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Encyclopedia > Ecology
Ecology Portal
Eugenius Warming founded ecology as a scientific discipline
Eugenius Warming founded ecology as a scientific discipline

Ecology (from Greek: οίκος, oikos, "household"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of life and the interactions between organisms and their environment. The environment of an organism includes physical properties, which can be described as the sum of local abiotic factors such as insolation (sunlight), climate, and geology, and biotic factors, which are other organisms that share its habitat. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Ecology is a scientific journal (not to be confused with the Journal of Ecology) concerning ecology. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 425 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1693 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Eugenius Warming (1841-1924) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 425 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1693 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Eugenius Warming (1841-1924) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Eugen Warming Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (November 3, 1841 - April 2, 1924) was a Danish botanist and founder of the scientific discipline of ecology. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Interaction (disambiguation). ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with insulation. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ...


The word "ecology" is often used more loosely in such terms as social ecology and deep ecology and in common parlance as a synonym for the natural environment or environmentalism. Likewise "ecologic" or "ecological" is often taken in the sense of environmentally friendly. Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Environmentally friendly, also referred to as nature friendly, is a term used to refer to goods and services considered to inflict minimal harm on the environment. ...


The term ecology or oekologie was coined by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel in 1866, when he defined it as "the comprehensive science of the relationship of the organism to the environment."[1] Haeckel did not elaborate on the concept, and the first significant textbook on the subject (together with the first university course) was written by the Danish botanist, Eugenius Warming. For this early work, Warming is often identified as the founder of ecology.[2] Ernst Haeckel. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Eugen Warming Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (November 3, 1841 - April 2, 1924) was a Danish botanist and founder of the scientific discipline of ecology. ...

Contents

Scope

Ecology is usually considered a branch of biology, the general science that studies living organisms. Organisms can be studied at many different levels, from proteins and nucleic acids (in biochemistry and molecular biology), to cells (in cellular biology), to individuals (in botany, zoology, and other similar disciplines), and finally at the level of populations, communities, and ecosystems, to the biosphere as a whole; these latter strata are the primary subjects of ecological inquiry. Ecology is a multi-disciplinary science. Because of its focus on the higher levels of the organization of life on earth and on the interrelations between organisms and their environment, ecology draws heavily on many other branches of science, especially geology and geography, meteorology, pedology, genetics, chemistry, and physics. Thus, ecology is considered by some to be a holistic science, one that over-arches older disciplines such as biology which in this view become sub-disciplines contributing to ecological knowledge. In support of viewing ecology as a subject in its own right as opposed to a sub-discipline of biology, Robert Ulanowicz stated that "The emerging picture of ecosystem behavior does not resemble the worldview imparted by an extrapolation of conceptual trends established in other sciences."[3] For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Cell biology (cellular biology) is an academic discipline which studies the physiological properties of cells, as well as their behaviours, interactions, and environment; this is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Pedology (pědǒlōgy), (from Russian: pedologiya, from the Greek pedon = soil, earth), is the study of soils and soil formation. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Holistic Science is the science of wholes; a whole is a cyclical process or nonlinear, within a self-organized boundary or form that is nested within other interacting wholes; the ongoing relationships of which may be described quantitatively or descriptively by scientists as active participants. ... Robert E. Ulanowicz (b. ...


Agriculture, fisheries, forestry, medicine and urban development are among human activities that would fall within Krebs' (1972: 4) explanation of his definition of ecology: where organisms are found, how many occur there, and why.


Ecological knowledge such as the quantification of biodiversity and population dynamics have provided a scientific basis for expressing the aims of environmentalism and evaluating its goals and policies. Additionally, a holistic view of nature is stressed in both ecology and environmentalism. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ...


Consider the ways an ecologist might approach studying the life of honeybees:

  • The behavioral relationship between individuals of a species is behavioral ecology — for example, the study of the queen bee, and how she relates to the worker bees and the drones.
  • The organized activity of a species is community ecology; for example, the activity of bees assures the pollination of flowering plants. Bee hives additionally produce honey which is consumed by still other species, such as bears.
  • The relationship between the environment and a species is environmental ecology — for example, the consequences of environmental change on bee activity. Bees may die out due to environmental changes (see pollinator decline). The environment simultaneously affects and is a consequence of this activity and is thus intertwined with the survival of the species.

For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Queen bee with attendants on a honeycomb. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Drone Drones are male honey bees. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Pollinator decline is based on observations made at the end of the twentieth century of the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide. ...

Disciplines of ecology

Main article: Ecology (disciplines)

Ecology is a broad discipline comprising many sub-disciplines. A common, broad classification, moving from lowest to highest complexity, where complexity is defined as the number of entities and processes in the system under study, is: Ecology is a broad biological science and can thus be divided into many sub-disciplines using various criteria. ...

  • Ecophysiology examines how the physiological functions of organisms influence the way they interact with the environment, both biotic and abiotic
  • Behavioral ecology examines the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment
  • Population ecology studies the dynamics of populations of a single species.
  • Community ecology (or synecology) focuses on the interactions between species within an ecological community.
  • Ecosystem ecology studies the flows of energy and matter through the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems.
  • Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field focusing on the study, development, and organization of ecological systems from a holistic perspective.
  • Landscape ecology examines processes and relationship across multiple ecosystems or very large geographic areas.
  • Evolutionary ecology studies ecology in a way that explicitly considers the evolutionary histories of species and their interactions
  • Political ecology connects politics and economy to problems of environmental control and ecological change

Ecology can also be sub-divided according to the species of interest into fields such as animal ecology, plant ecology, insect ecology, and so on. Another frequent method of subdivision is by biome studied, e.g., Arctic ecology (or polar ecology), tropical ecology, desert ecology, etc. The primary technique used for investigation is often used to subdivide the discipline into groups such as chemical ecology, genetic ecology, field ecology, statistical ecology, theoretical ecology, and so forth. These fields are not mutually exclusive. Ecophysiology or environmental physiology is a biological discipline which studies the adaptation of organisms physiology to environmental conditions. ... Behavioral ecology is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment (both intrinsic and extrinsic). ... Population ecology is a major subfield of ecology—one that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. ... Community ecology is the study of the distribution, abundance, demography, and interactions between coexisting populations (not precisely synonymous with population ecology). ... Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ... Landscape ecology is a sub-discipline of ecology and geography that address how spatial variation in the landscape affects ecological processes such as the distribution and flow of energy, materials and individuals in the environment (which, in turn, may influence the distribution of landscape elements themselves such as hedgerows). ... Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection ecology and evolutionary biology. ... Political ecology is an umbrella term for a variety of projects that involve politics and the environment. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... // Arctic ecology is the scientific study of the relationships between biotic and abiotic factors in the arctic, the region north of the Arctic Circle (66 33’). This is a region characterized by stressful conditions as a result of extreme cold, low precipitation, a limited growing season (50-90 days) and... Polar ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms living in the polar regions of the Earth, both in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Hi in ecology, desert ecology is the sum of the interactions between both biotic and abiotic factors of the desert biomes. ... Chemical ecology is the study of the chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms. ... Theoretical ecology refers to several intellectual traditions. ...


History of ecology

Main article: History of ecology

ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ...

Fundamental principles of ecology

Levels of ecological organization

Ecology can be studied at a wide range of levels, from a large to small scale. These levels of ecological organization, as well as an example of a question ecologists would ask at each level, include:

  • Biosphere " What role does concentration of atmospheric Carbon Dioxide play in the regulation of global temperature?"
  • Region "How has geological history influenced regional diversity within certain groups of organisms?"
  • Landscape "How do vegetated corridors affect the rate of movement by mammals among isolated fragments?"
  • Ecosystem "How does fire affect nutrient availability in grassland ecosystems?"
  • Community "How does disturbance influence the number of mammal species in African grasslands?"
  • Interactions "What evolutionary benefit do zebras gain by allowing birds to remove parasites?"
  • Population "What factors control zebra populations?"
  • Individual "How do zebras regulate internal water balance?"
    • These levels range from broadest to most specific[4]

For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... Generally, an interaction is a kind of action which occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ...

Biosphere

For modern ecologists, ecology can be studied at several levels: population level (individuals of the same species in the same or similar environment), biocoenosis level (or community of species), ecosystem level, and biosphere level. For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography (here Unified Theory or UNTB) is a theory and the title of a monograph[1] by ecologist Stephen Hubbell. ... A biocoenosis (alternatively, biocoenose or biocenose), termed by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes all the interacting organisms living together in a specific habitat (or biotope). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...


The outer layer of the planet Earth can be divided into several compartments: the hydrosphere (or sphere of water), the lithosphere (or sphere of soils and rocks), and the atmosphere (or sphere of the air). The biosphere (or sphere of life), sometimes described as "the fourth envelope", is all living matter on the planet or that portion of the planet occupied by life. It reaches well into the other three spheres, although there are no permanent inhabitants of the atmosphere. Relative to the volume of the Earth, the biosphere is only the very thin surface layer which extends from 11,000 meters below sea level to 15,000 meters above. The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ... Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...


It is thought that life first developed in the hydrosphere, at shallow depths, in the photic zone. (Recently, though, a competing theory has emerged, that life originated around hydrothermal vents in the deeper ocean. See Origin of life.) Multicellular organisms then appeared and colonized benthic zones. Photosynthetic organisms gradually produced the chemically unstable oxygen-rich atmosphere that characterizes our planet. Terrestrial life developed later, after the ozone layer protecting living beings from UV rays formed. Diversification of terrestrial species is thought to be increased by the continents drifting apart, or alternately, colliding. Biodiversity is expressed at the ecological level (ecosystem), population level (intraspecific diversity), species level (specific diversity), and genetic level. Recently technology has allowed the discovery of the deep ocean vent communities. This remarkable ecological system is not dependent on sunlight but bacteria, utilising the chemistry of the hot volcanic vents, are at the base of its food chain. The photic zone is the depth of the water, whether in a lake or an ocean, that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. ... Hydrothermal vents are fissures in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... For the definition, see Life. ... Seagrass growing off the coast of the Florida Keys. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ...


The biosphere contains great quantities of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen. Other elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, and potassium, are also essential to life, yet are present in smaller amounts. At the ecosystem and biosphere levels, there is a continual recycling of all these elements, which alternate between the mineral and organic states. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about life in general. ...


While there is a slight input of geothermal energy, the bulk of the functioning of the ecosystem is based on the input of solar energy. Plants and photosynthetic microorganisms convert light into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis, which creates glucose (a simple sugar) and releases free oxygen. Glucose thus becomes the secondary energy source which drives the ecosystem. Some of this glucose is used directly by other organisms for energy. Other sugar molecules can be converted to other molecules such as amino acids. Plants use some of this sugar, concentrated in nectar to entice pollinators to aid them in reproduction. The Solar Two 10 MW solar power facility, showing the power tower (left) surrounded by the sun-tracking mirrors. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ...


Cellular respiration is the process by which organisms (like mammals) break the glucose back down into its constituents, water and carbon dioxide, thus regaining the stored energy the sun originally gave to the plants. The proportion of photosynthetic activity of plants and other photosynthesizers to the respiration of other organisms determines the specific composition of the Earth's atmosphere, particularly its oxygen level. Global air currents mix the atmosphere and maintain nearly the same balance of elements in areas of intense biological activity and areas of slight biological activity. Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... 1966 Airstream Overlander International Airstream is a brand of recreational vehicle manufactured in Jackson Center, Ohio. ...


Water is also exchanged between the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere in regular cycles. The oceans are large tanks, which store water, ensure thermal and climatic stability, as well as the transport of chemical elements thanks to large oceanic currents. The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... An ocean current is any more or less permanent or continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ...


For a better understanding of how the biosphere works, and various dysfunctions related to human activity, American scientists simulated the biosphere in a small-scale model, called Biosphere II. Biosphere 2 is a manmade closed ecological system in Oracle, Arizona built by Edward P. Bass, Space Biosphere Ventures and others. ...


The ecosystem concept

Main article: Ecosystem

The first principle of ecology is that each living organism has an ongoing and continual relationship with every other element that makes up its environment. An ecosystem can be defined as any situation where there is interaction between organisms and their environment. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


The ecosystem is of two entities, the entirety of life, the biocoenosis, and the medium that life exists in, the biotope. Within the ecosystem, species are connected by food chains or food webs. Energy from the sun, captured by primary producers via photosynthesis, flows upward through the chain to primary consumers (herbivores), and then to secondary and tertiary consumers (carnivores and omnivores), before ultimately being lost to the system as waste heat. In the process, matter is incorporated into living organisms, which return their nutrients to the system via decomposition, forming biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon and nitrogen cycles. A biocoenosis (alternatively, biocoenose or biocenose), termed by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes all the interacting organisms living together in a specific habitat (or biotope). ... Biotope is an English loanword derived from the German Biotop, which in turn came from the Greek bios=life or organism and topos=place. (The related word geotope has made its way into the English language by the same route, from the German Geotop.) So a biotope is literally an... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Figure 1. ... Primary producers are those organisms in an ecosystem that produce biomass from inorganic compounds (autotrophs). ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Omnivores are organisms that consume both plants and animals. ... Waste heat is the by-product heat of machines and technical processes for which no useful application is found. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit or pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (bio-) and abiotic (geo-) compartments of an ecosystem. ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ...


The concept of an ecosystem can apply to units of variable size, such as a pond, a field, or a piece of dead wood. An ecosystem within another ecosystem is called a micro ecosystem. For example, an ecosystem can be a stone and all the life under it. A meso ecosystem could be a forest, and a macro ecosystem a whole eco region, with its drainage basin. Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ...


The main questions when studying an ecosystem are:

  • Whether the colonization of a barren area could be carried out
  • Investigation the ecosystem's dynamics and changes
  • The methods of which an ecosystem interacts at local, regional and global scale
  • Whether the current state is stable
  • Investigating the value of an ecosystem and the ways and means that interaction of ecological systems provides benefits to humans, especially in the provision of healthy water.

Ecosystems are often classified by reference to the biotopes concerned. The following ecosystems may be defined:

Another classification can be done by reference to its communities, such as in the case of an human ecosystem. Forest ecology is the scientific study of patterns and processes in forests. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... This article is about grassland. ... Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Human ecosystems are complex cybernetic systems that are increasingly being used by ecological anthropologists and other scholars to examine the human-ecological aspects of phenomena such as economics, socio-political organizations, ritual et cetera. ...


Dynamics and stability

Main articles: biogeochemistry, Homeostasis, and Population dynamics

Ecological factors which affect dynamic change in a population or species in a given ecology or environment are usually divided into two groups: abiotic and biotic. The field of biogeochemistry involves scientific study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere), and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Abiotic factors are geological, geographical, hydrological and climatological parameters. A biotope is an environmentally uniform region characterized by a particular set of abiotic ecological factors. Specific abiotic factors include: Ecohydrology is a sub-discipline of hydrology that focuses on ecological processes involved in the hydrological cycle. ...

  • Water, which is at the same time an essential element to life and a milieu
  • Air, which provides oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide to living species and allows the dissemination of pollen and spores
  • Soil, at the same time source of nutriment and physical support
    • Soil pH, salinity, nitrogen and phosphorus content, ability to retain water, and density are all influential
  • Temperature, which should not exceed certain extremes, even if tolerance to heat is significant for some species
  • Light, which provides energy to the ecosystem through photosynthesis
  • Natural disasters can also be considered abiotic

Biocenose, or community, is a group of populations of plants, animals, micro-organisms. Each population is the result of procreations between individuals of same species and cohabitation in a given place and for a given time. When a population consists of an insufficient number of individuals, that population is threatened with extinction; the extinction of a species can approach when all biocenoses composed of individuals of the species are in decline. In small populations, consanguinity (inbreeding) can result in reduced genetic diversity that can further weaken the biocenose. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Air redirects here. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Soil Salinity is a major environmental issue in Australia, chiefly affecting agricultural lands in many areas of W.A. (Western Australia) Much of central Australia was at one time a shallow inland sea. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is according to or provided by nature. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ...


Biotic ecological factors also influence biocenose viability; these factors are considered as either intraspecific and interspecific relations.

Intraspecific relations are those which are established between individuals of the same species, forming a population. They are relations of co-operation or competition, with division of the territory, and sometimes organization in hierarchical societies.
An antlion lies in wait under its pit trap, built in dry dust under a building, awaiting unwary insects that fall in. Many pest insects are partly or wholly controlled by other insect predators.
An antlion lies in wait under its pit trap, built in dry dust under a building, awaiting unwary insects that fall in. Many pest insects are partly or wholly controlled by other insect predators.
Interspecific relationsinteractions between different species—are numerous, and usually described according to their beneficial, detrimental or neutral effect (for example, mutualism (relation ++) or competition (relation --). The most significant relation is the relation of predation (to eat or to be eaten), which leads to the essential concepts in ecology of food chains (for example, the grass is consumed by the herbivore, itself consumed by a carnivore, itself consumed by a carnivore of larger size). A high predator to prey ratio can have a negative influence on both the predator and prey biocenoses in that low availability of food and high death rate prior to sexual maturity can decrease (or prevent the increase of) populations of each, respectively. Selective hunting of species by humans which leads to population decline is one example of a high predator to prey ratio in action. Other interspecific relations include parasitism, infectious disease and competition for limiting resources, which can occur when two species share the same ecological niche.

The existing interactions between the various living beings go along with a permanent mixing of mineral and organic substances, absorbed by organisms for their growth, their maintenance and their reproduction, to be finally rejected as waste. These permanent recyclings of the elements (in particular carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) as well as the water are called biogeochemical cycles. They guarantee a durable stability of the biosphere (at least when unchecked human influence and extreme weather or geological phenomena are left aside). This self-regulation, supported by negative feedback controls, ensures the perenniality of the ecosystems. It is shown by the very stable concentrations of most elements of each compartment. This is referred to as homeostasis. The ecosystem also tends to evolve to a state of ideal balance, reached after a succession of events, the climax (for example a pond can become a peat bog). Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 291 KB) Ant lion trap in dry dust under building File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 291 KB) Ant lion trap in dry dust under building File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Antlions are a family of insects in the order Neuroptera, classified as Myrmeleontidae (sometimes spelled as Myrmeleonidae), from the Greek myrmex, meaning ant, and leo(n), meaning lion; the most known genus is Myrmeleo. ... Predatory Polistes wasp looking for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests (including weeds and diseases) in agriculture that relies on natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanism, rather than introduced chemicals. ... Biological interactions result from the fact that organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other, in the natural world, no organism is an autonomous entity isolated from its surroundings. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit where a nutrient moves back and forth between both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. ... Trends in natural disasters, Pascal Peduzzi (2004) Is climate change increasing the frequency of hazardous events? Environment Times UNEP/GRID-Arendal Extreme weather includes weather phenomena that are at the extremes of the historical distribution, especially severe or unseasonal weather. ... For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... Secondary succession: trees are colonizing uncultivated fields and meadows. ... The term climax community is an outdated ecological term for a community of plants and animals which is the result of succession, where a biological system, a community, or a soil has reached a steady state. ... Virgin boreal acid bogs at Browns Lake Bog, Ohio A bog is a wetland type that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material. ...


Spatial relationships and subdivisions of land

Main articles: Biome and ecozone

Ecosystems are not isolated from each other, but are interrelated. For example, water may circulate between ecosystems by the means of a river or ocean current. Water itself, as a liquid medium, even defines ecosystems. Some species, such as salmon or freshwater eels move between marine systems and fresh-water systems. These relationships between the ecosystems lead to the concept of a biome. A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Ocean currents (1911) Ocean currents (1943) An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ...


A biome is a homogeneous ecological formation that exists over a large region as tundra or steppes. The biosphere comprises all of the Earth's biomes -- the entirety of places where life is possible -- from the highest mountains to the depths of the oceans. A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...


Biomes correspond rather well to subdivisions distributed along the latitudes, from the equator towards the poles, with differences based on to the physical environment (for example, oceans or mountain ranges) and to the climate. Their variation is generally related to the distribution of species according to their ability to tolerate temperature and/or dryness. For example, one may find photosynthetic algae only in the photic part of the ocean (where light penetrates), while conifers are mostly found in mountains. World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ...


Though this is a simplification of more complicated scheme, latitude and altitude approximate a good representation of the distribution of biodiversity within the biosphere. Very generally, the richness of biodiversity (as well for animal than plant species) is decreasing most rapidly near the equator and less rapidly as one approaches the poles. This article is about the geographical term. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ...


The biosphere may also be divided into ecozones, which are very well defined today and primarily follow the continental borders. The ecozones are themselves divided into ecoregions, though there is not agreement on their limits. An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


Ecosystem productivity

In an ecosystem, the connections between species are generally related to food and their role in the food chain. There are three categories of organisms: Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ...

  • Producers -- usually plants which are capable of photosynthesis but could be other organisms such as bacteria around ocean vents that are capable of chemosynthesis.
  • Consumers -- animals, which can be primary consumers (herbivorous), or secondary or tertiary consumers (carnivorous and omnivores).
  • Decomposers -- bacteria, mushrooms which degrade organic matter of all categories, and restore minerals to the environment. And decomposers can also decompose decaying animals

These relations form sequences, in which each individual consumes the preceding one and is consumed by the one following, in what are called food chains or food network. In a food network, there will be fewer organisms at each level as one follows the links of the network up the chain. Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of 1 or more carbon molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic molecules (e. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Omnivores are organisms that consume both plants and animals. ... A Saprotroph (or saprobe) is an organism that obtains its nutrients from non-living organic matter, usually dead and decaying plant or animal matter, by absorbing soluble organic compounds. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ...


These concepts lead to the idea of biomass (the total living matter in a given place), of primary productivity (the increase in the mass of plants during a given time) and of secondary productivity (the living matter produced by consumers and the decomposers in a given time). For the eco-industrial use of the term, which includes dead material used for biofuels, see biomass An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ... Primary productivity is the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy in a given amount of time. ...


These two last ideas are key, since they make it possible to evaluate the load capacity -- the number of organisms which can be supported by a given ecosystem. In any food network, the energy contained in the level of the producers is not completely transferred to the consumers. And the higher one goes up the chain, the more energy and resources is lost and consumed. Thus, from an energy—and environmental—point of view, it is more efficient for humans to be primary consumers (to subsist from vegetables, grains, legumes, fruit, etc.) than as secondary consumers (from eating herbivores, omnivores, or their products, such as milk, chickens, cattle, sheep, etc.) and still more so than as a tertiary consumer (from consuming carnivores, omnivores, or their products, such as fur, pigs, snakes, alligators, etc.). An ecosystem(s) is unstable when the load capacity is overrun and is especially unstable when a population doesn't have an ecological niche and overconsumers.


The productivity of ecosystems is sometimes estimated by comparing three types of land-based ecosystems and the total of aquatic ecosystems:

  • The forests (1/3 of the Earth's land area) contain dense biomasses and are very productive. The total production of the world's forests corresponds to half of the primary production.
  • Savannas, meadows, and marshes (1/3 of the Earth's land area) contain less dense biomasses, but are productive. These ecosystems represent the major part of what humans depend on for food.
  • Extreme ecosystems in the areas with more extreme climates -- deserts and semi-deserts, tundra, alpine meadows, and steppes -- (1/3 of the Earth's land area) have very sparse biomasses and low productivity
  • Finally, the marine and fresh water ecosystems (3/4 of Earth's surface) contain very sparse biomasses (apart from the coastal zones).

Humanity's actions over the last few centuries have seriously reduced the amount of the Earth covered by forests (deforestation), and have increased agro-ecosystems (agriculture). In recent decades, an increase in the areas occupied by extreme ecosystems has occurred (desertification). This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ...


Ecological crisis

Generally, an ecological crisis occurs with the loss of adaptive capacity when the resilience of an environment or of a species or a population evolves in a way unfavourable to coping with perturbations that interfere with that ecosystem, landscape or species survival. It may be that the environment quality degrades compared to the species needs, after a change in an abiotic ecological factor (for example, an increase of temperature, less significant rainfalls). It may be that the environment becomes unfavourable for the survival of a species (or a population) due to an increased pressure of predation (for example overfishing). Lastly, it may be that the situation becomes unfavourable to the quality of life of the species (or the population) due to a rise in the number of individuals (overpopulation). An ecological crisis occurs when the environment of a species or a population changes in a way that destablizes its continued survival. ... Adaptive Capacity applies to both ecological systems and human social systems. ... For other uses, see Resilience. ... A perturbation of a biological system is an alteration of function, induced by external or internal mechanisms. ... Ecological factors which can affect dynamic change in a population or species in a given ecology or environment are usually divided into two groups: abiotic and biotic. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


Ecological crises vary in length and severity, occurring within a few months or taking as long as a few million years. They can also be of natural or anthropic origin. They may relate to one unique species or to many species, as in an Extinction event. Lastly, an ecological crisis may be local (as an oil spill) or global (a rise in the sea level due to global warming). An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ... A beach after an oil spill An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


According to its degree of endemism, a local crisis will have more or less significant consequences, from the death of many individuals to the total extinction of a species. Whatever its origin, disappearance of one or several species often will involve a rupture in the food chain, further impacting the survival of other species. Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ...


In the case of a global crisis, the consequences can be much more significant; some extinction events showed the disappearance of more than 90% of existing species at that time. However, it should be noted that the disappearance of certain species, such as the dinosaurs, by freeing an ecological niche, allowed the development and the diversification of the mammals. An ecological crisis thus paradoxically favored biodiversity.


Sometimes, an ecological crisis can be a specific and reversible phenomenon at the ecosystem scale. But more generally, the crises impact will last. Indeed, it rather is a connected series of events, that occur till a final point. From this stage, no return to the previous stable state is possible, and a new stable state will be set up gradually (see homeorhesy).


Lastly, if an ecological crisis can cause extinction, it can also more simply reduce the quality of life of the remaining individuals. Thus, even if the diversity of the human population is sometimes considered threatened (see in particular indigenous people), few people envision human disappearance at short span. However, epidemic diseases, famines, impact on health of reduction of air quality, food crises, reduction of living space, accumulation of toxic or non degradable wastes, threats on keystone species (great apes, panda, whales) are also factors influencing the well-being of people. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized index of the air quality in a given location, given in parts per billion. ... Many food crises have occurred in the world today. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ...


Due to the increases in technology and a rapidly increasing population, humans have more influence on their own environment than any other ecosystem engineer. An ecosystem engineer is any organism that modifies its own ecosystem. ...


Some common examples of ecological crises are:

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on 24 March 1989. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... Artists reconstruction of a major impact event. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Trends in natural disasters, Pascal Peduzzi (2004) Is climate change increasing the frequency of hazardous events? Environment Times UNEP/GRID-Arendal Extreme weather includes weather phenomena that are at the extremes of the historical distribution, especially severe or unseasonal weather. ... As global warming causes climate change, the issue of effects of global warming on agriculture due to the change in weather conditions is often invoked in arguments on the course of action involving prediction of climate events. ... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... The 1980 eruption of Mount St. ... Trees knocked over by the Tunguska blast. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consisted of two pressurized water reactors manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox each inside its own containment building and connected cooling towers. ... This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...

Bibliography

  • Warming, E. (1909) Oecology of Plants - an introduction to the study of plant-communities. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Haeckel, E. (1866) General Morphology of Organisms; General Outlines of the Science of Organic Forms based on Mechanical Principles through the Theory of Descent as reformed by Charles Darwin. Berlin.

Eugen Warming Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (November 3, 1841 - April 2, 1924) was a Danish botanist and founder of the scientific discipline of ecology. ...

References

  1. ^ Frodin, D.G. (2001). Guide to Standard Floras of the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 72. ISBN 0-521-79077-8. “[ecology is] a term first introduced by Haeckel in 1866 as Ökologie and which came into English in 1873” 
  2. ^ Goodland, R.J. (1975) The tropical origin of ecology: Eugen Warming’s jubilee. Oikos 26, 240-245.
  3. ^ R. Ulanowicz, Ecology: The Ascendent Perspective, Columbia (1997)
  4. ^ Ecology: Concepts & Applications. Fourth Edition Manuel C. Molles Jr. U of New Mexico. 2008 McGraw Hill Publishing. ISBN 978-0-07-305082-9

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Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

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Biology is the study of living organisms. ... This page aims to list articles related to biology. ... Ecology, or ecological science, is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment. ... This page is not for human environment or economics or ethics topics. ... This is a list of ecologists, in alphabetical order by surname. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Related topics

Acoustic ecology, Sometimes called soundscape ecology, is the relationship, mediated through sound, between living beings and their environment. ... Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. ... The global ecology movement is one of several new social movements that emerged at the end of the sixties; as a values-driven social movement, it should be distinguished from the pre-existing science of ecology. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Ecosystem models, or ecological models, are mathematical representations of ecosystems. ... Ecohydrology is a sub-discipline of hydrology that focuses on ecological processes involved in the hydrological cycle. ... Eldis is a database and email service of information sources on international development. ... The term Environmental art is used in two different senses. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... Environmental Communication refers to the study and practice of how individuals, institutions, societies, and cultures craft, distribute, receive, understand, and use messages about the environment and human interactions with the environment. ... Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. ... // From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Forest farming is neither forestry nor farming in the traditional sense. ... Forest gardening (also known as 3-Dimensional Gardening) is a food production and land management system based on replicating woodland ecosystems, substituting trees (such as fruit or nut trees), bushes, shrubs, herbs and vegetables which have yields directly useful to mankind. ... Human ecology is an academic discipline that deals with the relationship between humans and their natural, social and created environments. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ...

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Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Download high resolution version (454x765, 178 KB)Coconut Palm on Martinique. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Plant cell structure Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key respects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Sporic or diplohaplontic life cycle. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels (only the styles and stigmas are visible) and stamens, making it a complete flower. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, describes, classifies and names plants. ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ... Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ... Studying a plant sample in the Herbarium In botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens. ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Geological time scale. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... For the definition, see Life. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ScienceDaily: Ecology Articles (544 words)
In ecology, the word ecosystem is an abbreviation of the term, ecological system.
In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem.
Ecology, or ecological science, is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms...
Ecology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3423 words)
Ecology, or ecological science, is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how these properties are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
Ecology is usually considered a branch of biology, the general science that studies living organisms.
Ecology can also be sub-divided according to the species of interest into fields such as animal ecology, plant ecology, insect ecology, and so on.
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