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Encyclopedia > Blueberry
Blueberry
Blueberry fruit
Blueberry fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Section: Cyanococcus
Rydb.
Species

See text. Blueberry can refer to: Blueberry, a plant and its berry Blueberry (comic), a comic strip Blueberry (film), a 2004 movie, directed by Jan Kounen and based on the comic book series Blueberry (strain), a strain of Cannabis sativa. ... Image File history File links Blueberries from http://www. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text. ... Genera See text The plant Family Ericaceae (Heath Family) or ericaceous plants are mostly lime-hating or calcifuge plants that thrive in acid soils. ... Species See text Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs in the plant Family Ericaceae including the cranberry, blueberry, bilberry or whortleberry, cowberry or lingonberry, and huckleberry. ... Per Axel Rydberg (July 6, 1860 - July 25, 1931) was a botanist. ...

Blueberries are flowering plants in the genus Vaccinium, sect. Cyanococcus. The species are native only to North America. They are shrubs varying in size from 10 cm tall to 4 m tall; the smaller species are known as "lowbush blueberries", and the larger species as "highbush blueberries". The leaves can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, and from 1-8 cm long and 0.5-3.5 cm broad. The flowers are bell-shaped, white, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Species See text Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs in the plant Family Ericaceae including the cranberry, blueberry, bilberry or whortleberry, cowberry or lingonberry, and huckleberry. ... North American redirects here. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... This article is about plant types. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ...


The fruit is a false berry 5-16 mm diameter with a flared "crown" at the end; they are pale greenish at first, then reddish-purple, and finally indigo on ripening. They have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes typically bear fruit from May through October in the Northern Hemisphere; "blueberry season" peaks in July, which is National Blueberry Month in the United States and Canada[1]. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A false berry or epigynous berry is an accessory fruit found in certain plant species with an inferior ovary. ...


All species whose English common names include "blueberry" are currently classified in section Cyanococcus of the genus Vaccinium. Several other plants of the genus Vaccinium also produce blue berries which are sometimes confused with blueberries, mainly the predominantly European bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), which in many languages has a name that means "blueberry" in English. See the Identification section for more information. In science, a common name is any name by which a species or other concept is known that is not the official scientific name. ... For other uses, see Bilberry (disambiguation). ...


Although blueberries are native to North America, they are now grown also in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American countries[1], and are air-shipped as fresh produce to markets around the world.


Beginning in 2005, blueberries have been discussed among a category of functional foods called superfruits having the favorable combination of nutrient richness, antioxidant strength, emerging research evidence for health benefits[2] and versatility for manufacturing popular consumer products[3] [4]. Functional food or medicinal food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond the basic nutritional function of supplying nutrients, although there is no consensus on an exact definition of the term. ... In 2004, the term superfoods was popularized by a best-selling book discussing 14 whole foods with extraordinary nutrition. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ...

Species
  • Vaccinium angustifolium (Lowbush Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium boreale (Northern Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium caesariense (New Jersey Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium corymbosum (Northern Highbush Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium darrowii (Southern Highbush Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium formosum (southern blueberry)
  • Vaccinium fuscatum (Black Highbush Blueberry; syn. V. atrococcum)
  • Vaccinium hirsutum (Hairy-fruited Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium myrtilloides (Canadian Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium pallidum (Dryland Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium simulatum (Upland Highbush Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium tenellum (Southern Blueberry)
  • Vaccinium virgatum (Rabbiteye Blueberry; syn. V. ashei)

Some other blue-fruited-species of Vaccinium: Binomial name Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) is a species of blueberry native to eastern and central Canada and the northeastern United States, growing as far south as West Virginia and west to Minnesota and Manitoba. ... Binomial name Vaccinium corymbosum L. Northern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) is a species of blueberry native to eastern North America, growing from Nova Scotia and Ontario south to Alabama, and west to Wisconsin. ... Vaccinium darrowii Southern highbush blueberries are hybrids derived from crosses between Northern highbush blueberries and native Southern species, mainly Darrow’s evergreen blueberry. ... Vaccinum Elliotti, or the Elliot blueberry, is a highbush blueberry bush that grows from 4 to 6 feet high, and produces a particularly large yield of somewhat sour berries. ... Binomial name Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx. ... Rabbiteye blueberries are a southern type of blueberry grown from the Carolinas to the Gulf Coast States in America. ...

  • Vaccinium koreanum
  • Vaccinium myrsinites (Evergreen Blueberry)

Contents

Identification

True wild blueberries (section Cyanococcus of the genus Vaccinium) occur naturally only in eastern and north-central North America. Other sections in the genus, native to other parts of the world including western North America, Europe, and Asia, include other wild shrubs producing similar-looking edible berries such as huckleberries, cranberries, bilberries and cowberries. These are sometimes colloquially called blueberries and sold as blueberry jam or other products. North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the word Huckleberry, see Huckleberry Finn and Huckleberry Hound. ... “Cranberries” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bilberry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. The Cowberry and Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) are small evergreen shrubs in the plant family Ericaceae that bear edible fruit. ...


The names of blue berries in languages other than English often translate as "blueberry", e.g. Scots Blaeberry and Norwegian Blåbær, although those berries may belong to another species. For example, Blåbær and French myrtilles usually refer to the European native bilberry, while bleuets refers to the North American blueberry. Scots or Lallans (Eng: Lowlands), sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Gaelic language of the Highlands, is a West Germanic language used in Scotland, parts of Northern Ireland, and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or... Norwegian is a Germanic language spoken in Norway. ... French (le français, la langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Aside from location of origin, blueberries can be distinguished from bilberries by cutting them in half. Ripe blueberries have white or greenish flesh, while bilberries and huckleberries are colored purple throughout.


Cultivation

Blueberries are cultivated and picked wild. In North America, the most common cultivated species is V. corymbosum, the Northern Highbush Blueberries. Hybrids of this with other Vaccinium species adapted to southern U.S. climates are known collectively as Southern Highbush Blueberries. North American redirects here. ...


[.ca/goweezer/canada/embNS.htm] The town of Oxford, Nova Scotia is known as the Wild Blueberry Capital of Canada. New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island are other Canadian provinces with major wild blueberry farming.[5] This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Significant production of highbush blueberries occurs in Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Michigan, New Jersey and North Carolina. California is rapidly increasing plantings of southern highbush varieties originating from the University of Florida and North Carolina State University. Southern highbush berries are now also cultivated in the Mediterranean regions of Europe. This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The University of Florida (Florida, UFL, or UF) is a public land-grant, research university located in Gainesville, Florida. ... North Carolina State University is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ...


In the Southern hemisphere, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, New Zealand, and Australia now export blueberries. South Africa exports them to Europe.


Blueberries were first introduced to Australia in the 1950s, but the effort was unsuccessful. "In the early 1970s David Jones from the Victorian Department of Agriculture imported seed from the U.S. and a selection trial was started. This work was continued by Ridley Bell", who imported more American varieties. In the mid-1970s the Australian Blueberry Growers Association (ABGA) was formed. (Clayton-Greene)


By the early 1980s, the blueberry industry was started in New Zealand and is still growing. (BNZ, n.d)


The industry is even newer in Argentina: "Argentine blueberry production has increased over the last three years with planted area up to 400 percent," according to a 2005 report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. But that increase comes from a tiny base of 400 hectares in 2001 (to 1,600 hectares in 2004). The industry is new in the country and farmers are still learning the business. "Argentine blueberry production has thrived in three different regions: the province of Entre Rios in Northeastern Argentina, the province of Buenos Aires, near the country’s capital city Buenos Aires, and the southern Patagonian valleys," according to the report. (Gain, 2005)


Chile is the biggest producer in South America and the largest exporter to the northern hemisphere, with an estimated surface of 6,800 hectares (as of 2007). Introduction of the first plants started in the early 1980s and production started in the late 80s in the southern part of the country. Today production ranges from Copiapó in the north to Puerto Montt in the south, which allows the country to offer blueberries from October through late March. The main production area today is the Bio Bio region. Production has evolved rapidly in the last decade, becoming the 4th most important fruit exported in value terms. Fresh market blueberries are exported mainly to North America (80%) followed by Europe (18%). Information from the Fruit Export Association (ASOEX, 2007), Chile exported in 2007 more than 21 thousand MT of fresh blueberries and more than 1,000 MT of frozen product. Most of the production comes from the highbush type, but several rabbiteye blueberries are grown in the country as well. Information taken from the Chilean Fruit Producers Federation (FEDEFRUTA, 2007) and their Blueberry Committee, stands that there are over 800 blueberry producers with surfaces ranging from 50 to 200 hectares. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Copiapó is a city in the little North of Chile in the region of Atacama (III) and capital of a province of the same name. ... Puerto Montt Puerto Montt is a port city in southern Chile, located by the Reloncaví Sound, and is the capital of the Llanquihue Province and the Los Lagos Region, at . ... Bío-Bío is a Chilean placename: Bío-Bío River, the second longest river in Chile and the southern frontier of the Kingdom of Chile Biobío Province, part of the Bío-Bío Region Bío-Bío Region, a Chilean administrative district Radio B...


Growing seasons

A maturing Polaris blueberry (vaccinium 'Polaris')
A maturing Polaris blueberry (vaccinium 'Polaris')

Blueberry production in North America typically starts in mid-May (in Florida) and ends in September, when some fruit is held over in controlled-atmosphere storage in Oregon, Washington, and Canada. (Gaskell, 2006). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 334 KB) A maturing polaris blueberry (Vaccinium Polaris) plant. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 334 KB) A maturing polaris blueberry (Vaccinium Polaris) plant. ...


Sources give different periods for the growing season in the southern hemisphere. According to the University of California Extension Service, Chile, New Zealand and Argentina begin harvesting in the winter and continue till mid-March, when Chilean blueberries are held over in controlled-atmosphere storage for about six weeks. "As a result, blueberries reach annual peak prices in mid-April."(Gaskell, 2006)


In Chile, San Jose Farms, which says (according to its Web site) that it is one of the oldest blueberry producers in the country (it started in the early 1990s), states that its harvest season starts in November and continues through March. (San Jose, n.d.)


In Argentina: "The marketing year (MY) for blueberries begins in September and ends in February," according to a U.S. Department of Agriculture report. (Gain, 2005)


Uses

Blueberries are sold fresh or processed as individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries which in turn may be used in a variety of consumer goods such as jellies, jams, pies, muffins, snack foods, and cereals. Purée and (more rarely) mash are general terms for food, usually vegetables or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, and/or strained to the consistency of a soft paste or thick liquid. ... Jam from berries Fruit preserves refers to fruit, or vegetables, that have been prepared and canned for long term storage. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... Orange Choc Chip Muffins baking in the oven The name muffin is given to two distinct foodstuffs. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ...


Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, sugar, water, and fruit pectin. Usually made from wild blueberries, premium blueberry jam is common in Maine, Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...


Beginning around 2003, pure or blended blueberry juice has become a popular product in Canada and the United States.


Nutrition

Blueberries at market.
Blueberries at market.

Blueberries, especially wild species, contain anthocyanins, other antioxidant pigments and other phytochemicals which may have a role in reducing the risks of some diseases,[6] including cancers.[7][8][9] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 647 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (658 × 610 pixel, file size: 547 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 647 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (658 × 610 pixel, file size: 547 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Researchers have shown that blueberry anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and tannins inhibit mechanisms of cancer cell development in vitro[10][11][12]. At a 2007 symposium on berry health benefits were reports showing consumption of blueberries (and similar fruits including cranberries) may alleviate the cognitive decline occurring in Alzheimer's Disease and other conditions of aging.[13] Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Proanthocyanidin (also known as OPC, pycno-genol, leukocyanidin and leucoanthocyanin) is a a class of bioflavonoids. ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... “Cranberries” redirects here. ... Alzheimers disease (AD), also known simply as Alzheimers, is a neurodegenerative disease that, in its most common form, is found in people over age 65. ...


Feeding blueberries to animals lowers stroke damage.[14][15] Research at Rutgers[16] has also shown that blueberries may help prevent urinary tract infections. Other animal studies found that blueberry consumption lowered cholesterol and total blood lipid levels, possibly affecting symptoms of heart disease.[17] Additional research showed that blueberry consumption in rats altered glycosaminoglycans, vascular cell components that can influence control of blood pressure.[18] A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Some common lipids. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ...


Most of these studies were conducted using highbush, hybrid cultivars of blueberries. Content of polyphenol antioxidants and anthocyanins in lowbush blueberries exceeds the values found in highbush blueberries.[19] A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ... Molecular structure of flavone, a common polyphenol antioxidant A polyphenol antioxidant is a member of a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role in down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . ... Anthocyanin is a pigment that reflects the red to blue range of the visible spectrum. ...


One cup (145 g) of blueberries provides 31% of the Dietary Reference Intake for vitamin C, 16% for dietary fiber, 20% for manganese and 7% for vitamin E[20], with a low glycemic load.[21] The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... The glycemic load (GL) is a ranking system for carbohydrate content in food portions based on their glycemic index (GI) and the portion size. ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • BNZ, n.d: "Blueberries New Zealand Inc" Web page[2] at the site of the organization of the same name, accessed August 24, 2006.
  • Clayton-Greene, K.: Web page titled "The Blueberry Industry in Australia: An Overview" a summary of an article[3] at the Web site for the International Society for Horticultural Science. The article appears to have been written in the 1990s, accessed August 24, 2006.
  • Gain, 2005: "USDA Foreign Agricultural Service: GAIN Report: Global Agriculture Information Network"[4], January 12, 2005, accessed August 24, 2006</ref>
  • Gaskell, Mark. "Strategies for Off-Season Blueberry Production on Coastal California Small Farms," an article[5] in "Central Coast Agriculture Highlights" a newsletter published by the University of California Cooperative Extension, February 2006 issue, page 2, accessed August 24, 2006.
  • Nauman, W.D. Web page[6] titled "Overview of the Vaccinium Industry in Western Europe," a summary of an article by W.D. Naumann presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Vaccinium Culture and published in July 1993, from the Web site of the International Society for Horticultural Science, accessed August 24, 2006.
  • San Jose, n.d.: San Jose Farms Web site, "Products: Blueberries" Web page[7], accessed August 24, 2006</ref>
  • Sweeney M.I., Kalt W., MacKinnon S.L., Ashby J. and Gottschall-Pass K.T. Feeding of diets enriched in lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) for six weeks decreases stroke severity in rats. Nutritional Neuroscience 5: 427-431, 2002.
  • Matchett, M.D., MacKinnon, S.L., Sweeney, M.I., Gottschall-Pass, K.T., and Hurta, R.A.R. Blueberry flavonoids inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 83: 637-643, 2005.
  • University of California Cooperative Extension (2006). Strategies for Off-Season Blueberry Production on Coastal California Small Farms (pdf file) an article by Mark Gaskell in Central Coast Agriculture Highlights newsletter. Accessed August 24, 2006.
  • Joseph, J.A., Shukitt-Hale B., Denisova, N.A. Bielinksi D., Martin, A., McEwen, J.J., & Bickford, P.C., 1999. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. Journal of Neuroscience 19 (18): 8114–8121.
  • Sumner, Judith (2004). American Household Botany: A History of Useful Plants, 1620-1900. Timber Press, 125. ISBN 0-88192-652-3.  Google books link
  • Wild blueberry culture in Maine (FAO)
  • "The Blueberry Bulletin" newsletter (New Jersey)
Industry associations

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

Reference list

  1. ^ http://www.berrydoctor.com/broadcast/2007/blueberries.htm
  2. ^ http://www.npicenter.com/anm/templates/newsATemp.aspx?articleid=18944&zoneid=201
  3. ^ http://ffnmag.com/ASP/articleDisplay.asp?strArticleId=1284&strSite=FFNSite&Screen=HOME
  4. ^ http://www.npicenter.com/anm/templates/newsATemp.aspx?articleid=17826&zoneid=201
  5. ^ http://www.oxfordfrozenfoods.com/map.htm
  6. ^ http://www.npicenter.com/anm/templates/newsATemp.aspx?articleid=18944&zoneid=201
  7. ^ http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/antioxidantsprevention][http://newsletter.cancerresearchsociety.ca/bulletin/omni/articles/5835.aspx
  8. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17147415&ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  9. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17533651&ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  10. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17381106&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  11. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16399225&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  12. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16131149&ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  13. ^ http://www.npicenter.com/anm/templates/newsATemp.aspx?articleid=18944&zoneid=201
  14. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=12509072&ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  15. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=15817266&ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  16. ^ http://aesop.rutgers.edu/~bluecran/medicinalgeneralinfopage.htm
  17. ^ http://www.webmd.com/content/article/93/102127.htm
  18. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16111874&ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
  19. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=11600018&query_hl=15&itool=pubmed_docsum
  20. ^ Blueberries in-depth nutrient profile, World's Healthiest Foods
  21. ^ http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-C00001-01c20Tt.html

See also

  • Wild Blueberry University of Maine Cooperative Extension wild blueberry site.
  • Elizabeth Coleman White - a New Jersey agricultural specialist who was one of the first to commercialize blueberries.
Elizabeth Coleman White Elizabeth Coleman White (1871-1954) was a New Jersey agricultural specialist who was one of the first to commercialize blueberries. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Blueberry (2004) (742 words)
Willem Dafoe and 'Benicio del Toro' were then considered for the role of Mike Blueberry, but Jan Kounen remembered conversations he had about shamanism with his friend Vincent Cassel and chose him instead.
I knew it would be intriguing since its based on a Moebius comic strip, but I wasn't really expecting what I got.
As he lays "dying" we drift back through his life, stopping at about the point the crazed Prussian is getting everyone hot with gold fever and an old enemy returns to haunt him.
.:: Blueberries ::. (2264 words)
Blueberry are grown in rows that are cultivated year round to produce sweet and plump berries.
Blueberries are processed in a number of different forms for availability year round and as ingredients for the food processing industry.
Blueberries and blueberry juice is dried and tumbled in hot air to produce a blueberry powder.
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