FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Caduceus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Caduceus
The Caduceus
The Caduceus
Hermes hastens bearing his kerykeion, on an Attic lekythos, ca 480-470 BC, attributed to the Tithonos Painter
Hermes hastens bearing his kerykeion, on an Attic lekythos, ca 480-470 BC, attributed to the Tithonos Painter

The caduceus (/kəˈduːsiəs/, -ʃəs, -ˈdjuː-; kerykeion in Greek) or Wand of Hermes is typically depicted as a short herald's staff entwined by two serpentine creatures - these are alternatively thought to depict two worms[citation needed], or else two snakes[attribution needed] - in the form of a double helix, and sometimes surmounted by wings. In later Antiquity the caduceus was an astrological symbol of commerce and in Roman iconography was often depicted being carried in the left hand of Greek god Hermes, the messenger for the gods, conductor of the dead and protector of merchants and thieves. Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ... Image File history File links Caduceus. ... Image File history File links Caduceus. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 207 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (520 × 1507 pixel, file size: 566 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 207 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (520 × 1507 pixel, file size: 566 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Theseus and the Marathonian bull, white-ground lekythos, ca. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Dracunculiasis, more commonly known as Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), is a preventable infection caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral (correctly termed helical) staircase. ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...


The caduceus has come to be used as a symbol for medicine, especially in North America, by confusion with the the traditional medical symbol, the rod of Asclepius, which has only a single snake and no wings. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... North American redirects here. ... Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ...

Contents

Origin

The distant origin of the symbol adopted by the Greeks was Mesopotamian, as has been known since the discovery of Gudea's green steatite libation vase of c. 2144-24 BCE from Lagash, conserved at the Musée du Louvre;[1] it represents the serpent-god Ningishzida, messenger of the goddess Ishtar and awakener of vegetation after the annual killing drought. This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... The Sumerian god Ningizzida accompanied by two gryphons. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ...


Among the Greeks it was originally a herald's staff, sometime surmounted with wings, with two white fillets of wool attached to it.[2] The view of Karl Otfried Müller,[3] that the ribbons eventually "evolved into" snakes, was held for several generations of conservative mythographers, though Jane Ellen Harrison[4] correctly detected that Hermes had originated in snake-form and that the snakes were essential to the caduceus, even though she was unaware of the Near Eastern connections.[5] Heralds, wearing tabards, in procession to St. ... Karl Otfried Müller (August 28, 1797–August 1, 1840), was a German scholar and Philodorian. ... A mythographer, according to a strict dictionary definition, is a compiler of myths. ... Jane Ellen Harrison (September 9, 1850–April 5, 1928) was a ground-breaking English classical scholar and feminist. ...


The Greek myth of origin of the staff is part of the story of Tiresias,[6] who found two snakes copulating and killed the female with his staff. Tiresias was immediately turned into a woman, and so remained until he was able to repeat the act with the male snake seven years later. This staff later came in to the possession of the god Hermes, along with its transformative powers. This article is about the medical term. ... Everes redirects here. ...


In Rome, Livy refers to the caduceator who negotiated peace arrangements under the diplomatic protection of the caduceus he carried. A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...


Meaning

The meaning, purpose, and esoteric meaning of the caduceus can often be interpreted from the sum of its parts. The staff (particularly the herald's staff) was a symbol of authority carried in the hands of messengers. The winged quality of the wand of Hermes is in keeping with the alchemical or astrological importance of Mercury (whether taken to mean the planet, god, and element), quite often denoting fluidity, transformation, information, and new beginnings[citation needed] (as the elemental quarter of air is often likened to)[attribution needed]. The snake is often depicted in non Judeo-Christian traditions as a source or deliverer of wisdom[citation needed]. In Gnosticism the serpent represents Sophia or the manifestation of principles of the feminine divine (or Shekinah in the Judaism or Kabbalah)[citation needed]. Note that the snakes are bound to each other in a double helix - a shape of stability, creation, and life (notably, the shape of the DNA); interesting this follows the arrangement that King Cobras take, fighting upright, face to face, trying to submit the other for sexual rights. Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... The Alchemist. ... An astrological chart (or horoscope) _ Y2K Chart — This particular chart is calculated for January 1, 2000 at 12:01:00 A.M. Eastern Standard Time in New York City, New York, USA. (Longitude: 074W0023 - Latitude: 40N4251) Astrology (from Greek: αστρολογία = άστρον, astron, star + λόγος, logos, word) is... This article is about the planet. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... This article is about the element. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... Sophia (Σoφíα, Greek for wisdom) is a central term in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Gnostic Christianity and Orthodox Christianity. ... Shekinah (שכינה - alternative transliterations Shechinah, Shekhina, Shechina) is the English spelling of the Hebrew language word that means the glory or radiance of God, or God resting in his house or Tabernacle amongst his people. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The Double-Helix are an alien race in the Wing Commander science fiction series. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


In this it can be seen that the caduceus represents the authority to quickly deliver vital information or wisdom to aid, assist and enlighten. It is no surprise then that the caduceus is used by a variety of professions who have a connection with Hermes or Mercury in his traditional roles as the the god of commerce, eloquence, invention, travel and thievery. Contemporary users of this symbol include merchants, journalists, and postal workers. This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eloquence (from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking in public. ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Thievery Thievery is a modification for Unreal Tournament. ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... A postal worker is one who works for a post office, such as a mail carrier. ...


In the Hermetic Tradition, the caduceus is a symbol of spiritual awakening, and has been likened to the Kundalini serpents of Hindu mysticism[attribution needed]. This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... A spiritual awakening is a religious experience involving a realization or opening to a sacred dimension of reality. ... Kundalini ( ) is a Sanskrit word meaning either coiled up or coiling like a snake. ... Serpent can be any of the following: The reptile commonly called snake. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Variations

In some vase paintings ancient depictions of the Greek kerykeion are radically different from the modern representation (illustration, top right). These representations feature the two snakes atop the staff (rod), crossed to create a circle with the heads of the snakes resembling horns. This old graphic form, with an additional crossbar to the staff, has become the typographical Mercury-sign widely used in astrological and alchemistic contexts for centuries. Another simplified variant of the caduceus is to be found in dictionaries, indicating “commercial term”: the staff with two winglets attached, the snakes omitted (or reduced to a small ring in the middle).[citations needed] A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ...

Two caduceuses without wings above a door in Ztracená street, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Two caduceuses without wings above a door in Ztracená street, Olomouc, Czech Republic

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2266x1450, 492 KB) en: Two caduceuses as decoration of door portal in Ztracená street in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2266x1450, 492 KB) en: Two caduceuses as decoration of door portal in Ztracená street in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish Ołomuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ...

Confusion with the rod of Asclepius

Main article: Rod of Asclepius

The caduceus is sometimes used as a symbol for medicine or doctors (instead of the rod of Asclepius) even though there is no connection with Hippocrates or the Greeks;[7] its singularly inappropriate connotations of theft and commerce have provided fodder for academic humor.[8] A 1992 survey of American health organisations found that 62% of professional associations used the rod of Asclepius, whereas in commercial organisations, 76% used the caduceus.[9] Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ... Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ...


The first recorded use of the caduceus in a medical context was in the printer's vignette used by Johann Frobenius, who used the staff entwined with serpents, not winged but surmounted by doves, with the biblical epigraph "Be ye therefore wise as serpents and harmless as doves"[10] A silver caduceus presented to Caius College, Cambridge by John Caius and carried before him on the cushion he supplied in official visits to the college remains in the College's possession.[11] Early confusion between the symbols almost certainly arose due to the links between alchemy and Hermes, whose symbol is the caduceus. The alchemists adopted the caduceus because Hermes, the God of Messengers, was also the patron lord of gamblers, thieves, tricksters and alchemists. By the end of the 16th century, alchemy became widely associated with medicine in some areas, leading to some use of the caduceus as a medical symbol.[6] The word vignette has several meanings, depending on the context. ... Johann Froben Johann Froben (Latin: Johannes Frobenius; * ca. ... In literature, an epigraph is a quotation that is placed at the start of a work or section that expresses in some succinct way an aspect or theme of what is to follow. ... Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto - Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348 Sister College Brasenose College Master Neil McKendrick Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Graduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, generally known as Caius (though pronounced... John Caius [Anglice Kees, Keys, etc. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...


The main reason for the confusion over the medical use of the caduceus occurred in the United States in the 19th century, with its use by the United States Army, made official in 1902.[12] It had appeared on the chevrons of Army hospital stewards as early as 1856.[13] This was brought about by one Captain Reynolds,[14] who after having the idea rejected several times by the Surgeon General, persuaded the new incumbent —Brig. Gen. William H. Forwood — to adopt it. The inconsistency was noticed several years later by the librarian to the Surgeon General, but was not changed.[12] In 1901 the French periodical of military medicine was named La Caducée. The caduceus was formally adopted by the Medical Department of the United States Army in 1902.[12] After World War I the caduceus was employed as an emblem by both the Army Medical Department and the Navy Hospital Corps. Chevron may refer to: Chevron, a V-shaped pattern seen in military or police insigna, heraldry, flag design, and architectural frets Chevron, a series of bones on the underside of the tail of reptiles Chevron Corporation, a petrochemical company Chevron Cars, an advertising campaign of the Chevron Corporation including stylized... The Surgeon General of the United States Army is the senior-most medical corps officer in the U.S. Army. ... The Library of the Surgeon Generals Office, later called the Army Medical Library, was the institutional medical literature repository of the U.S. Army Surgeon General from 1836 to 1956 when it was transformed into the National Library of Medicine. ... The Army Medical Department (AMEDD) of the U.S. Army comprises the six medical Special Branches of the Army. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The HM rating symbol (a caduceus). ...


There was further confusion caused by the use of the caduceus as a printer's mark (as Hermes was the god of eloquence and messengers), which appeared in many medical textbooks as a printing mark, although subsequently mistaken for a medical symbol.[12]


Examples of usage

  • The caduceus is the official magazine of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. The symbol (with a slight difference) appears on the Order's pledge pin and crest.
  • Columbia Business School uses a logo derived from the caduceus symbol. They also have other references to the Greek god Hermes including an alumni magazine.
  • The caduceus is used in the coat of arms of the Ukrainian city of Kharkiv.
  • The Renaissance artist Jacopo de' Barbari signed most of his work just with a (wingless) caduceus.
  • Caduceus is the central medical facility in the Atlus video games Trauma Center: Under the Knife,Trauma Center: Second Opinion and Trauma Center: New Blood

ΚΣ (Kappa Sigma) is an international fraternity with currently 234 chapters and 42 colonies in North America. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Columbia Business School (also known as CBS) is the business school of Columbia University in New York, New York. ... The Coat of arms of Kharkiv. ... Map of Ukraine with Kharkiv highlighted. ... Jacopo de Barbari, sometimes known or referred to as: deBarbari, de Barberi, de Barbari, Barbaro, Barberino, Barbarigo or Barberigo etc. ... Atlus ) is a Japanese computer and video game developer and publisher. ...

Standard representation

There are three Unicode representations of the caduceus: U+2624 () on the Miscellaneous Symbols table, U+263F (☿: the astrological form) and U+269A (⚚: the lexicographical form), all in the same range. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Miscellaneous Symbol plane of Unicode (2600–26FF) contains various glyphs representing things from a variety of categories: Astrological, Astronomical, Chess, Dice, Ideological symbols, Musical notation, Political symbols, Recycling, Religious symbols, Trigrams, Warning Signs and Weather. ...


See also

Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... In Greek mythology, a thyrsus or thyrsos was a giant fennel staff covered with ivy vines and leaves and topped with a pine cone. ... In botany and horticulture, the popular name given to various tall flowering plants : Common mullein or great mullein (Verbascum thapsus), a biennal medicinal herb used in Amerindian medicine as a tonic for lung problems, such as cough, asthma or bronchitis; Snapdragon or Figwort family (Scrophulariaceae)(other common names: shepherds... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... Promethea is a comic book series created by Alan Moore and J.H. Williams III with Mick Gray, published by Americas Best Comics/Wildstorm. ... Jacopo de Barbari, sometimes known or referred to as: deBarbari, de Barberi, de Barbari, Barbaro, Barberino, Barbarigo or Barberigo etc. ... CADUCEUS was a medical expert system developed in the mid-1980s (but first begun in the 1970s- it took that long to build the knowledge base) by Harry Pople (of the University of Pittsburgh), building on Poples years of itnerviews with Dr. Jack Meyers, one of the top internal... An antefix in the form of a palmette As an illustration of the way in which the palmette motif was seen by 19th century architects and decorators, who in Europe, America and elsewhere in colonial cities created their own unending variations on the motif as a kind of hallmark of... Moses lifts up the brass snake, curing the Isrealites from Snake Bites. ... The HM rating symbol (a caduceus). ...

Notes

  1. ^ The identification of the symbol as the origin of the caduceus was made by William Hayes Ward, The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia (Washington: Carnegie Institution) 1910, and expanded upon by Frothingham 1916, who pointed out that the symbol was the god, and pointed out the carefully-rendered bark on the staff in Gudea's vase in the Louvre.
  2. ^ Such wisps of unspun wool figured in many Greek cultic rites
  3. ^ In Müller, Archäologie der Kunst :504.
  4. ^ Harrison, Themis pp 266, 294, 297., etc.
  5. ^ A. L. Frothingham, "Babylonian Origin of Hermes the Snake-God, and of the Caduceus— I" American Journal of Archaeology 20.2 (Apil 1916):175-211) p 179.
  6. ^ a b Blayney, Keith (September 2002). The Caduceus vs the Staff of Asclepius. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  7. ^ Bernice S. Engle, "The Use of Mercury's Caduceus as a Medical Emblem", The Classical Journal 25.3 (December 1929:204-208).
  8. ^ As in Stuart L. Tyson, "The Caduceus", The Scientific Monthly 34.6 (June 1932:492-498).
  9. ^ Friedlander, Walter J (1992). The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduceus symbol in medicine. Greenwood Press. 
  10. ^ Matthew 10:16
  11. ^ Engle 1929:204f.
  12. ^ a b c d Wilcox, Robert A; Whitham, Emma M (15 April 2003). "The symbol of modern medicine: why one snake is more than two". Annals of Internal Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-06-15. 
  13. ^ Lt.-Col. Fielding H. Garrison, "The use of the caduceus in the insignia of the Army medical officer," Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 9 (1919-20:13-16), noted by Engle 1929:204 note 2.
  14. ^ Engle 1929:207 states, however, "The use of the caduceus in our army I believe to be due chiefly to the late Colonel Hoff, who has emphasized the suitability of the caduceus as an emblem of neutrality."

Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

JAMA is the acronym for the Journal of the American Medical Association, a leading medical journal. ... Heinz Insu Fenkl is an author, editor, translator, and mythic scholar. ... Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Caduceus
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Caduceus.
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caduceus - LoveToKnow 1911 (269 words)
The caduceus of Hermes, which was given him by Apollo in exchange for the lyre, was a magic wand which exercised influence over the living and.
In historical times the caduceus was the attribute of Hermes as the god of commerce and peace, and among the Greeks it was the distinctive mark of heralds and ambassadors, whose persons it rendered inviolable.
The caduceus itself was not used by the Romans, but the derivative caduceator occurs in the sense of a peace commissioner.
Caduceus - Rod of Hermes - DNA - Crystalinks (2324 words)
In the seventh century, the caduceus came to be associated with a precursor of medicine, based on the Hermetic astrological principles of using the planets and stars to heal the sick.
The wings on the Caduceus are symbolic of the liberation of consciousness from the warp and weave of dual systems, once it moves up the staff between the serpents and further, beyond their reach.
Caduceus was used by the main priest of Eleusinian mysteries, the hidden meaning of which was dedicated to the ascension of soul into the world of Light and Truth, tells us that this power was spiritual.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m