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Encyclopedia > Brass instrument
Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background.
Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background.

A brass instrument is a musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibration of the lips as the player blows into a tubular resonator. They are also called labrosones, literally meaning "lip-vibrated instruments" (Baines, 1993). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2110x3240, 823 KB) Summary Photographed by and copyright of (c) David Corby (User:Miskatonic, uploader) 2006 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Brass instrument Canon EOS 350D User:Miskatonic ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2110x3240, 823 KB) Summary Photographed by and copyright of (c) David Corby (User:Miskatonic, uploader) 2006 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Brass instrument Canon EOS 350D User:Miskatonic ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... Piccolo trumpet in B-flat, with swappable leadpipes to tune the instrument to B-flat (shorter) or A (longer) The smallest of the trumpet family is the piccolo trumpet (picc or pixie in trumpeter slang). ... A standard 3-valved Bb flugelhorn. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A resonator is a device or part that vibrates (or oscillates) with waves. ...


There are two factors in changing the pitch on a valved brass instrument: pressing the valves to change the length of the tubing, and changing the player's lip aperture or "embouchure", which determines the frequency of the vibration into the instrument.


The view of most scholars (see organology) is that the term "brass instrument" should be defined by the way the sound is made, as above, and not by whether the instrument is actually made of brass. Thus, as exceptional cases one finds brass instruments made of wood like the alphorn, the cornett, and the serpent, while many woodwind instruments are made of brass, like the saxophone. Center For Arabic Culture (CAC) == http://www. ... Brazen redirects here. ... D Dießner alphorn players The alphorn is a wind instrument, consisting of a natural wooden horn of conical bore, having a cup-shaped mouthpiece, used by mountain dwellers in Switzerland and elsewhere. ... Three different cornetts: mute cornett, curved cornett and tenor cornett The cornett, cornetto or zink is an early wind instrument, dating from the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods. ... A serpent is a bass wind instrument with a mouthpiece like a brass instrument but side holes like a woodwind instrument. ... A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ...

Contents

Families of brass instruments

Modern brass instruments generally come in one of two families:

  • Valved brass instruments use a set of valves (typically 3 or 4 but as many as 7 or more in some cases) operated by the player's fingers that introduce additional tubing into the instrument, changing its overall length. This family includes all of the modern brass instruments except the trombone: the trumpet, horn, euphonium, and tuba, as well as the cornet, flügelhorn, baritone horn, sousaphone, mellophone, and the old saxhorn. As valved instruments are predominant among the brasses today, a more thorough discussion of their workings can be found below. The valves are usually piston valves, but can be rotary valves. Rotary valves are the norm for the horn and are also prevalent on the tuba.
  • Slide brass instruments use a slide to change the length of tubing. The main instruments in this category are the trombone family, though valve trombones are occasionally used, especially in jazz. The trombone family's ancestor the sackbut and the folk instrument bazooka are also in the slide family.

There are two other families that have now become functionally obsolete for practical purposes, though instruments of both types are sometimes used for period-instrument performances of Baroque- or Classical-era pieces. Trumpeter redirects here. ... For other uses, see Horn. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... Flugelhorn- this is a standard 3-valved Bb model. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sousaphone player in Washington Square, New York City The sousaphone is a type of tuba often used in a marching band. ... The mellophone is a brass instrument that is typically used in place of the French horn in marching bands or drum and bugle corps. ... The saxhorn is a valved brass instrument with a tapered bore and deep cup-shaped mouthpiece. ... For other uses, see Horn. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Four sackbuts: tenor, soprano, alto, bass The Sackbut (var. ... The bazooka is a folk musical instrument, a primitive version of a trombone, usually with a lower but less wide range. ... The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they may have been performed when they were originally written. ...

  • Natural brass instruments, where the player can only play notes in the instrument's harmonic series, for example the bugle. The trumpet was a natural brass instrument prior to about 1795, and the horn before about 1820. Natural instruments are still played for some ceremonial functions, as well as period performances.
  • Keyed or Fingered brass instruments used holes along the body of the instrument, which were covered by fingers or by finger-operated pads (keys) in a similar way to a woodwind instrument. These included the cornett, serpent, ophicleide and keyed trumpet. They are more difficult to play than valved instruments.

Brass instruments may also be characterised by the geometry of the tubing, the bore. Definition of bore is not clear cut, as with woodwind instruments, due to brass instruments' bell. Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ... Military bugle in Bâ™­ The bugle is one of the simplest brass instruments; it is essentially a small natural horn with no valves. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The musical instrument natural horn is the ancestor of the modern-day French horn differentiated by its lack of valves. ... A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ... Three different cornetts: mute cornett, curved cornett and tenor cornett The cornett, cornetto or zink is an early wind instrument, dating from the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods. ... A serpent is a bass wind instrument with a mouthpiece like a brass instrument but side holes like a woodwind instrument. ... The ophicleide () is a family of conical bore, brass keyed bugles. ... The keyed trumpet, or keyed bugle, is a brass instrument that, contrary to the traditional valved trumpet, uses keys. ... The bore of a wind instrument is its interior chamber that defines a flow path through which air travels and is set into vibration to produce sounds. ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ...

  • Cylindrical bore with approximately constant diameter tubing; cylindrical bore instruments have a bright projected tone. The trumpet, alto trombone and tenor trombone are cylindrical bore - the slide design of the trombone necessitates this.
  • Conical bore with constantly increasing diameter tubing; conical bore instruments have a mellow tone. The "British brass band" group of instruments fall into this category. This includes the cornet, tenor horn (alto horn),French horn, baritone, euphonium and tuba.

The Lochgelly Band, a Scottish colliery band, circa 1890 A British-style brass band is a musical ensemble comprising a standardised range of brass and percussion instruments. ...

Some other wind instruments

D Dießner alphorn players The alphorn is a wind instrument, consisting of a natural wooden horn of conical bore, having a cup-shaped mouthpiece, used by mountain dwellers in Switzerland and elsewhere. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Species Strombus gigas Strombus luhuanus Strombus pugilis Strombus tricornis Strombus canarium Strombus dolomena Strombus gibberulus Strombus conomurex Strombus lentigo Strombus doxander Strombus urceus Strombus fragilis Strombus gallus Strombus dentatus Strombus marginatus Strombus raninus Strombus buvonius A conch (pronounced in the U.S.A. as konk or conch, IPA: or ) [1... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... A didgeridoo. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... The musical instrument natural horn is the ancestor of the modern-day French horn differentiated by its lack of valves. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ... The vladimirskiy rozhok is an ancient Russian brass musical instrument made of wood. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the tuba. ...

Valves

Piston valve
Rotary valve
Slide
Slide

Valves are used to change the length of tubing of a brass instrument allowing the musician to change pitch. When pressed each valve changes the pitch by diverting the air stream through additional tubing, thus lengthening the instrument and lowering the harmonic series on which the instrument is vibrating. It is possible, although rare, for this behaviour to be reversed, i.e., pressing the valve removes a length of tubing rather than adding one). File links The following pages link to this file: Brass instrument User talk:CompUTOSer Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Brass instrument User talk:CompUTOSer Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Brass instrument Rotary valve Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Brass instrument Rotary valve Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File links Brass_instrument_slides. ... Image File history File links Brass_instrument_slides. ...


Valves are employed in combination to play different notes; a single standard had become almost universal. A particular combination of valves has an effect on pitch from any given harmonic, the effect may be seen below. This table is correct for almost any modern brass instrument.

Valve combination and effect on pitch on a given harmonic.
Valve combination Effect on harmonic Interval Tuning problems
Second 1/2 step
First 1 step
First and second 1 1/2 step
Third 1 1/2 step Flat
Second and third 2 steps
First and third 2 1/2 steps Perfect fourth Sharp
First second and third 3 steps Tritone Very sharp

The tuning of brass instruments is not perfect, the mentioned tuning deficiencies are unavoidable; they are inherent in the construction of the instrument. Playing notes using certain combinations of valves requires "compensation" to adjust the tuning appropriately. The perfect fourth or diatessaron, abbreviated P4, is one of two musical intervals that span four diatonic scale degrees; the other being the augmented fourth, which is one semitone larger. ... For other uses, see Tritone (disambiguation). ...


Valve tuning compensation

The additional tubing for each valve usually features a short tuning slide of its own for fine adjustment of the valve's tuning, except when it is too short to make this practicable. For the first and third valves this is often designed to be adjusted as the instrument is played, to account for the deficiencies in the valve system.


In most trumpets and cornets, the compensation must be provided by extending the third valve slide with the fourth finger, and the first valve slide with the left hand thumb, see "triggers and throws" below. This is used to lower the pitch of the 1-3 and 1-2-3 valve combinations. On the trumpet and cornet valve combinations correspond to low D, low C, and low F, so chromatically, to stay in tune, one must use this method.


In instruments with a fourth valve, such as tubas, euphoniums, and piccolo trumpets, that valve lowers the pitch by a perfect fourth; this is used to compensate for the sharpness of the valve combinations 1-3 and 1-2-3 (4 replaces 1-3, 2-4 replaces 1-2-3). All three normal valves may be used in addition to the fourth to increase the instrument's range downwards by a perfect fourth, although with increasingly severe intonation problems. Intonation, in music, is a players realization of pitch accuracy. ...


When four-valved models without any kind of compensation play in the corresponding register, the sharpness becomes so severe that players must finger the note a half-step below the one they are trying to play. This eliminates the note a half-step above their open fundamental.


Manufacturers of low brass instruments may choose one or a combination of four basic approaches to compensate for the tuning difficulties, whose respective merits are subject to debate:


Compensation system

In the Compensation system, each of the first two (or three) valves has an additional set of tubing extending from the back of the valve. When the third (or fourth) valve is depressed in combination with another one, the air is routed through both the usual set of tubing plus the extra one, so that the pitch is lowered by an appropriate amount. This allows compensating instruments to play with accurate intonation in the octave below their open second partial, which is critical for tubas and euphoniums in much of their repertoire.


The compensating system was applied to French horns to serve a different purpose. It was used to allow a double horn in F and B flat to ease playing difficulties in the high register. In contrast to the system in use in tubas and euphoniums, the default 'side' of the horn is the longer F horn, with secondary lengths of tubing in coming into play when the first, second or third valves are pressed; pressing the thumb valve takes these secondary valve slides and the extra length of main tubing out of play to produce a shorter B-flat horn. A later "full double" design has completely separate valve section tubing for the two sides, and is considered superior, although rather heavier in weight.


Additional valves

Initially, compensated instruments tended to sound stuffy and blow less freely due to the air being doubled back through the main valves. In early designs, this led to sharp bends in the tubing and other obstructions of the air-flow. Some manufacturers therefore preferred adding more 'straight' valves instead, which for example could be pitched a little lower than the 2nd and 1st valves and were intended to be used instead of these in the respective valve combinations. While no longer featured in euphoniums for decades, professional tubas are still built like this, with five valves being the norm on CC- and BB-tubas and five or six valves on F-tubas.


Compensating double French horns can also suffer from the stuffiness resulting from the air being passed through the valve section twice, but as this really only affects the longer F side, a compensating double can be very useful for a 1st or 3rd horn player, who uses the F side less.


Additional sets of slides on each valve

Another approach was the addition of two sets of slides for different parts of the range. There used to be euphoniums and tubas built like this, but today, this approach has become highly exotic for all instruments - except French horns for which it is the norm, usually in a double, sometimes even triple configuration. The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ...


Trigger or Throw

Triggers or throws are sometimes provided on valved brass instruments allow manual, temporary, lengthening of the main tuning slide or a valve slide. These mechanisms are used to lower the pitch of notes that are naturally sharp in a specific register of the instrument, and are designed for speedy adjustment whilst playing.


A trigger is a mechanical lever that lengthens a slide when pressed in a contrary direction. Triggers are sprung in such a way to that they return the slide to its original position when released.


A throw is a simple metal grip for the player's finger or thumb, attached to a valve slide. The general term "throw" can be used to describe a u-hook, a saddle (u-shaped grips), or a ring (ring-shape grip) in which a player's finger or thumb rests. A player extends their finger or thumb to lengthen a slide, and retracts their finger to return the slide to its original position.


Some examples of instruments that utilize triggers or throws are:


Trumpet or Cornet

Triggers or throws are sometimes found on the first valve slide. They are operated by the player's thumb and are used to adjust the higher F, D and B.


Triggers or throws are often found on the third valve slide. They are operated by the player's fourth finger, and are used to adjust the lower D, C A, G, and F. Trumpets typically use throws, whilst cornets may have a throw or trigger.


Euphoniums

A euphonium occasionally has a trigger on the tuning slide, to aid intonation on the F, F and G.


Valve mechanism

The two major types of valves are rotary valves and piston valves. The first piston valve instruments were developed just after the start of the 19th century. The Stölzel valve (invented by Heinrich Stölzel in 1814) was an early variety. In the mid 19th century the Vienna valve was an improved design. However most professional musicians preferred rotary valves for quicker, more reliable action, until better designs of piston valves were mass manufactured towards the end of the 19th century. Since the early decades of the 20th century, piston valves have been the most common on brass instruments.[citation needed] See also rotary feeder airflow of rotary valve in two positions A rotary valve is a type of valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes. ... Piston valve in a brass instrument A piston valve is a device used to control the motion of a fluid along a tube or pipe by means of the linear motion of a piston within a chamber or cylinder. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heinrich Stölzel (1777-1844) was a horn player who developed some of the first valves for brass instruments. ...


Sound production in brass instruments

Because the player of a brass instrument has direct control of the prime vibrator (the lips), brass instruments exploit the player's ability to select the harmonic at which the instrument's column of air will vibrate. By making the instrument about twice as long as the equivalent woodwind instrument and starting with the second harmonic, players can get a good range of notes simply by varying the tension of their lips (see embouchure). Brass players call each harmonic a "partial" because each loop of the vibrating air column only occupies part of the tubing (whereas at the fundamental, the loop occupies the entire length of tubing). This article is about the components of sound. ... The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. ... Vibration and standing waves in a string, The fundamental and the first 6 overtones A standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a wave that remains in a constant position. ...


Most brass instruments are fitted with a removable mouthpiece. Different shapes, sizes and styles of mouthpiece may be used to suit different embouchures, or to more easily produce certain tonal characteristics. Trumpets, trombones, and tubas are characteristically fitted with a cupped mouthpiece, while horns are fitted with a conical mouthpiece. Trumpet mouthpiece from the side On brass instruments the mouthpiece is the part of the instrument which is placed upon the players lips. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... Never look at the trombones. ... Tubas is a city in the Israeli administered West Bank. ... For other uses, see Horn. ...


One interesting difference between a woodwind instrument and a brass instrument is that woodwind instruments are non-directional. This means that the sound produced propagates in all directions with approximately equal volume. Brass instruments, on the other hand, are highly directional, with most of the sound produced traveling straight outward from the bell. This difference makes it significantly more difficult to record a brass instrument accurately. It also plays a major role in some performance situations, such as in marching bands. A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ...


Materials

Brass instruments are made of a lacquered or plated metal. Traditionally the instruments are normally made of brass, polished and then lacquered to prevent corrosion. Some higher quality and higher cost instruments use gold or silver plating to prevent corrosion. This article is about metallic materials. ... Brazen redirects here. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Alternatives to brass include other alloys containing significant amounts of copper or silver. These alloys are biostatic due to the oligodynamic effect, and thus suppress growth of molds, fungi or bacteria. Brass instruments constructed from stainless steel or aluminum have good sound quality but are rapidly colonized by microorganisms and become unpleasant to play. For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The oligodynamic effect (greek oligos = few, dynamis = force ) was discovered in 1893 by the Swiss KW Nägeli as a toxic effect of metal-ions on living cells, algae, moulds, spores, fungi, virus, procariotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, even in relatively low concentrations. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ...


Most higher quality instruments are designed to prevent or reduce galvanic corrosion between any steel in the valves and springs, and the brass of the tubing. This may take the form of desiccant design, to keep the valves dry, sacrificial zincs, replaceable valve cores and springs, plastic insulating washers, or nonconductive or noble materials for the valve cores and springs. Some instruments use several such features. The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two metals connected by an electrolyte which forms a salt bridge between the metals. ... A piece of zinc designed to corrode while protecting other components to which it is electrically connected. ...


Didactics

Children may start to learn a brass instrument as soon as all their permanent teeth have arrived, usually at age 11. It is possible to start earlier, but while the teeth are still changing the embouchure will need occasional adjustment, and pressure on the lips and teeth may have undesirable effects. Permanent teeth are the second set of teeth formed in humans. ...


Ensembles

Brass instruments are one of the major classical instrument families and are played across a range of ensembles. The word ensemble can refer to a musical ensemble a statistical ensemble a quantum ensemble a DAB ensemble a fluid mechanical ensemble This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Orchestras include a varying number of brass instruments depending on music style and era, typically: For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ...

  • Baroque orchestras may include valveless trumpets or bugles, or trumpets/cornets playing these parts.
  • Romantic and modern orchestras may include larger numbers of brass including more exotic instruments.

British brass bands are made entirely up of brass, mostly conical bore instruments. Typical membership is: This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the 2000s . ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... A lip-reed aerophone with a predominantly cylindrical bore, the trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The word bugle may refer to: Bugles are the sounds that animals such as elk or moose make. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Modern music is music that is part of either the movement of musical modernism or the era of 20th century music, or is contemporary music. ... The Lochgelly Band, a Scottish colliery band, circa 1890 A British-style brass band is a musical ensemble comprising a standardised range of brass and percussion instruments. ...

quintets are common small brass ensembles, a quintet typically contains: Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... A standard 3-valved Bb flugelhorn. ... Known in the US as alto horn, in Germany as althorn, and in the UK as tenor horn, this brass instrument pitched in Eb has a conical bore (gradually widening), and normally uses a deep, cornet-like mouthpiece. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... A brass quintet is a five-piece musical ensemble composed of brass instruments. ...

  • two trumpets
  • one trombone
  • one tuba
  • one french horn

Big Bands and other jazz bands commonly contain cylindrical bore brass instruments A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ...

  • A Big band typically includes:
  • three to five trumpets
  • three to five tenor trombones
  • Smaller jazz ensembles may include a single trumpet or trombone soloist.

Concert bands have similar brass instrumentation to an orchestra, typically: A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of several members of the woodwind instrument family, brass instrument family and percussion instrument family. ...

  • two to four trumpets or cornets
  • two to three alto trombones (and occasionally an additional bass trombone)
  • one baritone or euphonium
  • one tuba

Single brass instruments are also often used to accompany other instruments or ensembles such as an organ, or a choir. This article or section should be merged with Pipe organ The Casavant pipe organ at Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, Montreal The organ is a type of keyboard musical instrument, distinctive because the sound is not produced by a percussion action, as on a piano or celesta, or by... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


See also

20th century brass instrumentalists include: Trumpet (see also list of trumpeters and List of jazz trumpeters. ... A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... A bandstand built in 1912 stands in the grounds of the Horniman Museum in London Jedforest Instrumental Bandstand built in 2006 stands in the shadow of Jedburgh Abbey Scottish Borders Eastbourne bandstand opened in 1935 A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a park, garden, or pier... A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of several members of the woodwind instrument family, brass instrument family and percussion instrument family. ... The Cavaliers Drum and Bugle Corps, a DCI Division I corps from Rosemont, Illinois. ... An American college marching band on the field (Kansas State University) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching and other movements  â€“ with their musical performance. ... Military Band marching A military band is a group of soldiers assigned to musical duties. ... High brass - from the top left: Baroque trumpet in D, modern trumpets in Bb and D (same pitch D as Baroque), piccolo trumpet in high Bb, Flugelhorn in Bb; right: cornet in Bb. ... Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ...

References

  • Baines, Anthony (1993).

External links


 
 

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