World Cup victory in 1998, one FIFA World Cup second place in 2006, and two European Championships in 1984 and 2000. The top national club competition is the Ligue 1. Rugby is very popular, particularly so in the southwest of France and Paris. The national team have competed at every Rugby World Cup, and take part in the annual Six Nations Championship. The French rugby team has never won a World Cup (despite having reached the semi-finals on all but one occasion, and playing in two finals) , yet it has won sixteen Six Nations Championship, including eight grand slams. They are considered one of the top teams in the world. The top national club competition is the Top 14. First international Belgium 3 - 3 France (Brussels, Belgium; 1 May 1904) Biggest win France 10 - 0 Azerbaijan (Auxerre, France; 6 September 1995) Biggest defeat Denmark 17 - 1 France (London, England; 22 October 1908) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1930) Best result Winners, 1998 European Championship Appearances 6 (First in... First international  France 8–38 New Zealand  (1 January 1906) Largest win  Brazil 7–99 France  (2 June 1974) Worst defeat  New Zealand 61–10 France  (9 June 2007) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Losing finalist, 1987, 1999 The France national rugby union team represents France... For the club competition, see FIFA Club World Cup. ... The UEFA European Football Championship is the main football competition of the mens national football teams governed by the UEFA. Held every four years since 1960, in the even-numbered year between World Cup tournaments, it was originally called the European Nations Cup, changing to the name European Football... The 1984 UEFA European Football Championship (Euro 84) final tournament was held in France. ... The 2000 UEFA UEFA European Championship, or Euro 2000, was the 11th UEFA European Championship, which is held every four years and organised by UEFA, footballs governing body in Europe. ... Ligue 1 (Première division or Division 1 until 2003, now called Ligue 1 Orange) is the top division of French and Monegasque football, one of two divisions making up the LFP, the other being Ligue 2. ... For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... The RBS 6 Nations Championship, (referred to as RBS 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) known before 2000 as the Five Nations Championship, is an annual international rugby union competition held between six European sides: France, England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ... The Top 14 is a rugby union club competition which is played throughout France. ...


French comic books

Main article: Franco-Belgian comics
Asterix the gaulois, a famous French comics character

French comic books and Francophone Belgian ones are often discussed together. These two countries share a long lasting tradition in comics and comic books. In French they are called bandes dessinées, or more simply BD. It is important to note the French term does not indicate the subject matter. In common English usage the term comics is often associated to what is fun, or funnies while the French language comics are often referred as the le neuvième art (the ninth art). In the USA several French comics would be seen as Graphic novels rather than simply comics. The famous irreductible Gaulois Asterix is the subject of the most famous French comics outside France itself. Although intended for children at first, this BD includes many subtleties and word games that require some culture to be understood. The Black Moon Chronicles were also quite important and inspired a generation of Francophone role-players. Olivier Ledroit who drew albums of the Black Moon Chronicles designed characters and backgrounds for the Heroes of Might and Magic V video game. A new artistic movement called La Nouvelle Manga is trying to merge the Franco-Belgian style with the Japanese one, as manga are very popular in France and France had an early manga culture. Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics written in Belgium and France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Asterix_the_gaul. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Asterix_the_gaul. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... This article is about the comic book series. ... The Black Moon Chronicles is an epic dark fantasy french comic series. ... Olivier Ledroit is a French comic book artist, perhaps best known for his work on the Black Moon Chronicles series. ... Heroes of Might and Magic V (sometimes referred to as Heroes V or HoMM5) is the fifth installment of the Heroes of Might and Magic computer game series. ... An example of Nouvelle Manga by Frédéric Boilet and Kan Takahama La Nouvelle Manga is an artistic movement combining French comics with Japanese manga. ...


French comics are quite present in science-fiction and remain influential in the domain. Jean Giraud, Philippe Druillet and Enki Bilal (Serbian born) are examples of French SF writers. Enki Bilal is famous most notably for the Nikopol Trilogy which as been made a movie named Immortel (Ad Vitam). Druillet has been named the space architect because of his backdrops of gigantic structures inspired by Art Nouveau, Indian temples and Gothic cathedrals. Jean Giraud, also known as Moebius, is famous outside France for his works on movies such as: Tron, The Abyss, Willow and The Fifth Element and his comic The Incal. Jean Giraud and Philippe Druillet worked together several times and founded Métal Hurlant, a magazine specialised in science-fiction published as Heavy Metal in the USA. There are many others important artists in France like Thierry Cailleteau who wrote Aquablue who did not achieve fame outside of their homeland. Jean Henri Gaston Giraud (born May 8, 1938) is a French comics artist. ... Poster for an exhibition of Druillets art. ... Enki Bilal (born Enes Bilalović on October 7, 1951) is a French comic book artist and film director. ... Immortel (Ad Vitam) is a 2004 English language, but French-produced science fiction film, directed by artist Enki Bilal and based upon his graphic novel La Foire aux immortels (The Carnival of Immortals). ... Tron is a 1982 science fiction film starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and his counterpart inside the electronic world, Clu), Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley (and Tron), Cindy Morgan as Lora Baines (and Yori) and Dan Shor as Ram. ... The Abyss is a 1989 science fiction film which was written and directed by James Cameron, starring Ed Harris, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, and Michael Biehn. ... Willow is a 1988 fantasy film directed by Ron Howard, based on a story by George Lucas. ... This article is about the 1997 film. ... John Difool 32,Itomi Bhaa after Moebius The Incal is a science fiction comic book saga written by Alejandro Jodorowsky and illustrated by Moebius. ... Métal Hurlant is the name of a French magazine of science fiction comics, created in December 1974 by Jean Giraud (aka MÅ“bius), Jean-Pierre Dionnet and Philippe Druillet. ... Jean-Michel Nicollets cover for the first issue. ... Original cover art of Aquablue, showing Nao and his wife Mi-Nuee. ...


Foreign comics are often well received within France. Several Belgian comics met great success in France such as Blake and Mortimer, XIII or The Adventures of Tintin. As a consequence French and Belgian artists often worked together to produce comics. An example would be Blueberry by Jean-Michel Charlier and Jean Giraud. The Italian artist Hugo Pratt found a large audience with the Corto Maltese comics; Corto Maltese's success in France was such that it was made into several animated movies by Canal+. Manga is also very influential in France. Blake and Mortimer, The Yellow M Blake and Mortimer is a comic book/graphic novel series that was created by the Belgian writer and artist Edgar P. Jacobs (1904-1987). ... (code) XIII Original Title XIII Series Title Code XIII Writer(s) Jean Van Hamme Artist(s) William Vance Publisher Dargaud First published 1984 Publication frequency Yearly Pages 19 albums (44pg each) XIII (Thirteen) is a Franco-Belgian comics series written by the Belgian Jean Van Hamme and drawn by the... The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... Blueberry Blueberry is a French language comic strip created by Jean-Michel Charlier and Jean Mœbius Giraud. ... hi, i love runescape, yet i know nothing about Jean-Michel Charlier. ... Hugo Pratt (June 15, 1927, Rimini, Italy – August 20, 1995, Grandvaux, near Lausanne, Switzerland,) was an Italian comic book creator who combined his strong storytelling talent with extensive historical research on Corto Maltese and his other series. ... Corto Maltese (Corto Maltese Venetsiassa is the title of the Finnish translation of Fable of Venice. ... Canal+ (Canal Plus, meaning Channel Plus/More in French) is a French premium pay television channel launched in 1984. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ...


Marianne

Main article: Marianne
Masonic Marianne bronze
Masonic Marianne bronze

Marianne is a symbol of the French Republic. She is an allegorical figure of liberty and the Republic and first appeared at the time of the French Revolution. The earliest representations of Marianne are of a woman wearing a Phrygian cap. The origins of the name Marianne are unknown, but Marie-Anne was a very common first name in the 18th century. Anti-revolutionaries of the time derisively called her La Gueuse (the Commoner). It is believed that revolutionaries from the South of France adopted the Phrygian cap as it symbolised liberty, having been worn by freed slaves in both Greece and Rome. Mediterranean seamen and convicts manning the galleys also wore a similar type of cap. Marianne busts with features of Brigitte Bardot - Catherine Deneuve - Mireille Mathieu Marianne, a national emblem of France, is a personification of Liberty and Reason. ... Image File history File links Marianne_maçonnique. ... Image File history File links Marianne_maçonnique. ... Marianne busts with features of Brigitte Bardot - Catherine Deneuve - Mireille Mathieu Marianne, a national emblem of France, is a personification of Liberty and Reason. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap or Bonnet Phrygien is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. ...


Under the Third Republic, statues, and especially busts, of Marianne began to proliferate, particularly in town halls. She was represented in several different manners, depending on whether the aim was to emphasise her revolutionary nature or her "wisdom". Over time, the Phrygian cap was felt to be too seditious, and was replaced by a diadem or a crown. In recent times, famous French women have been used as the model for those busts. Recent ones include Sophie Marceau, and Laetitia Casta. She also features on everyday articles such as postage stamps and coins. Sophie Marceau is a popular French actress who gained international recognition with her performances in Braveheart and The World is Not Enough. ... Laetitia Marie Laure Casta (born May 11, 1978 in Pont-Audemer, Normandy) is a French supermodel and actress. ...


Miscellaneous topics

Mont Saint Michel, a popular tourist site in France
Mont Saint Michel, a popular tourist site in France
Icon of Paris, the Eiffel tower at sunrise
Icon of Paris, the Eiffel tower at sunrise
Palais des papes (Palace of the Popes) , Avignon
  • Description of the flag: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side) , white, and red became the flag during the French Revolution and made popular by Marquis de Lafayette; known as the drapeau tricolore (Tricolour Flag). It is traditional to refer to the three colours in the order: blue, white, red. (bleu, blanc, rouge) ; blue and red are the colours of Paris, while white was the colour of the Bourbon monarchy. The white inserted between the blue and the red expresses the idea that the king was under control of the people.
  • Although commonly associated with the French Revolution and suggested by Robespierre in December, 1790, France's motto, "Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité" was not adopted until the French Revolution of 1848.[39]
  • The national holiday of France since 1880 is the Fête Nationale (National Holiday) , colloquially known as le 14 juillet, officially celebrating the Fête de la Fédération (14 July 1790) and not the storming of the Bastille (14 July 1789) as is often believed, even by a majority of French people, and is the reason why the holiday is referred to as Bastille Day in English. On the occasion of the Fête de la Fédération, celebrated exactly one year after the storming of the Bastille, all the representatives of the provinces of France gathered on the Champ de Mars in Paris in presence of the king Louis XVI and proclaimed the national unity of France. They vowed to remain faithful to "the Nation, the Law, the King".
This day is considered by French Republicans as the real birth of France: France is no more a country made up of provinces conquered by kings, but a country of provinces and men who freely agree to form a common Nation. This concept of a Nation agreed upon is opposed to the German concept of a Nation based on ethnicity and race, and it was responsible for much of the conflicts between France and Germany in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. Alsace was a German land that had been annexed by the conquest of the French kings, while France considered that although Alsace had indeed been a conquered province in the first place, it had legitimately and freely become a part of France by the oath of 14 July 1790. It is thus no surprise that the 14th of July was proclaimed the National Holiday of France in 1880, 9 years after Germany had reunited with Alsace-Lorraine.
Despite being associated with the Fête de la Fédération, 14 July irked many French monarchists, to whom it recalled the bloody memory of the storming of the Bastille. French monarchists formerly wore a black armband each 14 July in defiance of the national holiday.
  • The French city of Avignon replaced Rome as home to the Papacy between 1309-1377. The town remained under papal control until 1791, when it was incorporated into France.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyright Wife of Semnoz - June 2005 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyright Wife of Semnoz - June 2005 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Mont-Saint-Michel: sheep graze on the reclaimed pr -sal or salt meadow (2004) Mont Saint Michel is a small rocky islet, roughly one kilometer from the north coast of France at the mouth of the Couesnon River, near Avranches in Normandy, close to the border of Brittany. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... A typical sunrise, in New Zealand A sunrise through clouds over Oakland, California. ... Avignon, France, the Palais des Papes (Papal Palace). ... Avignon, France, the Palais des Papes (Papal Palace). ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Maximilien François Marie Odenthalius Isidore de Robespierre [1] (IPA: ; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. ... Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for Liberty, equality, fraternity (brotherhood), [1] is the motto of the French Republic, and is a typical example of a tripartite motto. ... Up to 1848 in France As 1848 began, liberals awaited the death of King Louis Philippe, expecting revolution after his death. ... Bastille Day is the French national holiday, celebrated on 14 July each year. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the building. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the Battlestar Galactica episode, see Bastille Day (Battlestar Galactica). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... View of Champ de Mars from the top of the Eiffel Tower The Champ_de_Mars is a vast public area in Paris, France, located in the 7th arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the cole Militaire to the southeast. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... For the Battlestar Galactica episode, see Bastille Day (Battlestar Galactica). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... This article is about the museum. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... Vincent Van Gogh: Starry Night Over the Rhone, painted in September 1888 at Arles Pierre-Auguste Renoir: Bal au moulin de la Galette, Montmartre, 1876 Édouard Manet: The Luncheon on the Grass, 1862-3 Gustave Courbet: The Artists Studio (detail), 1855 Paul Cézanne: Apples and Oranges, circa 1899... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the IVe arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles and the Marais. ... Mont-Saint-Michel: Sheep graze on the reclaimed pré-salé or salt meadow (2004). ... The front façade of the Château de Chambord, viewed from the south. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... View over castle and onto the Alsatian plain. ... Puy-de-Dôme, a cumulo-dome (tholoid) volcano, is one of the youngest volcanoes in the Chaîne des Puys region of Massif Central in south-central France. ... Hôtel Salé This article refers to the museum in Paris. ... For other uses, see Carcassonne (disambiguation). ... The facade of the Palais des Papes The Palais des Papes in Avignon, France is one of the largest and most important medieval Gothic buildings in Europe. ... Disneyland Resort Crymych is a holiday and recreation resort in Marne-la-Vallée, a new town in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. ... A château ( French for castle; plural châteaux) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of gentry, usually French, with or without fortifications. ... For the wine region, see Loire Valley (wine). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ...

International rankings

Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Whole territory of the French Republic, including all the overseas departments and territories, but excluding the French territory of Terre Adélie in Antarctica where sovereignty is suspended since the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959.
  2. ^ French National Geographic Institute data.
  3. ^ French Land Register data, which exclude lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers.
  4. ^ a b c Metropolitan France only.
  5. ^ INSEE, Government of France. Bilan démographique 2006 : un excédent naturel record. Retrieved on 2007-04-01. (French)
  6. ^ INSEE, Government of France. Tableau 2 - Répartition de la population totale par groupe d'âges, France métropolitaine. Retrieved on 2007-04-01. (French)
  7. ^ Whole of the French Republic except the overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean.
  8. ^ French overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean only.
  9. ^ In addition to .fr, several other Internet TLDs are used in French overseas départements and territories: .re, .mq, .gp, .tf, .nc, .pf, .wf, .pm, .gf and .yt. France also uses .eu, shared with other members of the European Union.
  10. ^ The overseas regions and collectivities form part of the French telephone numbering plan, but have their own country calling codes: Guadeloupe +590; Martinique +596; French Guiana +594, Réunion and Mayotte +262; Saint Pierre et Miquelon +508. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: New Caledonia +687, French Polynesia +689; Wallis and Futuna +681
  11. ^ For more information, see Category:French overseas departments, territories and collectivities.
  12. ^ Rank by nominal GDP: 6 (2006) ; Rank by GDP per capita: 17 (2005) ; Rank by GDP at purchasing power parity per capita: 21 (2005).
  13. ^ a b Government of France, Directorate of Tourism. 79 millions d’arrivées de touristes internationaux en 2006. Retrieved on 2007-07-31. (French)
  14. ^ Elizabeth M. Hallam & Judith Everard - Capetian France 937-1328, chapter 1 "The origins of Western Francia" page 7: "What did the name Francia mean in the tenth and eleventh centuries? It still retained a wide general use; both Byzantine and western writers at the time of the crusades described the western forces as Franks. But it was also taking on more specific meanings. From 911 onwards the west Frankish king was known as the Rex Francorum -king of the Franks- and the name Francia could be used to describe his kingdom, as it was also used by the east Frankish, or German, kingdom... The Robertines, forerunners of the Capetians, were duces francorum, dukes of the Franks, and their 'duchy' covered in theory most of northern France. Then as royal power contracted further, leaving the early Capetian only a small bloc of lands around Paris and Orleans, the term Francia was used for this region."
  15. ^ Sovereignty claims in Antarctica are governed by the Antarctic Treaty System
  16. ^ a b CIA (2006). The World Factbook: Field Listing - Elevation extremes. Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
  17. ^ According to a different calculation cited by the Pew Research Center, the EEZ of France would be 10,084,201 square kilometres (3,893,532 sq mi) , still behind the United States (12,174,629 km² / 4,700,651 sq mi) , and still ahead of Australia (8,980,568 km² / 3,467,416 sq mi) and Russia (7,566,673 km² / 2,921,508 sq mi).
  18. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2005). Discovering France: Geography. Retrieved on 2006-12-29.
  19. ^ French Senate |publisher= |year=2006 |url=http://www.senat.fr/role/index.html |title=Rôle et fonctionnement du Sénat |accessdate=2006-04-20
  20. ^ Comparison of recognised and alleged nuclear powers.
  21. ^ L'automobile magazine, hors-série 2003/2004 page 294
  22. ^ http://www.ademe.fr/particuliers/Fiches/voiture/rub3.htm
  23. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). Labour productivity 2003 (Microsoft Excel). Retrieved on 2006-04-20.
  24. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). Differentials in GDP per capita and their decomposition, 2004 (Microsoft Excel). Retrieved on 2006-04-20.
  25. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). OECD Employment Outlook 2005 - Statistical Annex (PDF format). Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
  26. ^ DGEMP / Observatoire de l'énergie (April 2007). Électricité en France : les principaux résultats en 2006.. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  27. ^ Inflow of third-country nationals by country of nationality
  28. ^ Immigration and the 2007 French Presidential Elections
  29. ^ INSEE (2005-01-25). Enquêtes annuelles de recensement 2004 et 2005. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. (French)
  30. ^ UNHCR (2006). UNHCR Global Report 2005: Western Europe (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
  31. ^ Jeanjean, Henri. "Language Diversity in Europe: Can the EU Prevent the Genocide of Frnech Linguistic Minorities?
  32. ^ Franţa nu mai e o ţară catolică, Cotidianul, 2007-01-11 Catholic World News (2003). France is no longer Catholic, survey shows. Retrieved on 2007-01-11.
  33. ^ (Romanian)
  34. ^ La Vie, issue 3209, 2007-03-01 (French)
  35. ^ Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  36. ^ http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=1131.
  37. ^ the ranking, see spreadsheet details for a whole analysis
  38. ^ Claude Lébedel - Les Splendeurs du Baroque en France: Histoire et splendeurs du baroque en France page 9: "Si en allant plus loin, on prononce les mots "art baroque en France", on provoque alors le plus souvent une moue interrogative, parfois seulement étonnée, parfois franchement réprobatrice: Mais voyons, l'art baroque n'existe pas en France!"
  39. ^ French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The symbols of the Republic and Bastille Day. Retrieved on 2006-04-20.

A territory is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution. ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ... The Institut Géographique National (English: National geographic institute) or IGN is a French public state administrative establishment, whose task is to produce and maintain geographical information for France and its overseas departments and territories. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... .fr is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for France. ... .re is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Réunion. ... .mq is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Martinique. ... . ... .tf is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the French Antarctic (French Southern Territories) territories. ... .nc is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for New Caledonia. ... .pf is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for French Polynesia. ... .wf is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Wallis and Futuna Islands. ... . ... .gf is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for French Guiana. ... .yt is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mayotte. ... The French telephone numbering plan is not only used for metropolitan France, but also for the French overseas departments and collectivités territoriales. ... Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (French Saint-Pierre et Miquelon) is a French overseas collectivity consisting of several small islands off the eastern coast of Canada near Newfoundland. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only continent without a native population. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The honour entrance to the Ministry building on the Quai dOrsay The Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the Government of France, is the cabinet member responsible for the Republics network of relationships with foreign nations. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) is a spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. It features calculation and graphing tools which, along with aggressive marketing, have made Excel one of the most popular microcomputer applications to date. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) is a spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. It features calculation and graphing tools which, along with aggressive marketing, have made Excel one of the most popular microcomputer applications to date. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cotidianul is a Romanian newspaper, published Monday to Saturday in Berliner format. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In 1589, the four French Secretaries of State became specialized, with one of the secretaries responsible for foreign affairs. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on France by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

French government Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

  • Official site of the French Embassy in the United Kingdom
  • Official site of the French public service - Contains many links to various administrations and institutions

Country profiles

Culture The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... France Télécom (Euronext: FTE, NYSE: FTE) (often spelled France Telecom, without the accents, in non-French text) is the main telecommunication company in France. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

  • Cocorico! French culture
  • Contemporary French Civilization, journal, University of Illinois.
 Geographic locale
International organizations
Other associations


Coordinates: 47° N 2° E Image File history File links from en:Latin Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Latin Europe ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



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