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Encyclopedia > Cursus honorum
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Roman Kingdom
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Roman Republic
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Roman Empire
27 BCAD 476 Image File history File links Rmn-military-header. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ...

Principate
Western Empire
The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...

Dominate
Eastern Empire
The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

Ordinary Magistrates

Consul
Praetor
Quaestor
Promagistrate This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ...

Aedile
Tribune
Censor
Governor Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ...

Extraordinary Magistrates

Dictator
Magister Equitum
Consular tribune Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... The Tribuni militum consulari potestate, or Consular Tribunes were tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE to 394 BCE, and again from 391 BCE to 367 BCE. According the the histories of...

Rex
Triumviri
Decemviri Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... The term triumvirate (Latin for rule by three men) or troika in Russian, is commonly used to describe an alliance between three equally powerful political or military leaders. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ...

Titles and Honors
Emperor

Legatus
Dux
Officium
Praefectus
Vicarius
Vigintisexviri
Lictor Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ...

Magister Militum
Imperator
Princeps senatus
Pontifex Maximus
Augustus
Caesar
Tetrarch Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... A tetrarch is a Greek term that strictly identifies one of four governors of a divided province. ...

Politics and Law

Roman Senate
Cursus honorum
Roman assemblies
Collegiality This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ...

Roman law
Roman citizenship
Auctoritas
Imperium Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ...


The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of honours") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office. These rules were altered and flagrantly ignored in the course of the last century of the Republic. For example, Gaius Marius held consulships for five years in a row between 104 BC and 100 BC. Officially presented as opportunities for public service, the offices often became mere opportunities for self-aggrandizement. The reforms of Lucius Sulla required a ten year period between holding offices or before another term in the same office. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other senses of this word, see sequence (disambiguation). ... Public administration is, broadly speaking, the implementation of policy within a state framework. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... This article is about the political process. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For modern diplomatic consuls, see Consulate general. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC - 104 BC - 103 BC 102 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95... The name Opportunity may refer to: Opportunity Asset Management , a Brazilian investment bank based in Rio de Janeiro Opportunity, Washington, a city in the U.S. Opportunity rover (MER-B), one of the two rovers of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Mission. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... Look up reform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... The word term refers to either a word unit or a time unit with specified boundaries or limits. ...


In Rome, there was nothing resembling the modern political party. Candidates were elected based on their familial and personal reputations. Candidates from older, established families were sometimes favoured because they could use their ancestor's feats as electoral propaganda. Although political parties were not officially established, in the mid to late Republic, factions such as the populares and optimates were developed. These factions lacked any real structure, just representing groups of individuals that either favored the Popular assemblies or the senate as the chief governing body. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... “Political Parties” redirects here. ... Look up Candidate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up reputation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... A faction is a special interest group. ... Look up popular, populus, populous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Optimates and Populares. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


To have held each office at the youngest possible age (in suo anno, "in his year") was considered a great political success, since to miss out on a praetorship at 39 meant that one could not become consul at 42. Cicero expressed extreme pride both in being a novus homo ("new man") who became consul though none of his ancestors had ever served as a consul, and in having become consul "in his year". For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... The term novus homo (literally, new man in Latin), referred in ancient Roman times to a person who was the first of his family to serve in the Roman Senate, or, less generally, the first to be elected as consul. ...

Contents

Military Tribune

Main article: Military tribune

The cursus honorum officially began with ten years of military duty in the Roman cavalry (the equites) or in the staff of a general who was a relative or a friend of the family. Nepotism was not condemned; it was an integral part of the system. A more prestigious position was that of a military tribune. 24 men at the age of around 20 were elected by the Tribal Assembly to serve as a legionary commander in one of the four consular legions, with six to each. These ten years were supposed to be mandatory to qualify for political office, but, in practice, the rule was not rigidly applied. Military tribunes were officers of the Roman Legions. ... An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ...


The following steps of the cursus honorum were achieved by direct election every year.


Quaestor

The first official post was that of quaestor. Candidates had to be at least 28-30 years old. However, men of patrician rank could subtract two years from this and other minimum age requirements. Such exemptions, however, either were rarely permitted or removed after the reforms of Sulla, since Julius Caesar had been elected a quaestor after turning 30. It was rare that a Roman was elected quaestor in his first year of eligibility; such an election would usually boost the official's standing in Rome. Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ...


Twenty quaestors served in the financial administration at Rome or as second-in-command to a governor in the provinces. They could also serve as the pay master for a legion. A young man who obtained this job was expected to become a very important official. An additional task of all quaestors was the supervision of public games. Also, after the reforms of Sulla in the early 80s BC, election to quaestor brought automatic membership in the Senate, which previously was decided by the censors. As a quaestor, an official was allowed to wear the toga praetexta, but was not escorted by lictors, nor did he possess imperium. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ...


Aediles

At 36 years of age, former quaestors could stand for election to one of the aedile positions. Of these aediles, two were plebeian and two were patrician, with the patrician aediles called Curule Aediles. The plebeian aediles were elected by the Plebeian Council and the curule aediles were either elected by the Tribal Assembly or appointed by the reigning consul. The aediles had administrative responsibilities in Rome. They had to take care of the temples (whence their title, from the Latin aedes, "temple") they organized games and were responsible for the maintenance of the public buildings in Rome. Moreover, they took charge of Rome's water and food supplies; in their capacity as market superintendents, they served sometimes as judges in mercantile affairs. Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... The Plebeian Council (Latin: concilium plebis) was a political feature of Ancient Rome. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... To the Romans an aedes was a building of religious significance, normally translated as temple or chapel. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight...


The Aedile was the supervisor of public works. He oversaw the public works, temples and markets. Therefore the Aediles would have been in some cooperation with the current Censors, who had similar or related duties. Also they oversaw the organization of festivals and games (ludi), which made this a very sought after office for a career minded politician of the late republic, as it was a good means of gaining popularity by staging spectacles.


Curule Aediles were added at a later date in the 4th century, and their duties do not differ substantially from plebeian aediles. However, unlike plebeian aediles, curule aediles were allowed certain symbols of rank--the sella curulis or 'curule chair,' for example--and only patricians could stand for election to curule aedile. In the Roman Republic, and later the empire, the Curule chair (in Latin the sellis curulis) was the chair upon which senior magistrates or promagistrates owning imperium were entitled to sit including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, and curule aediles. ...


Each year only two were elected, and they alternated years; two plebeian aediles one year, two curule aediles the next, and so on.


While part of the cursus honorum, this step was optional and not required to hold future offices. Though the office was usually held after the quaestorship and before the praetorship, there are some cases with former praetors serving as aediles. Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected...


Praetor

Main article: Praetor

After holding either the office of Quaestor or Aedile, a man of 39 years could run for Praetor. The number of Praetors elected varied through history, generally increasing with time. During the republic, six or eight were generally elected each year to serve judicial functions throughout Rome and other governmental responsibilities. In the absence of the Consuls, a Praetor would be given command of the garrison in Rome or in Italy. Also, a Praetor could exercise the functions of the Consuls throughout Rome, but their main function was that of a judge. They would preside over trials involving criminal acts as well as grant court orders or validate "illegal" acts as acts of administering justice. As a Praetor, a magistrate was escorted by six lictors, owned imperium, and would wear the toga praetexta. After a term as Praetor, the magistrate would serve as a provincial governor in the office of Propraetor, owning Propraetor imperium, commanding the province’s legions, and possessing ultimate authority within their province(s). Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ...


Of all the Praetors, two were more prestigious than the others. The first was the Praetor Peregrinus, who was the chief judge in trials involving one or more foreigners. The other was the Praetor Urbanus, the chief judicial office in Rome. He had the power to overturn any verdict by any other courts, and served as judge in cases involving criminal charges against provincial governors. The Praetor Urbanus was not allowed to leave the city for more than ten days. If one of these two Praetors was absent from Rome, the other would perform the duties of both.


Consul

Main article: Roman consul

The office of consul was the most prestigious of all and represented the summit of a successful career. The minimum age was 42 for plebeians and 40 for patricians. The names of the two elected consuls identified the year. Consuls were responsible for the city's political agenda, commanded large-scale armies and controlled important provinces. The consuls served for only a year (to prevent corruption) and could only rule when they agreed, because each consul could veto the other's decision. This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The consuls would alternate monthly as the chairmen of the Senate. They also were the supreme commanders in the Roman army, with each being granted two legions during their consular year. Consuls also exercised the highest juridical power in the Republic, being the only office with the power to override the decisions of the Praetor Urbanus. Only laws and the decrees of the Senate or the People's assembly limited their powers, and only the veto of a fellow consul or a tribune of the plebs could supersede their decisions.


A consul was escorted by twelve lictors, owned imperium and wore the toga praetexta. Because the consul was the highest executive office within the Republic, they had the power to veto any action or proposal by any other magistrate, save that of the Tribune of the Plebs. After a consulship, a consul was assigned one of the more important provinces and acted as the governor in the same way that a Propraetor did, only owning Proconsular imperium. A second consulship could only be attempted after an interval of 10 years to prevent one man holding too much power.


Governor

Main article: Roman Governor

Though not part of the Cursus Honorum, upon completing a term as either Praetor or Consul, an officer was required to serve a term as Propraetor and Proconsul, respectively, in one of Rome's many provinces. These Propraetors and Proconsuls held near autocratic authority within their selected province or provinces. Because each governor held equal imperium to the equivalent magistrate, they were escorted by the same number of lictors and could only be vetoed by a reigning Consul or Praetor. Their abilities to govern were only limited by the decrees of the Senate or the people's assemblies, and the Tribune of the Plebs were unable to veto their acts as long as the governor remained at least a mile outside of Rome. A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ...


Censor

Main article: Censor (ancient Rome)

After consul, the next step in the Cursus Honorum was the office of censor. This was the only office in the Roman Republic whose term was a period of 18 months instead of the usual 12. Censors were elected every five years and although the office held no military imperium, it was considered a great honor. The censors took a regular census of the people and then apportioned the citizens into voting classes on the basis of income and tribal affiliation. The censors enrolled new citizens in tribes and voting classes as well. The censors were also in charge of the membership roll of the Senate, every five years adding new senators who had been elected to the requisite offices. Censors could also remove unworthy members from the senate. This ability was lost during the dictatorship of Sulla. Censors were also responsible for construction of public buildings and the moral status of the city. Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ...


Censors also had financial duties, in that they had to put out to tender projects that were to be financed by the state. Also, the censors were in charge of the leasing out of conquered land for public use and auction. Though this office owned no imperium, meaning no lictors for protection, they were allowed to wear the toga praetexta.


Tribune of the Plebs

Main article: Tribune of the Plebs

The office of Tribune of the Plebs was an important step in the political career of plebeians. The Tribune was an office first created to protect the right of the common man in Roman politics and served as the head of the Plebeian Council. In the mid to late Republic, however, plebeians were often just as, and sometimes more wealthy and powerful than patricians. Those who held the office were granted sacrosanctity (the right to be legally protected from any physical harm), the power to rescue any plebeian from the hands of a patrician magistrate, and the right to veto any act or proposal of any magistrate, including another tribune of the people and the consuls. The tribune also had the power to exercise capital punishment against any person who interfered in the performance of his duties. The tribunes could even convene a Senate meeting and lay legislation before it and arrest magistrates. Their houses had to remain open for visitors even during the night, and they were not allowed to be more than a days' journey from Rome. Due to their unique power of sacrosanctity, the Tribune had no need for lictors for protection and owned no imperium, nor could they wear the toga praetexta. Ancient Roman Official. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ... The Plebeian Council (Latin: concilium plebis) was a political feature of Ancient Rome. ...


Princeps senatus

Another office not officially a step in the cursus honorum was the princeps senatus, an extremely prestigious office for a patrician. The princeps senatus served as the leader of the Senate and was chosen to serve a five year term by each pair of Censors every five years. Censors could, however, confirm a princeps senatus for a period of another five years. The princeps senatus was chosen from all Patricians who had served as a Consul, with former Censors usually holding the office. The office originally granted the holder the ability to speak first at session on the topic presented by the presiding magistrate but eventually gained the power to open and close the senate sessions, decide the agenda, decide where the session should take place, impose order and other rules of the session, meet in the name of the senate with embassies of foreign countries, and write in the name of the senate letters and dispatches. This office, like the Tribune, did not own imperium, was not escorted by lictors, and could not wear the toga praetexta. The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ...


Dictator and Master of the Horse

Main article: Roman Dictator

Of all the offices within the Roman Republic, none granted as much power and authority as the position of Dictator, known as the Master of the People. In times of emergencies, the Senate would declare that a dictator was required, and the current consuls would appoint a dictator. This was the only decision that could not be vetoed by the Tribune of the Plebs. The dictator was the sole exception to the Roman legal principles of having multiple magistrates in the same office and being legally able to be held to answer for actions in office. There could never be more than one dictator at any one time for any reason, and no dictator could ever be held legally responsible for any action during his time in office for any reason. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ...


The dictator was the highest magistrate in degree of imperium and was attended by 24 lictors. Though his term lasted only 6 months instead of 12, all other magistrates were suspended (except for the tribunes of the plebs), granting the dictator absolute authority in both civil and military matters throughout the Republic. The Dictator was free from the control of the Senate in all that he did, could execute anyone without a trial for any reason, and could ignore any law in the performance of his duties. The Dictator was the sole magistrate under the Republic that was truly independent in discharging his duties. All of other offices were extensions of the Senate's executive authority and thus answerable to the Senate. Since the Dictator exercised his own authority, he did not suffer this limitation, which was the cornerstone of the office's power.


When a Dictator entered office, he appointed to serve as his second-in-command a Master of the Horse, whose office ceased to exist once the Dictator left office. The Master of the Horse held Praetorian imperium, was attended by six lictors, and was charged with assisting the Dictator in managing the State. When the Dictator was away from Rome, the Master of the Horse usually remained behind to administer the city. The Master of the Horse, like the Dictator, had unchallengeable authority in all civil and military affairs, with his decisions only being overturned by the Dictator himself. The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ...


See also

  • Constitution of the Roman Republic

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
US Bazaar.com : Encyclopedia Pages : Cursus honorum (2552 words)
The cursus honorum (Latin: "succession of magistracies") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire.
The cursus honorum officially began with ten years of military duty in the Roman cavalry (the equites) or in the staff of a general who was a relative or a friend of the family.
Though not part of the Cursus Honorum, upon completing a term as either Praetor or Consul, an officer was required to serve a term as Propraetor and Proconsul, respectively, in one of Rome's many provinces.
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