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Encyclopedia > Biology
Escherichia coli Tree fern
Goliath beetle Gazelle
Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle

Biology (from Greek βιολογία - βίος, bios, "life"; and λόγος, logos, "science"), is a branch of Natural Science, and is the study of living organisms and how they interact with their environment. Biology deals with every aspect of life in a living organism. Biology examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living things. It classifies and describes organisms, their functions, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the natural environment. Four unifying principles form the foundation of modern biology: cell theory, evolution, genetics and homeostasis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x861, 165 KB)Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip. ... An Australian tree fern growing on Oahu, Hawaii. ... Download high resolution version (716x864, 91 KB)Goliath Beetle Taken by fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... PD image of gazelle from http://hawaii. ... This article is about life in general. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... Tree Fern refers to any fern that grows with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Goliathus albosignatus Goliathus cacicus Goliathus goliatus Goliathus orientalis Goliathus regius Wikispecies has information related to: Goliathus The Goliath beetles are among the largest insects on Earth, if measured in terms of bulk and weight. ... This article is about life in general. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the natural environment. ... A prokaryote Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in all living things. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ...


Biology as a separate science was developed in the nineteenth century as scientists discovered that organisms shared fundamental characteristics. Biology is now a standard subject of instruction at schools and universities around the world, and over a million papers are published annually in a wide array of biology and medicine journals.[1] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ...


Most biological sciences are specialized disciplines. Traditionally, they are grouped by the type of organism being studied: botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; and microbiology, the study of microorganisms. The fields within biology are further divided based on the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the fundamental chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism; and ecology examines how various organisms and their environment interrelate. Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Cell biology (cellular biology) is an academic discipline which studies the physiological properties of cells, as well as their behaviours, interactions, and environment; this is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...

Contents

Foundations of modern biology

There are five unifying principles of biology [2]:

  • Cell theory. Cell Theory is the study of everything that involves cells. All living organisms are made of at least one cell, the basic unit of function in all organisms. In addition, the core mechanisms and chemistry of all cells in all organisms are similar, and cells emerge only from preexisting cells that multiply through cell division. Cell theory studies how cells are made, how they reproduce, how they interact with their environment, what they are composed of, and how the materials that make up a cell work and interact with other cell sections.
  • Gene theory. A living organism's traits are encoded in DNA, the fundamental component of genes. In addition, traits are passed on from one generation to the next by way of these genes. All information flows from the genotype to the phenotype, the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of the organism. Although the phenotype expressed by the gene may adapt to the environment of the organism, that information is not transferred back to the genes. Only through the process of evolution do genes change in response to the environment.
  • Homeostasis. The physiological processes that allow an organism to maintain its internal environment notwithstanding its external environment.

A prokaryote Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in all living things. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The stimulus-response model describes a statistical unit as making a quantitative response to a quantitative stimulus administered by the researcher. ...

Cell Theory

Main article: Cell theory

The cell is the fundamental unit of life. Cell theory states that all living things are composed of one or more cells, or the secreted products of those cells, for example, shell and bone. Cells arise from other cells through cell division, and in multicellular organisms, every cell in the organism's body is produced from a single cell in a fertilized egg. Furthermore, the cell is considered to be the basic part of the pathological processes of an organism.[3] A prokaryote Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in all living things. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Evolution

Main article: Evolution

A central organizing concept in biology is that life changes and develops through evolution and that all lifeforms known have a common origin (see Common descent). This has led to the striking similarity of units and processes discussed in the previous section. Introduced into the scientific lexicon by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck in 1809,Charles Darwin established evolution fifty years later as a viable theory by articulating its driving force, natural selection (Alfred Russel Wallace is recognized as the co-discoverer of this concept as he helped research and experiment with the concept of evolution). Darwin theorized that species and breeds developed through the processes of natural selection as well as by artificial selection or selective breeding.[4] Genetic drift was embraced as an additional mechanism of evolutionary development in the modern synthesis of the theory. This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (August 1, 1744 – December 28, 1829) was a French naturalist and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ...


The evolutionary history of the species— which describes the characteristics of the various species from which it descended— together with its genealogical relationship to every other species is called its phylogeny. Widely varied approaches to biology generate information about phylogeny. These include the comparisons of DNA sequences conducted within molecular biology or genomics, and comparisons of fossils or other records of ancient organisms in paleontology. Biologists organize and analyze evolutionary relationships through various methods, including phylogenetics, phenetics, and cladistics. For a summary of major events in the evolution of life as currently understood by biologists, see evolutionary timeline.
For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... In biology, phenetics, also known as numerical taxonomy, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... This timeline outlines the major events in the development of life on planet Earth. ...


Up into the 19th century, it was commonly believed that life forms could appear spontaneously under certain conditions (see spontaneous generation). This misconception was challenged by William Harvey's diction that "all life [is] from [an] egg" (from the Latin "Omne vivum ex ovo"), a foundational concept of modern biology. It simply means that there is an unbroken continuity of life from its initial origin to the present time. Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Omne vivum ex ovo is Latin for All live [is] from [an] egg. This is a foundational concept of modern biology. ...


A group of organisms share a common descent if they share a common ancestor. All organisms on the Earth both living and extinct have been or are descended from a common ancestor or an ancestral gene pool. This last universal common ancestor of all organisms is believed to have appeared about 3.5 billion years ago. Biologists generally regard the universality of the genetic code as definitive evidence in favor of the theory of universal common descent (UCD) for all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes (see: origin of life). A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... For the definition, see Life. ...


Evolution does not always give rise to progressively more complex organisms. For example, the process of dysgenics has been observed among the human population.[5] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Gene theory

Schematic representation of DNA, the primary genetic material.
Schematic representation of DNA, the primary genetic material.
Main article: Gene

Biological form and function are created from and passed on to the next generation by genes, which are the primary units of inheritance. Physiological adaptation to an organism's environment cannot be coded into its genes and cannot be inherited by its offspring (see Lamarckism). Remarkably, widely different organisms, including bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi, all share the same basic machinery that copies and transcribes DNA into proteins. For example, bacteria with inserted human DNA will correctly yield the corresponding human protein. Image File history File links DNA-structure-and-bases. ... Image File history File links DNA-structure-and-bases. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Lamarckism or Lamarckian evolution refers to the once widely accepted idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring (also known as based on heritability of acquired characteristics or soft inheritance). It is named for the French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who...


The total complement of genes in an organism or cell is known as its genome, which is stored on one or more chromosomes. A chromosome is a single, long DNA strand on which thousands of genes, depending on the organism, are encoded. When a gene is active, the DNA code is transcribed into an RNA copy of the gene's information. A ribosome then translates the RNA into a structural protein or catalytic protein. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Translation is the second stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


Homeostasis

Main article: Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the ability of an open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable condition by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. All living organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular, exhibit homeostasis. Homeostasis exists at the cellular level, for example cells maintain a stable internal acidity (pH); and at the level of the organism, for example warm-blooded animals maintain a constant internal body temperature. Homeostasis is a term that is also used in association with ecosystems, for example, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide on Earth has been regulated by the concentration of plant life on Earth because plants remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during the daylight hours than they emit to the atmosphere at night. Tissues and organs can also maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... This article is about systems theory. ... A dynamic equilibrium occurs when two reversible processes occur at the same rate. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... u fuck in ua ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ...


Punnent Square made by Reginald Punnet in 1905 which is the shorthand way to show the expressed trait


See also: Health.


Research

This is a list of biology disciplines. ...

Structural

Schematic of typical animal cell depicting the various organelles and structures.
Schematic of typical animal cell depicting the various organelles and structures.

Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly with genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and learning how these interactions are regulated. Image File history File links Biological_cell. ... Image File history File links Biological_cell. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ...


Cell biology studies the physiological properties of cells, as well as their behaviors, interactions, and environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology researches both single-celled organisms like bacteria and specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans. Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article is about modern humans. ...


Understanding cell composition and how they function is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. Appreciating the similarities and differences between cell types is particularly important in the fields of cell and molecular biology. These fundamental similarities and differences provide a unifying theme, allowing the principles learned from studying one cell type to be extrapolated and generalized to other cell types.


Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. Genes encode the information necessary for synthesizing proteins, which in turn play a large role in influencing (though, in many instances, not completely determining) the final phenotype of the organism. In modern research, genetics provides important tools in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, or the analysis of genetic interactions. Within organisms, genetic information generally is carried in chromosomes, where it is represented in the chemical structure of particular DNA molecules. This article is about the general scientific term. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... The ancients had a variety of ideas about heredity: Theophrastus proposed that male flowers caused female flowers to ripen; Hippocrates speculated that seeds were produced by various body parts and transmitted to offspring at the time of conception, and Aristotle thought that male and female semen mixed at conception. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Genetic interactions, in genetics, are interactions that occur between two or more mutations that results in a new phenotype. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome (genetic algorithm). ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...


Developmental biology studies the process by which organisms grow and develop. Originating in embryology, modern developmental biology studies the genetic control of cell growth, differentiation, and "morphogenesis," which is the process that gives rise to tissues, organs, and anatomy. Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio, the mouse Mus musculus, and the weed Arabidopsis thaliana. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... In the center of the diagram are three of the early steps in the development of a mammal. ... Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation) is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Binomial name Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... Binomial name Danio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) The Zebra Danio or Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio or Danio rerio) is a tropical fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). ... Binomial name Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus is the common house mouse. ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ...


Physiological

Main articles: Physiology and Anatomy

Physiology studies the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of living organisms by attempting to understand how all of the structures function as a whole. The theme of "structure to function" is central to biology. Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology, but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can also apply to human cells. The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species. Plant physiology also borrows techniques from both fields. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Anatomy is an important branch of physiology and considers how organ systems in animals, such as the nervous, immune, endocrine, respiratory, and circulatory systems, function and interact. The study of these systems is shared with medically oriented disciplines such as neurology and immunology. Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ...


Evolution

In population genetics the evolution of a population of organisms is sometimes depicted as if travelling on a fitness landscape. The arrows indicate the preferred flow of a population on the landscape, and the points A, B, and C are local optima. The red ball indicates a population that moves from a very low fitness value to the top of a peak.
In population genetics the evolution of a population of organisms is sometimes depicted as if travelling on a fitness landscape. The arrows indicate the preferred flow of a population on the landscape, and the points A, B, and C are local optima. The red ball indicates a population that moves from a very low fitness value to the top of a peak.
Main articles: Evolutionary biology, Evolution, Evolutionary synthesis, and Natural selection

Evolution is concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, and includes scientists from many taxonomically-oriented disciplines. For example, it generally involves scientists who have special training in particular organisms such as mammalogy, ornithology, botany, or herpetology, but use those organisms as systems to answer general questions about evolution. Evolutionary biology is mainly based on paleontology, which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and tempo of evolution, as well as the developments in areas such as population genetics and evolutionary theory. In the 1980s, developmental biology re-entered evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology. Related fields which are often considered part of evolutionary biology are phylogenetics, systematics, and taxonomy. Importing fitness landscape cartoon image originally included in Nupedia fitness landscape article-in-progress (originally titled fig1. ... Importing fitness landscape cartoon image originally included in Nupedia fitness landscape article-in-progress (originally titled fig1. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes) and replicatory success. ... Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin of species from a common descent, and descent of species; as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism), generally denotes the integration of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ...


Up into the 19th century, it was believed that life forms were being continuously created under certain conditions (see spontaneous generation). This misconception was challenged by William Harvey's diction that "all life [is] from [an] egg" (from the Latin "Omne vivum ex ovo"), a foundational concept of modern biology. It simply means that there is an unbroken continuity of life from its initial origin to the present time. This article focuses on modern scientific research on the origin of life. ... This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Omne vivum ex ovo is Latin for All live [is] from [an] egg. This is a foundational concept of modern biology. ...


A group of organisms shares a common descent if they share a common ancestor. All organisms on the Earth have been and are descended from a common ancestor or an ancestral gene pool. This last universal common ancestor of all organisms is believed to have appeared about 3.5 billion years ago. Biologists generally regard the universality of the genetic code as definitive evidence in favor of the theory of universal common descent (UCD) for all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes (see: origin of life). An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... For the definition, see Life. ...


The two major traditional taxonomically-oriented disciplines are botany and zoology. Botany is the scientific study of plants. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, and evolution of plant life. Zoology involves the study of animals, including the study of their physiology within the fields of anatomy and embryology. The common genetic and developmental mechanisms of animals and plants is studied in molecular biology, molecular genetics, and developmental biology. The ecology of animals is covered under behavioral ecology and other fields.[6] Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation) is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Behavioral ecology is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment (both intrinsic and extrinsic). ...


Taxonomy

A phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese. Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place some early-branching groups very differently, presumably owing to rapid rRNA evolution. The exact relationships of the three domains are still being debated.
A phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese. Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place some early-branching groups very differently, presumably owing to rapid rRNA evolution. The exact relationships of the three domains are still being debated.
Main article: Taxonomy

Classification is the province of the disciplines of systematics and taxonomy. Taxonomy places organisms in groups called taxa, while systematics seeks to define their relationships with each other. This classification technique has evolved to reflect advances in cladistics and genetics, shifting the focus from physical similarities and shared characteristics to phylogenetics. Image File history File links Phylogenetic_tree. ... Image File history File links Phylogenetic_tree. ... Fig. ... The evolutionary tree of living things is currently supposed to run something along the lines of that listed below. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ...


Traditionally, living things have been divided into five kingdoms:[7]

Monera -- Protista -- Fungi -- Plantae -- Animalia

However, many scientists now consider this five-kingdom system to be outdated. Modern alternative classification systems generally begin with the three-domain system:[8] Figure 1. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ...

Archaea (originally Archaebacteria) -- Bacteria (originally Eubacteria) -- Eukarya

These domains reflect whether the cells have nuclei or not, as well as differences in the cell exteriors. Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ...


Further, each kingdom is broken down continuously until each species is separately classified. The order is:

The scientific name of an organism is obtained from its genus and species. For example, humans would be listed as Homo sapiens. Homo would be the genus and sapiens is the species. Whenever writing the scientific name of an organism, it is proper to capitalize the first letter in the genus and put all of the species in lowercase; in addition the entire term would be put in italics or underlined. The term used for classification is called taxonomy. The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... For other uses, see phyla. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...


There is also a series of intracellular parasites that are progressively "less alive" in terms of metabolic activity: A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...

Viruses -- Viroids -- Prions

The dominant classification system is called Linnaean taxonomy, which includes ranks and binomial nomenclature. How organisms are named is governed by international agreements such as the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB). A fourth Draft BioCode was published in 1997 in an attempt to standardize naming in these three areas, but it has yet to be formally adopted. The Virus International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN) remains outside the BioCode. A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Families Pospiviroidae Avsunviroidae Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch (a few hundred nucleobases) of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA without the protein coat that is typical for viruses. ... For the bird, see Prion (bird). ... Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ... Latin name redirects here. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria governs the scientific names for bacteria. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ...


Environmental

Main articles: Ecology, Ethology, Behavior, and Biogeography

Ecology studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their environment. The environment of an organism includes both its habitat, which can be described as the sum of local abiotic factors such as climate and ecology, as well as the other organisms that share its habitat. Ecological systems are studied at several different levels, from individuals and populations to ecosystems and the biosphere. As can be surmised, ecology is a science that draws on several disciplines. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... This article is about life in general. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...


Ethology studies animal behavior (particularly of social animals such as primates and canids), and is sometimes considered a branch of zoology. Ethologists have been particularly concerned with the evolution of behavior and the understanding of behavior in terms of the theory of natural selection. In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin, whose book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals" influenced many ethologists. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is a book by the British naturalist Charles Darwin published in 1872, on how animals and humans express and signal to others their emotions. ...


Biogeography studies the spatial distribution of organisms on the Earth, focusing on topics like plate tectonics, climate change, dispersal and migration, and cladistics. Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ...


Every living thing interacts with other organisms and its environment. One reason that biological systems can be difficult to study is that so many different interactions with other organisms and the environment are possible, even on the smallest of scales. A microscopic bacterium responding to a local sugar gradient is responding to its environment as much as a lion is responding to its environment when it searches for food in the African savannah. For any given species, behaviors can be co-operative, aggressive, parasitic or symbiotic. Matters become more complex when two or more different species interact in an ecosystem. Studies of this type are the province of ecology. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about grassland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


History

Main articles: History of biology and History of medicine

Although the concept of biology as a single coherent field arose in the 19th century, the biological sciences emerged from traditions of medicine and natural history reaching back to Galen and Aristotle in the ancient Greco-Roman world, which were then further developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians such as al-Jahiz,[9] Avicenna,[10] Avenzoar[11] and Ibn al-Nafis.[12] During the European Renaissance and early modern period, biological thought was revolutionized in Europe by a renewed interest in empiricism and the discovery of many novel organisms. Prominent in this movement were Vesalius and Harvey, who used experimentation and careful observation in physiology, and naturalists such as Linnaeus and Buffon who began to classify the diversity of life and the fossil record, as well as the development and behavior of organisms. Microscopy revealed the previously unknown world of microorganisms, laying the groundwork for cell theory. The growing importance of natural theology, partly a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, encouraged the growth of natural history.[13][14] The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The Greco-Roman or Graeco-Roman World As understood by medieval and modern scholars, geographers and miscellaneous writers, the term Greco-Roman world refers to those geographical regions and countries who were directly, protractedly and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... For the lunar impact crater, see Vesalius (crater). ... This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ... A prokaryote Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in all living things. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... In philosophy, mechanism is a theory that all natural phenomena can be explained by physical causes. ...


Over the 18th and 19th centuries, biological sciences such as botany and zoology became increasingly professional scientific disciplines. Lavoisier and other physical scientists began to connect the animate and inanimate worlds through physics and chemistry. Explorer-naturalists such as Alexander von Humboldt investigated the interaction between organisms and their environment, and the ways this relationship depends on geography—laying the foundations for biogeography, ecology and ethology. Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of extinction and the mutability of species. Cell theory provided a new perspective on the fundamental basis of life. These developments, as well as the results from embryology and paleontology, were synthesized in Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The end of the 19th century saw the fall of spontaneous generation and the rise of the germ theory of disease, though the mechanism of inheritance remained a mystery.[6][15][13] Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 - May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... A prokaryote Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in all living things. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... Biological inheritance is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to characteristics of its parent cell or organism. ...


In the early 20th century, the rediscovery of Mendel's work led to the rapid development of genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan and his students, and by the 1930s the combination of population genetics and natural selection in the "neo-Darwinian synthesis". New disciplines developed rapidly, especially after Watson and Crick proposed the structure of DNA. Following the establishment of the Central Dogma and the cracking of the genetic code, biology was largely split between organismal biology—the fields that deal with whole organisms and groups of organisms—and the fields related to cellular and molecular biology. By the late 20th century, new fields like genomics and proteomics were reversing this trend, with organismal biologists using molecular techniques, and molecular and cell biologists investigating the interplay between genes and the environment, as well as the genetics of natural populations of organisms.[16][17][18][19] “Mendel” redirects here. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... For other people named James Watson, see James Watson (disambiguation). ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The central dogma of molecular biology (sometimes Cricks central dogma after Francis Crick who coined the term and discovered some of the principles) states that the flow of genetic information is DNA to RNA to protein. With a few notable exceptions, all biological cells conform to this rule. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... For the journal Proteomics, see Proteomics (journal). ...


See also

This page aims to list articles related to biology. ... Biology is the study of living organisms. ... This is a list of notable biologists. ... This page aims to list articles related to biology. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... This is a list of notable biologists. ... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... A timeline of significant events in biology and organic chemistry // c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with list of biochemists. ... B.S. redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Omne vivum ex ovo is Latin for All live [is] from [an] egg. This is a foundational concept of modern biology. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... In Silico is a full length artist album by Deepsky View From a Stairway Jareths Church The Mansion World (Deepskys Trippin In Unknown Territory Mix) Ride Three Sheets to the Wind Atia Metro Smile Cosmic Dancer (2002 remix) Until the End of the World Let Me Live Categories... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... The list of conservation topics is a link page for the conservation of both the natural environment and the built environment. ... In bird and mammal biology, altricial species are those whose newly hatched or born young are relatively immobile, have closed eyes, lack hair or down, and must be cared for by the adults. ... In biology, precocial species are those that are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. ...

References

  1. ^ King, TJ & Roberts, MBV (1986). Biology: A Functional Approach. Thomas Nelson and Sons. ISBN 978-0174480358. 
  2. ^ Avila, Vernon L. (1995). Biology: investigating life on earth. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 11—18. ISBN 0-86720-942-9. 
  3. ^ Mazzarello, P (1999). "A unifying concept: the history of cell theory". Nature Cell Biology 1: E13–E15. doi:10.1038/8964. 
  4. ^ Darwin, Charles (1859). On the Origin of Species, 1st, John Murray
  5. ^ Lynn, Richard; Van Court, Marilyn (2004). "New evidence of dysgenic fertility for intelligence in the United States". Intelligence 32 (2): p. 193. Ablex Pub.. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2003.09.002. ISSN 0160-2896. 
  6. ^ a b Futuyma, DJ (2005). Evolution. Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0878931873. 
  7. ^ Margulis, L; Schwartz, KV (1997). Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth, 3rd edition, WH Freeman & Co. ISBN 978-0716731832. 
  8. ^ Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 2112744. 
  9. ^ Conway Zirkle (1941), Natural Selection before the "Origin of Species", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 84 (1): 71-123.
  10. ^ D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 67 (5), p. 447-450 [449].
  11. ^ Islamic medicine, Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
  12. ^ S. A. Al-Dabbagh (1978). "Ibn Al-Nafis and the pulmonary circulation", The Lancet 1, p. 1148.
  13. ^ a b Mayr, E (1985). The Growth of Biological Thought. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0674364462. 
  14. ^ Magner, LN (2002). A History of the Life Sciences. TF-CRC. ISBN 978-0824708245. 
  15. ^ Coleman, W (1978). Biology in the Nineteenth Century: Problems of Form, Function and Transformation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521292931. 
  16. ^ Allen, GE (1978). Life Science in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521292962. 
  17. ^ Fruton, JS (1999). Proteins, Enzymes, Genes: The Interplay of Chemistry and Biology. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300076080. 
  18. ^ Morange, M & Cobb, M (2000). A History of Molecular Biology. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674001695. 
  19. ^ Smocovitis, VB (1996). Unifying Biology. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691033433. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Hutchinson Encyclopedia is an English-language general encyclopedia. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ...

Further reading

  • Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, A, Lewis, J, Raff, M, Roberts, K & Walter, P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition, Garland. ISBN 978-0815332183. 
  • Begon, Michael; Townsend, CR & Harper, JL (2005). Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems, 4th edition, Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1405111171. 
  • Campbell, Neil (2004). Biology, 7th edition, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8053-7146-X. 
  • Colinvaux, Paul (1979). Why Big Fierce Animals are Rare: An Ecologist's Perspective, reissue edition, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691023646. 
  • Hoagland, Mahlon (2001). The Way Life Works, reprint edition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers inc. ISBN 076371688X. 
  • Janovy, John Jr. (2004). On Becoming a Biologist, 2nd edition, Bison Books. ISBN 0803276206. 
  • Johnson, George B. (2005). Biology, Visualizing Life. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. ISBN 0-03-016723-X. 

Neil A. Campbell (1946 – 2004) was an American scientist known best for his Biology textbook. ... Dr George B. Johnson, (born 11 June 1952, Newport News, Virginia, is a science writer who wrote the weekly column On Science in the St. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more on the topic of
Biology
Look up Biology in
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Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more about Biology at:
The School of Biology
Biology Portal

Biology at the Open Directory Project Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  • Location guide to original research materials in biology - the papers of prominent biologists in history
  • OSU's Phylocode
  • The Tree of Life: A multi-authored, distributed Internet project containing information about phylogeny and biodiversity.
  • MIT video lecture series on biology
  • Biology and Bioethics.

Journal links

  • PLos Biology A peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by the Public Library of Science
  • International Journal of Biological Sciences A biological journal publishes peer-reviewed scientific papers of significance
  • Perspectives in Biology and Medicine

Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The DNA structure might not be the only nucleic acid in the universe capable of supporting life[1] Astrobiology (from Greek: ἀστρο, astro, constellation; βίος, bios, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Chronobiology is a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin of species from a common descent, and descent of species; as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... For the definition, see Life. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Adult black fly (Simulium yahense) with (Onchocerca volvulus) emerging from the insects antenna. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Geological time scale. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Weather (disambiguation). ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... For the definition, see Life. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...


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