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Encyclopedia > Bioterrorism
For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare.

Bioterrorism is terrorism by intentional release or dissemination of biological agents (bacteria, viruses or toxins); these may be in a naturally-occurring or in a human-modified form. Terrorist redirects here. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally chared States Army|US Army]][1] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements. ... The history of terrorism is a history of the various types of terrorism and terrorist individuals and groups. ... International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... This article is about the U.S.-led campaign against the spread of terrorism. ... The term Red Terror may refer to: The Russian 1918-1922 Red Terror Spanish Red Terror during the Civil War Red terror (Spain) The 1977-1978 Red Terror in Ethiopia The race horse Red Terror The Red Terror, a figure in the Warhammer 40,000 game. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the bureaucratic definition of terrorism. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... Communist terrorism (or Communist terror) is terrorism committed by Communist organizations or Communist states against civilians to achieve political or ideological objectives by creating fear [1] [2][3] After Islamic groups, Communist groups are the largest number of organizations on the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. ... Eco-terrorism or ecoterrorism is the concept of terrorism conducted for the sake of ecological or environmental causes. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... 15:40, 25 January 2007 (UTC)168. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... The Ku Klux Klan with a fiery cross Christian terrorism is a form of militant extremism that attempts to spread fear and terror, to perpetrate ideological goals, through violent attacks against civilian populations. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Agro-terrorism is a controversial neologism used to describe threats by a terrorist act on the food chain. ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... Environmental terrorism is the unlawful destruction of resources in order to deprive others of its use. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Nuclear terrorism denotes the use of nuclear weapons, radiological weapons (dirty bombs), or attacks against local facilities that handle nuclear material with mass destruction in mind. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... The Proxy Bomb (also known as a human bomb) was a tactic used by the Provisional IRA for a short time in 1990s, whereby people were forced to drive car bombs into military targets. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... This article is about acts of terrorism. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease or toxin that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Definition

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water, or in food. Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extremely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. Some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, cannot.

History

Biological terrorism dates as far back as ancient Roman civilization, where dead and rotting animals were thrown into wells to poison water supplies (Bock, 2001.) This early version of biological terrorism was used to destroy enemy forces covertly. It continued on into the 14th century where the bubonic plague was used to infiltrate enemy cities, both by instilling the fear of infection in residences, in hopes that they would evacuate, and also to destroy defending forces that would not yield to the attack. The use of disease as a weapon in this stage of history exhibited a lack of control aggressors had over their own biological weapons. Primitive medical technology provided limited means of protection for the aggressor and a battle's surrounding geographical regions. After the battle was won, the inability to contain enemies who escaped death led to widespread epidemics affecting not only the enemy forces, but also surrounding regions' inhabitants. Due to the use of these biological weapons, and the apparent lack of medical advancement necessary to defend surrounding regions from them, widespread epidemics such as the bubonic plague quickly moved across all of Western Europe, destroying a large portion of its population. The victims of biological terrorism in fact became weapons themselves. This was noted in the Middle Ages, but medical advancements had not progressed far enough to prevent the consequences of a weapons use (Eitzen and Takafuji, 1997). Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


In the 15th century, smallpox was used on contaminated clothing to defeat South American and Native American forces (Bock, 2001). Again, the use of biological weapons, for which limited protection and containment was available, led to casualties on both sides of battles. Bioterrorism continued to be an effective method of weakening an adversary but it was also difficult to contain. In the Revolutionary War, colonists were vaccinated from the smallpox virus and then used the virus to intentionally infect enemies. This demonstrated a major advancement in the evolution of bioterrorism. Once the ability to defend from biological warfare became possible through medical advancement, the weapons became far more valuable. This article is about the disease. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


As time continued the use of biological warfare became more and more sophisticated. Countries were developing weapons that delivered much higher effectiveness and less chance of infecting the wrong party. One significant enhancement in biological weapon development was the first use of anthrax. Anthrax effectiveness was initially limited to victims of large dosages. This became a weapon of choice because it is easily transferred, has a high mortality rate, and could be easily obtained. Also, variants of the anthrax bacterium can be found all around the world making it the biological weapon of choice in the early 19th century. Another property of anthrax that helped fuel its use as a biological weapon is its poor ability to spread far beyond the targeted population.


By the time World War I began, attempts to use anthrax were directed at animal populations. This was ineffective. Instead, the use of poisonous mustard gas became the biological weapon of choice. The sheer horror of its effects lead to a treaty called the Geneva Protocol of 1925. The treaty was created to prevent the use of asphyxiating gas as a method of biological warfare (Brooks, 2001). While this was a significant advancement toward the prevention of biological weapon use, the treaty said nothing about weapon development. Secretly, biological weapon development programs existed in many nations. While no documented instances of biological weapon use exist it is believed that this was primarily due to the programs immaturity and not the unwillingness to use them. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ...


American biological weapon development began in 1942. President Franklin D. Roosevelt placed George W. Merck in charge of the effort to create a development program. These programs continued until 1969, when by executive order President Richard Nixon shut down all programs related to American offensive use of biological weapons (http://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/cbw/bw.html). FDR redirects here. ... George W. Merck (1894 - 1957), the son of George Merck, was an American scientist and president of Merck & Co. ... Nixon redirects here. ...


Accusations of the use of biological weapons against North Korea were spread during Vietnam, however it is believed that those accusations were propaganda developed by the North Korean regime to villainize American Armed Forces. As the 1970s passed, global efforts to prevent the development of biological weapons and their use were widespread. In 1972 the prohibition of development, production and stockpiling biological weapons was developed.


In the 1980’s Iraq made substantial efforts to develop and stockpile large amounts of biological weapons. By the end of the 80’s Iraq had several sites dedicated to the research and development of biological warfare. They began to test their findings in the late 80’s. These actions lead to the first Gulf war in which Iraq’s biological weapons were dismantled and destroyed.


Since that time, efforts to use biological warfare has been more apparent in small radical organizations attempting to create fear in the eyes of large groups. Some efforts have been partially effective in creating fear, due to the lack of visibility associated with modern biological weapon use by small organizations. In 1995 a small terrorist group launched a terrorist attack aboard a Tokyo subway. The attack killed twelve and affected more than 5000. The response of Japanese emergency services successfully prevented an outcome with much higher mortality rates.


In the United States a more recent biological terrorism attack occurred in 2001 when letters laced with infectious anthrax were delivered to news media offices and the U.S Congress (Johnston, 2005). The letters killed 5. While many believed this attack to be in relation to Iraq’s development of biological weapons, tests on the anthrax strand used in the attack pointed to a domestic source.


Types of biological agents

The CDC has defined and categorized bioterrorism agents according to priority 2 as follows:


Category A agents

These are biological agents with both a high potential for adverse public health impact and that also have a serious potential for large-scale dissemination. Many of these agents require Biosafety Level 4 laboratories. The Category A agents are anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. A Biosafety Level is the level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed facility. ...

Anthrax 
Anthrax is a non-contagious disease. An anthrax vaccine does exist but requires many injections and has side effects that render it unsuitable for general use.
Smallpox 
Smallpox is a highly contagious virus. It transmits easily through the atmosphere and has a high mortality rate (20-40%). Smallpox was eliminated in the world in the 1970s, thanks to a worldwide vaccination program. However, some virus samples are still available in Russian and American laboratories. Some believe that after the collapse of the Soviet Union, cultures of smallpox have become available in other countries. Although people born pre-1970 will have been vaccinated for smallpox under the WHO program, the effectiveness of vaccination is limited since the vaccine provides high level of immunity for only 3 to 5 years. As a biological weapon smallpox is dangerous because of the highly contagious nature of both the infected and their pox. Smallpox occurs only in humans, and has no external hosts or vectors.
Botulinum toxin 
Botulinum toxin is one of the deadliest toxins known, and is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism causes death by respiratory failure and paralysis. It is not easy to obtain even though it is found in the cosmetic products Botox and Dysport.
Plague 
Plague is a disease caused by the Yersinia pestis bacterium. Rodents are the normal host of plague, and the disease is transmitted to humans by flea bites and occasionally by aerosol in the form of pneumonic plague. The disease has a history of use in biological warfare dating back many centuries, and is considered a threat due to its ease of culture and ability to remain in circulation among local rodents for a long period of time.
Viral hemorrhagic fever 
This includes the Filoviridae (containing the Marburg and Ebola genera), and the Arenaviridae (for example Lassa or Machupo). Ebola has fatality rates ranging from 50-90%. No cure currently exists, although vaccines are in development. The United States and the erstwhile Soviet Union both investigated the use of Ebola for biological warfare, and the Aum Shinrikyo group possessed cultures of the virus.[citation needed] Ebola kills its victims through multiple organ failure and hypovolemic shock. Marburg was first discovered in Marburg, Germany. Fatality rates range from 25-100%, and although a vaccine is in development, no treatments currently exist aside from supportive care. The Arenaviruses have a greatly reduced fatality rate, but a larger presence, chiefly in central Africa and South America. Many of the Arenaviruses can be aerosol transmitted, making them particularly viable for bioterrorism.
Tularemia 
Tularemia, or rabbit fever, has a very low fatality rate if treated, but can severely incapacitate. The disease is caused by the Francisella tularensis bacterium. It has been widely produced for biological warfare due to its highly infective nature, and ease of aerosolization.

Anthrax bacteria. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) or adverse drug event (abbreviated ADE) is an expression that describes the unwanted, negative consequences associated with the use of given medications. ... This article is about the disease. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Binomial name van Ermengem, 1896 Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that produces the toxin botulin, the causative agent in botulism. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Paralysed redirects here. ... Botulin toxin or botox is the toxic compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Binomial name (Lehmann & Neumann, 1896) van Loghem 1944 Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bipolar-staining (giving it a safety pin appearance) bacillus bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Plague redirects here. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... Arenavirus is a genus of virus. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Virus first isolated in Boilivia in 1963. ... Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese new religious movement organization. ... Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome - M.O.D.S. (previously known as multiple organ failure) is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to maintain homeostasis. ... In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume. ... , Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... Species Francisella is a genus of pathogenic bacteria. ...

Category B agents

Category B agents are moderately easy to disseminate and have low mortality rates.

  • Brucellosis (Brucella species) Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria of the genus Brucella. These bacteria are primarily passed among animals, and they cause disease in many different vertebrates. Various Brucella species affect sheep, goats, cattle, deer, elk, pigs, dogs, and several other animals. Humans become infected by coming in contact with animals or animal products that are contaminated with these bacteria. In humans brucellosis can cause a range of symptoms that are similar to the flu and may include fever, sweats, headaches, back pains, and physical weakness. Severe infections of the central nervous systems or lining of the heart may occur. Brucellosis can also cause long-lasting or chronic symptoms that include recurrent fevers, joint pain, and fatigue
  • Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens
  • Food safety threats (e.g., Salmonella species, E coli O157:H7, Shigella, Stash)
  • Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)
  • Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)
  • Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)
  • Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)
  • Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B
  • Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii)
  • Viral encephalitis (alphaviruses, e.g.: Venezuelan equine encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis)
  • Water supply threats (e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium parvum)

Binomial name Clostridium perfringens Veillon & Zuber 1898 Hauduroy 1937 Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as Clostridium welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium of the genus Clostridium[1]. is ubiquitous in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal... Species S. bongori S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... Species S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei This article is about the bacteria. ... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Melioidosis, also known as pseudoglanders and Whitmores disease (after Capt Alfred Whitmore) is an uncommon infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water. ... Species Burkholderia ambifaria Burkholderia andropogonis Burkholderia anthina Burkholderia brasilensis Burkholderia caledonica Burkholderia caribensis Burkholderia caryophylli Burkholderia cenocepacia Burkholderia cepacia Burkholderia cepacia complex Burkholderia dolosa Burkholderia fungorum Burkholderia gladioli Burkholderia glathei Burkholderia glumae Burkholderia graminis Burkholderia hospita Burkholderia kururiensis Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia multivorans Burkholderia phenazinium Burkholderia phymatum Burkholderia phytofirmans Burkholderia plantarii... In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... Castor beans Ricin (pronounced ) is a protein toxin that is extracted from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Binomial name Ricinus communis The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is not a true bean, but a member of the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... In biology and immunology, an alphavirus (pronounced alph-AV-ir-rus) belongs to the group IV Togaviridae family of viruses, according to the system of classification based on viral genome composition introduced by David Baltimore in 1971. ... Equine encephalitis may be caused by several viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezualan equine encephalitis virus This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Binomial name Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative bacterium with a curved-rod shape that causes cholera in humans. ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ...

Category C agents

Category C agents are pathogens that might be engineered for mass dissemination because they are easy to produce and have potential for high morbidity or mortality (examples: nipah virus, hantavirus and multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MTB). A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus...


Modern bioterrorist incidents

1915-16 livestock sabotage by Germany

Dr Anton Dilger, a German-American physician, worked for Germany in the U.S. (Chevy Chase and Baltimore) in 1915 and 1916 with cultures of anthrax and glanders with the intention of biological sabotage on behalf of the German government.[1] Other German agents are known to have undertaken similar sabotage efforts during WWI in Norway, Spain, Romania and Argentina. Anton Dilger (1884 - 17 October 1918) was a German-American physician and the main proponent of the German biological warfare sabotage program during World War I. He was born in Front Royal, Virginia, and died in Madrid, Spain. ... This article is about the town in Maryland. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ...


1984 Rajneeshee Salmonella attack

Main article: 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack

In 1984, followers of the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh attempted to control a local election by incapacitating the local population by infecting salad bars in eleven restaurants, doorknobs, produce in grocery stores and other public domains with Salmonella typhimurium in the city of The Dalles, Oregon. The attack caused about 751 people to get sick (no fatalities). This incident was the first known bioterrorist attack in the United States in the 20th century. The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack refers to the salmonella food poisoning of over seven hundred and fifty individuals in Oregon through the contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants. ... This article is about the controversial spiritual teacher formerly known as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. ... This article is about the political process. ... This article deals with food. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... Disamb: For the German rock group The Dalles, see The Dalles (band) The Dalles is a city located in Wasco County, Oregon. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


2001 anthrax attack

Main article: 2001 anthrax attacks

In September and October of 2001, several cases of anthrax broke out in the United States in the 2001 anthrax attacks, caused deliberately. This was a well-publicized act of bioterrorism. It motivated efforts to define biodefense and biosecurity, where more limited definitions of biosafety had focused on unintentional or accidental impacts of agricultural and medical technologies. The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. ... Biodefense refers to short term, local, usually military measures to restore biosecurity to a given group of persons in a given area — in the civilian terminology, it is a very robust biohazard response. ... A biosecurity guarantee attempts to ensure that ecologies sustaining either people or animals are maintained. ... Biosafety: prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health. ...


2003 ricin incidents

See also: Ricin

Castor beans Ricin (pronounced ) is a protein toxin that is extracted from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...

Planning for and reacting to a bioterrorist attack

Planning may involve the development of biological identification systems.


Until recently in the United States, most biological defense strategies have been geared to protecting soldiers on the battlefield rather than ordinary people in cities. Financial cutbacks have limited the tracking of disease outbreaks. Some outbreaks, such as food poisoning due to E. coli or Salmonella, could be of either natural or deliberate origin. See also Entamoeba coli. ... Species S. bongori S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ...


Preparedness and response to a biological attack

Biological agents are relatively easy to obtain by terrorists and are becoming more threatening in the U.S., and laboratories are working on advanced detection systems to provide early warning, identify contaminated areas and populations at risk, and to facilitate prompt treatment. Methods for predicting the use of biological agents in urban areas as well as assessing the area for the hazards associated with a biological attack are being established in major cities. In addition, forensic technologies are working on identifying biological agents, their geographical origins and/or their initial son. forts include decontamination technologies to restore facilities without causing additional environmental concerns (2). The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ...


Biosurveillance strategies

In 1999, the University of Pittsburgh's Center for Biomedical Informatics deployed the first automated bioterrorism detection system, called RODS (Real-Time Outbreak Disease Surveillance). RODS is designed to draw collect data from many data sources and use them to perform signal detection, that is, to detect the a possible bioterrorism event at the earliest possible moment. RODS, and other systems like it, collect data from sources including clinic data, laboratory data, and data from over-the-counter drug sales. In 2000, Michael Wagner, the codirector of the RODS laboratory, and Ron Aryel, a subcontractor, conceived of the idea of obtaining live data feeds from "non-traditional" (non-health-care) data sources. The RODS laboratory's first efforts eventually led to the establishment of the National Retail Data Monitor, a system which collects data from 20,000 retail locations nation-wide. The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Health science is the discipline of applied science which deals with human and animal health. ...


On February 5, 2002, George W. Bush visited the RODS laboratory and used it as a model for a $300 million spending proposal to equip all 50 states with biosurveillance systems. In a speech delivered at the nearby Masonic temple, Bush compared the RODS system to a modern "DEW" line (referring to the Cold War ballistic missile early warning system). is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ...


The principles and practices of biosurveillance, a new interdisciplinary science, were defined and described in the Handbook of Biosurveillance, edited by Michael Wagner, Andrew Moore and Ron Aryel, and published in 2006. Biosurveillance is the science of real-time disease outbreak detection. Its principles apply to both natural and man-made epidemics (bioterrorism).


Data which potentially could assist in early detection of a bioterrorism event include many categories of information. Health-related data such as that from hospital computer systems, clinical laboratories, electronic health record systems, medical examiner record-keeping systems, 911 call center computers, and veterinary medical record systems could be of help; researchers are also considering the utility of data generated by ranching and feedlot operations, food processors, drinking water systems, school attendance recording, and physiologic monitors, among others. Intuitively, one would expect systems which collect more than one type of data to be more useful than systems which collect only one type of information (such as single-purpose laboratory or 911 call-center based systems), and be less prone to false alarms, and this appears to be the case. This article is about the year 911 A.D.. For the emergency telephone number, see 9-1-1. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) (also known as factory farming) which is used for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, prior to slaughter. ... Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... False alarms, also known as nuisance alarms are usually associated with malfunctioning fire and security alarm systems. ...


In Europe, disease surveillance is beginning to be organized on the continent-wide scale needed to track a biological emergency. The system not only monitors infected persons, but attempts to discern the origin of the outbreak. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Researchers are experimenting with devices to detect the existence of a threat:

  • tiny electronic chips that would contain living nerve cells to warn of the presence of bacterial toxins (identification of broad range toxins)
  • fiber-optic tubes lined with antibodies coupled to light-emitting molecules (identification of specific pathogens, such as anthrax, botulinum, ricin)

New research shows that ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes offer the high gain, reliability and robustness needed to detect anthrax and other bioterrorism agents in the air. The fabrication methods and device characteristics were described at the 50th Electronic Materials Conference in Santa Barbara on June 25, 2008. Details of the photodiodes were also published in the February 14, 2008 issue of the journal Electronics Letters and the November 2007 issue of the journal IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.[2] Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Limitations of bioterrorism

Bioterrorism is inherently limited as a warfare tactic because of the uncontrollable nature of the agent involved. A biological weapon is useful to a terrorist group mainly as a method of creating mass panic and disruption to a society. However, technologists such as Bill Joy have warned of the potential power which genetic engineering might place in the hands of future bio-terrorists[3]; a bacterial agent might be engineered for genetic or geographical selectivity. Such a scenario formed the plot of the science fiction novel The White Plague and the action novel Area 7. Bill Joy William Nelson Joy (born Nov 8, 1954), commonly known as Bill Joy, is an American computer scientist. ... Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... The White Plague is an archaic term for tuberculosis. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Other forms of bioterrorism

The use of agents that do not cause harm to humans but disrupt the economy have been discussed.[citation needed] A highly relevant pathogen in this context is the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, which is capable of causing widespread economic damage and public concern (as witnessed in the 2001 and 2007 FMD outbreaks in the UK), whilst having almost no capacity to infect humans. Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ...


The genomic revolution requires scientists to follow a recognised Code of Conduct. The 'dual-use' technology dilemma implicates issues further; good scientific inventions can be reapplied along a sinister vector.


References

  1. ^ Geißler, Erhard (1999), Biologische Waffen - Nicht in Hitlers Arsenalen, Bsiologische und Toxin-Kampfmittel in Deutschland von 1915 bis 1945, Lit-Verlag, Münster
  2. ^ Avalanche Photodiodes Target Bioterrorism Agents Newswise, Retrieved on June 25, 2008.
  3. ^ Why the future doesn't need us

See also: . For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Why the future doesnt need us is an article by Bill Joy, Chief Scientist at Sun Microsystems. ...

  • Milanovich, F. (1998 June). Reducing the threat of biological weapons. Science and Technology Review. pp. 4-9. Retrieved from http://www.llnl.gov/str/Milan.html.
  • Block, S. M. (2001, January-February). The growing threat of biological weapons. American Scientist, 89:1. Retrieved December 15, 2005 from [1]
  • Christopher, G. W., Cieslak, T. J., Pavlin, J. A., and Eitzen, E. M. Jr. (1998). Biological weapons. Adapted from Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective. Fort Detrick, MD: Operational Medicine Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.
  • Eitzen, E. and Takafuji, E. (1997). Historical Overview of Biological Warfare. In Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army (ed.) Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare.
  • Paquette, Laure (2002), Bioterrorism and Health and Medical Services Administration, New York: Dekker.
  • Wagner, M., Moore, A., Aryel, R. Handbook of Biosurveillance (2006). Academic Press, San Diego

Look up Dekker in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

See also

Agroterrorism, also known as Agriterrorism, is the malicious use of plant or animal pathogens to cause devastating disease in the agricultural sector. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Biological Weapons Convention Opened for signature April 10, 1972 at Moscow, Washington and London Entered into force March 26, 1975 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to... Decontamination of humans is usually done by a three step procedure, separated by sex: removal of clothing, washing, and reclothing. ... The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) is an international partnership between countries in order to supplement and strengthen their preparedness to repond to threats of biological, chemical, radio-nuclear terrorism (CBRN) and pandemic influenza. ... The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity is a panel of the Department of Health and Human Services in the United States federal government. ... The Center for Biosecurity is an independent, nonprofit organization of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) that is dedicated to improving the country’s resilience to major biological threats. ... Australia Group is an informal group of countries established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help reduce the spread of chemical and biological weapons by monitoring and controlling the spread of technologies required to produce them. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Town That Was Poisoned
  • EU Health Portal Information on EU activities related to bioterrorism
  • Green Goo - Life In The Era Of Humane Genocide by Nick Szabo
  • Bioterrorism: Plague as a biological weapon
  • The CDC's Emergency Preparedness & Response (Bioterrorism) Website
  • Fighting Fear of a Bioterrorism Event With Information Technology: Real-World Examples and Opportunities
  • USAMRIID’s Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook
  • The Sunshine Project: Protection or Proliferation? Map and Publications on the US Biodefense Program
  • Bioterrorism News from Genome News Network (GNN)
  • NOVA: Bioterror
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The international biological hazard symbol Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Decontamination of humans is usually done by a three step procedure, separated by sex: removal of clothing, washing, and reclothing. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 559 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 643 pixels, file size: 44 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease or toxin that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Binomial name Burkholderia pseudomallei (Whitmore 1913) Yabuuchi et al. ... Chlamydophila psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans. ... Binomial name (Derrick 1939) Philip 1948 Coxiella burnetii is a species of intracellular, pathogenic bacteria, and is the causative agent of Q fever. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... Equine encephalitis may be caused by several viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezualan equine encephalitis virus This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Castor beans Ricin (pronounced ) is a protein toxin that is extracted from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Binomial name (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987 Salmonella enterica is a rod shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. ... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... This article is about the disease. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack refers to the salmonella food poisoning of over seven hundred and fifty individuals in Oregon through the contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants. ... The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. ... Australia Group is an informal group of countries established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help reduce the spread of chemical and biological weapons by monitoring and controlling the spread of technologies required to produce them. ... The Center for Biosecurity is an independent, nonprofit organization of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) that is dedicated to improving the country’s resilience to major biological threats. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is an agency of the European Union. ... The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) is an international partnership between countries in order to supplement and strengthen their preparedness to repond to threats of biological, chemical, radio-nuclear terrorism (CBRN) and pandemic influenza. ... The Health Threat Unit of the Directorate-General for Health and Consumer Protection (European Commission), is responsible for terrorism surveillance and early warning of biological, chemical, and radiological threats within the European Union. ... The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) is a highly classified government biodefense research laboratory created by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and located at the governments sprawling biodefense campus at Fort Detrick in Frederick, MD, USA. Created quietly a few months after the 2001... The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity is a panel of the Department of Health and Human Services in the United States federal government. ... USAMRIID banner The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, pronounced U-Sam-Rid) is a military research institute for medicine based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland used for research of infectious disease that may have defensive applications against biological warfare that would protect the citizens of...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ADA.org: A-Z Topics: Bioterrorism (353 words)
It became apparent following the tragic events of the fall of 2001 that the nation was not adequately prepared to respond to a significant bioterrorism attack.
Dentistry considered its potential role in responding to a significant bioterrorism attack during the first part of 2002 and reached a consensus on its role.
This is a template for dental societies to use in developing a plan for providing assistance in the response to a bioterrorism attack and other mass disasters.
APIC | Bioterrorism Resources (3327 words)
A fundamental step toward addressing the threat of bioterrorism is comprehensive planning that focuses first and foremost on local preparedness and response capacity—integrating the role of state, regional, and federal governments, as well as state, regional, and national assets.
Bioterrorism covers a very broad spectrum of concerns, from catastrophic terrorism with mass casualties, to microevents using low technology but producing civil unrest, disruption, disease, disabilities, and death.
However, for bioterrorism we are better able to talk about the "why" than the "what." When Congress received a request from the administration to address bioterrorism, we had only the vaguest idea what they wanted to do.
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