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Encyclopedia > Bicycle

The bicycle, cycle or bike, is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle is a pedal-driven land vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. ... A bicycle pedal is the part of a bicycle that the rider places their feet on when cycling. ... Human-powered transport is transport of person(s) and/or goods powered by human muscle. ... Wheelset redirects here. ... Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ...


First introduced in 19th-century Europe, bicycles now number approximately one billion worldwide,[1] providing the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for use in many other fields of human activity, including children's toys, adult fitness, military and police applications, courier services, and cycle sports. Fun redirects here. ... A teddy bear A toy is an object used in play. ... Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ... For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ...


The basic shape and configuration of a typical bicycle has hardly changed since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885,[2] although many important details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for particular types of cycling. CADD and CAD redirect here. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ...


The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both the cultural and industrial realms. In its early years, bicycle construction drew on pre-existing technologies; more recently, bicycle technology has, in turn, contributed both to old and new areas.

A common utility bicycle
A common utility bicycle
A penny-farthing or ordinary bicycle photographed in the Škoda museum in the Czech Republic
A penny-farthing or ordinary bicycle photographed in the Škoda museum in the Czech Republic

Contents

a Dutch utility bicycle A utility bicycle is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to sport bicycles which are designed for recreation and competition, such as touring bicycles, racing bicycles and mountain bicycles. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The penny-farthing is an early model of bicycle, produced in England in 1870. ...

History

Evolution of the bicycle misplacing McCall's velocipede to 1830 instead of 1869
Evolution of the bicycle misplacing McCall's velocipede to 1830 instead of 1869
Drais' 1817 design made-to-measure
Drais' 1817 design made-to-measure
Main article: History of the bicycle

Several innovators contributed to the history of the bicycle by developing precursor human-powered vehicles. The documented ancestors of today's modern bicycle were known as push bikes, Draisines or hobby horses. To use the Draisine, first introduced to the public in Paris by the German Baron Karl von Drais in 1818,[3] the operator sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his/her feet while steering the front wheel. Image File history File links Bicycle_evolution-en. ... Image File history File links Bicycle_evolution-en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1037x1474, 116 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of the bicycle Dandy horse Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1037x1474, 116 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of the bicycle Dandy horse Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Evolution of the bicycle containing the whiggish claim Thomas McCall 1830 instead of 1869. ... dandy horse is the inspiration for the bicycle. ... Freiherr (German for Free Lord) is a title of lower nobility in Germany, the Baltic states and Austria-Hungary, considered equal to the title Baron. ... Karl Drais ca 1820, then still a baron Karl Drais (April 29, 1785 – December 10, 1851) was a German inventor and invented the Laufmaschine (running machine), also later called the velocipede, draisine (English) or draisienne (French), or nick-named, dandy horse. ...


In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel. Several why-not-the-rear-wheel inventions followed, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1869. The French creation, wrought of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing" (more formally an ordinary bicycle), featuring a tubular steel frame on which were mounted wire spoked wheels with solid rubber tires. These bicycles were not, however, for the faint hearted, due to the very high seat and poor weight distribution. Pierre Michaux (June 26, 1813 - 1883) was a blacksmith who furnished parts for the carriage trade in Paris during the 1850s and 1860s. ... Pierre Lallement (1843?-1891) was the inventor of the bicycle. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ... Thomas McCall (* 1834, † 1904) was a Scottish cartwright McCalls first (top) and improved velocipede of 1869 - later predated to 1839 and attributed to MacMillan He built in 1869 two versions of a two-wheeled velocipede with levers and rods tossing a crank on the rear wheel, as published in... The penny-farthing is an early model of bicycle, produced in England in 1870. ... The penny-farthing is an early model of bicycle, produced in England in 1870. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


The subsequent dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back, necessitating the addition of gearing, effected in a variety of ways, to attain sufficient speed. However, having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Starley's nephew, J. K. Starley, J. H. Lawson, and Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive connecting the pedals held with the frame to the back wheel. These models were known as dwarf safeties, or safety bicycles, for their lower seat height and better weight distribution. Starley's 1885 Rover is usually described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon, the seat tube was added, creating the double-triangle diamond frame of the modern bike. John Kemp Starley (1854 - 1901) was an English inventor and industrialist. ... Roller chain and sprocket Mack AC delivery truck at the Petersen Automotive Museum with chain drive visible Chain drive was a popular power transmission system from the earliest days of the automobile. ...

Bicycle in Plymouth at the start of the 20th century
Bicycle in Plymouth at the start of the 20th century

New innovations increased comfort, and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s' Golden Age of Bicycles. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed, enabling the rider to coast. This refinement led to the 1898 invention of coaster brakes. Derailleur gears and hand-operated cable-pull brakes were also developed during these years, but were only slowly adopted by casual riders. By the turn of the century, cycling clubs flourished on both sides of the Atlantic, and touring and racing were soon extremely popular. Old photo of a bicycle Source: [1] This site seems to have no copyrights, and the photo is also probably old enough to have its copyrights expired This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Old photo of a bicycle Source: [1] This site seems to have no copyrights, and the photo is also probably old enough to have its copyrights expired This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Bicycle craze refers to several different times when, for a period of a few years, many people all over the world wanted to buy and ride a bicycle. ... For other persons named John Dunlop, see John Dunlop (disambiguation). ... Firestone tire A tire (US spelling) or tyre (UK spelling) is a roughly toroidal piece of (usually) rubber placed on a wheel to cushion it. ... Freewheel mechanism In mechanical or automotive engineering, a freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the driveshaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than the driveshaft. ... Derailleur gears are a variable ratio transmission system commonly used on bicycles, consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets and a mechanism to move the chain from one sprocket to another. ... Linear-pull brake on rear wheel of a mountain bike Bicycle brake systems are used to slow down, or brake a bicycle. ... A cycling club is a club or society formed by and for cyclists, and is usually focused in a particular geographic location, perhaps a region, town or city suburb, as well as national cycling clubs, such as the United Kingdoms Cyclists Touring Club, CTC) and also internet based clubs...


Bicycles and horse buggies were the two mainstays of private transportation just prior to the automobile, and the grading of smooth roads in the late 19th century was stimulated by the wide use of these devices.


Uses for bicycles

Transporting milk churns in Kolkata, India.
Transporting milk churns in Kolkata, India.
Main article: Cycling

Bicycles have been and are employed for many uses: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,750 × 1,312 pixels, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,750 × 1,312 pixels, file size: 672 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ...

Cycling has many health benefits and does not directly contribute to global warming or environmental pollution. Bicycle commuting is the act of commuting to work or school by bicycle, a common form of utility cycling. ... Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Cargo-bicycle and Trike for rent Bremen. ... For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ... The Star of Life, a globally recognized symbol for Emergency medical services. ... Delivery is the process of transporting goods. ... A type of touring bicycle Bicycle touring is a leisure travel activity which involves touring, exploring or sightseeing by bicycle. ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ... A BMX race. ... Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ... Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially-built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow) using track bicycles. ... A criterium, or crit, is a type of bike race held on a short course (usually less than 5 km), often run on closed-off city centre streets. ... Bicycle rollers are a type of bicycle trainer which makes it possible to ride a bicycle indoors without moving forward. ... In many racing sports an athlete (or occasionally a team of athletes) will compete in a time trial against the clock to secure the fastest time. ... The Amgen Tour of California is a professional cycling stage race which made its debut on February 19, 2006. ... The Giro dItalia, also simply known as the Giro, is a long distance road bicycle racing stage race for professional cyclists held over three weeks in May or early June in and around Italy. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... The Vuelta a España bicycle race is one of the three Grand Tours of Europe. ... The Volta a Portugal is a long distance road bicycle race for professionals held in Portugal. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... Bicycle infantry are infantry soldiers who maneuver on the battlefield using bicycles. ...


Technical aspects

Since the first bicycle, many important details have been improved, especially with the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized bicycle types. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2240 × 1680 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2240 × 1680 pixel, file size: 1. ... Trailer bike (also known as trailer cycle, Trailerbike, Trail-a-bike, and other trademarked names) is a one-wheeled bicycle trailer designed to carry one or more small riders in positions that closely resemble that of a bicycle rider. ... The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. ...


Types of bicycle

Main article: list of bicycle types

Bicycles can be categorized in different ways: e.g. by function, by number of riders, by general construction, by gearing or by means of propulsion. The more common types include utility bicycles, mountain bicycles, racing bicycles, touring bicycles, cruiser bicycles, and BMX bicycles. Less common are tandems, lowriders, tall bikes, fixed gear, folding models and recumbents (one of which was used to set the IHPVA Hour record). This list gives an overview of different types of bicycles, along different categorizations. ... a Dutch utility bicycle A utility bicycle is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to sport bicycles which are designed for recreation and competition, such as touring bicycles, racing bicycles and mountain bicycles. ... A mountain bike in the forest Freeriding on a Hardtail freeride bicycle A full suspension Mountain Bike A rider during a Cross Country race A mountain bike, mountain bicycle or ATB (All Terrain Bicycle) is a bicycle designed for riding off-road, either on dirt trails or other unpaved environments... An aluminum racing bicycle made by Raleigh and built using Shimano components. ... A touring bicycle is a road bicycle designed for long-distance travel, and especially bicycle touring. ... A cruiser bicycle is a bicycle designed for riding on roads and paths in comfort and style over performance. ... A BMX race. ... A traditional tandem bicycle. ... A lowrider bicycle is a highly customized bike with stylings inspired by lowrider cars. ... A modern home constructed tall bicycle A Tall Bike is an unusually tall bicycle, typically built for the purpose of fun and recreation, though with occasional practical use. ... A fixed gear bicycle A fixed-gear bicycle or fixed wheel bicycle, is any bicycle without a freewheel and usually only one gear ratio. ... A Brompton folding bicycle A folding bicycle or folder is a type of bicycle that incorporates a number of hinges or joints, which may be lockable, that permit it to be folded into a more compact size. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ... The hour record for bicycles is the record for the longest distance cycled in one hour on a bicycle. ...


Unicycles, tricycles and quadracycles are not strictly bicycles, as they have respectively one, three and four wheels, but are often referred to informally as "bikes". A Torker unicycle A unicycle is a one-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... Antique tricycle 19th century tricycle used in Iran A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle. ... Quadricycle (also spelled quadracycle, quadrocycle) is a four-wheeled vehicle. ...

Bicycles leaning in a turn
Bicycles leaning in a turn

Dynamics

A bicycle stays upright by being steered so as to keep its center of gravity over its wheels. This steering is usually provided by the rider, but under certain conditions may be provided by the bicycle itself. A computer-generated, simplified model of bike and rider demonstrating an uncontrolled right turn Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics is the science of the motion of bicycles and motorcycles, in entirety or in parts, due to the forces acting on them during balancing, steering, braking, and suspension. ...


A bicycle must lean in order to turn. This lean is induced by a method known as countersteering, which can be performed by the rider turning the handlebars directly with the hands or indirectly by leaning the bicycle. Countersteering is the name given to the counter-intuitive technique used by cyclists and motorcyclists to turn corners. ...


Short-wheelbase or tall bicycles, when braking, can generate enough stopping force at the front wheel in order to flip longitudinally. This action, especially if performed on purpose, is known as a stoppie, endo or front wheelie. A modern home constructed tall bicycle A Tall Bike is an unusually tall bicycle, typically built for the purpose of fun and recreation, though with occasional practical use. ... Stoppie 180, by Duke (French champion) during the Stunt Bike Show, in Carole Racetrack The stoppie, also known as the endo, is a motorcycle and bicycle trick in which the back wheel is lifted and the bike is ridden on the front wheel. ...


Performance

Main article: Bicycle performance
A racing upright bicycle

In both biological and mechanical terms, the bicycle is extraordinarily efficient. In terms of the amount of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance, investigators have calculated it to be the most efficient self-powered means of transportation.[4] From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this by 10-15%.[5][6] In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also a most efficient means of cargo transportation. In both biological and mechanical terms, the bicycle is extraordinarily efficient. ... I took this picture March 30, 2004--only modification is cropping. ... I took this picture March 30, 2004--only modification is cropping. ... An upright bicycle is a bicycle on which the rider sits astride the saddle and stands on the pedals; this is the type most commonly seen. ...

A human being traveling on a bicycle at low to medium speeds of around 10-15 mph (15-25 km/h), using only the energy required to walk, is the most energy-efficient means of transport generally available. Air drag, which is proportional to the square of speed, requires dramatically higher power outputs as speeds increase. A bicycle which places the rider in a seated position, supine position or, more rarely, prone position, and which may be covered in an aerodynamic fairing to achieve very low air drag, is referred to as a recumbent bicycle or human powered vehicle. On an upright bicycle, the rider's body creates about 75% of the total drag of the bicycle/rider combination. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ... The supine position is a position of the body; lying down with the face up, as opposed to the prone position, which is face down. ... In Prone position in competitive shooting the shooter lies face down on the ground. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ... Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ...


In addition, the carbon dioxide generated in the production and transportation of the food required by the bicyclist, per mile traveled, is less than 1/10th that generated by energy efficient cars.[7]


Construction and parts

In its early years, bicycle construction drew on pre-existing technologies; more recently, bicycle technology has, in turn, contributed ideas in both old and new areas.


Frame

Main article: Bicycle frame
Diagram of a bicycle.
Diagram of a bicycle.

The great majority of today's bicycles have a frame with upright seating which looks much like the first chain-driven bike.[2] Such upright bicycles almost always feature the diamond frame, a truss consisting of two triangles: the front triangle and the rear triangle. The front triangle consists of the head tube, top tube, down tube and seat tube. The head tube contains the headset, the set of bearings that allows the fork to turn smoothly for steering and balance. The top tube connects the head tube to the seat tube at the top, and the down tube connects the head tube to the bottom bracket. The rear triangle consists of the seat tube and paired chain stays and seat stays. The chain stays run parallel to the chain, connecting the bottom bracket to the rear dropouts. The seat stays connect the top of the seat tube (at or near the same point as the top tube) to the rear dropouts. Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ... Image File history File links Bicycle_diagram-en. ... Image File history File links Bicycle_diagram-en. ... An upright bicycle is a bicycle on which the rider sits astride the saddle and stands on the pedals; this is the type most commonly seen. ... Look up truss in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Triangle (disambiguation). ... Parts of a threadless headset before installation. ... bicycle fork A bicycle fork is the portion of a bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows one to steer. ... A square-taper cartridge bottom bracket. ... Roller chain and sprocket A bicycle chain is a chain that transfers power from the pedals to the drive-wheel of a bicycle thus propelling it. ... A horizontal dropout on a steel frame road bicycle converted to a single-speed. ...

A Triumph with a step-through frame.
A Triumph with a step-through frame.

Historically, women's bicycle frames had a top tube that connected in the middle of the seat tube instead of the top, resulting in a lower standover height at the expense of compromised structural integrity, since this places a strong bending load in the seat tube, and bicycle frame members are typically weak in bending. This design, referred to as a step-through frame, allows the rider to mount and dismount in a dignified way while wearing a skirt or dress. While some women's bicycles continue to use this frame style, there is also a variation, the mixte, which splits the top tube into two small top tubes that bypass the seat tube and connect to the rear dropouts. The ease of stepping through is also appreciated by those with limited flexibility or other joint problems. Because of its persistent image as a "women's" bicycle, step-through frames are not common for larger builds. Head badge of a Triumph bicycle. ... A step-through frame (aka low-step frame) is a type of bicycle geometry with a very low crossbar, typically just above the pedals, or no crossbar at all. ... A step-through frame (aka low-step frame) is a type of bicycle geometry with a very low crossbar, typically just above the pedals, or no crossbar at all. ... A step-through frame (aka low-step frame) is a type of bicycle geometry with a very low crossbar, typically just above the pedals, or no crossbar at all. ...


A more recent development is the recumbent bicycle. These are inherently more aerodynamic than upright versions, as the rider may lean back onto a support and operate pedals that are on about the same level as the seat. The world's fastest bicycle is a recumbent bicycle but this type was banned from competition in 1934 by the Union Cycliste Internationale[1]. Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ... Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ... Entrance of UCI headquarter at Aigle (Switzerland) Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is a professional cycling union that oversees cycling events in the international community. ...


Historically, materials used in bicycles have followed a similar pattern as in aircraft, the goal being high strength and low weight. Since the late 1930s alloy steels have been used for frame and fork tubes in higher quality machines. Celluloid found application in mudguards, and aluminum alloys are increasingly used in components such as handlebars, seat post, and brake levers. In the 1980s aluminum alloy frames became popular, and their affordability now makes them common. More expensive carbon fiber and titanium frames are now also available, as well as advanced steel alloys and even bamboo. Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


Drivetrain

A set of rear sprockets and a derailleur
A set of rear sprockets and a derailleur
For more details on this topic, see bicycle gearing.

Since cyclists' legs are most efficient over a narrow range of cadences, a variable gear ratio is helpful to maintain an optimum pedalling speed while covering varied terrain. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1119x1356, 286 KB) Beschreibung Description: Shimano XT Schaltwerk hinten (am Mountainbike) Source: Selbst fotografiert Date: created 21. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1119x1356, 286 KB) Beschreibung Description: Shimano XT Schaltwerk hinten (am Mountainbike) Source: Selbst fotografiert Date: created 21. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cadence in cycling is the number of revolutions of the cranks per minute. ... Gears on a piece of farm equipment, gear ratio 1:1. ...


The drivetrain begins with pedals which rotate the crank arms, which are held in axis by the bottom bracket. On a bicycle with shaft drive, a gear set at the bottom bracket turns the shaft, which then turns the rear wheel via a gear set connected to the wheel's hub. The rear hub may provide several different gear ratios. A bicycle pedal is the part of a bicycle that the rider places their feet on when cycling. ... A Shimano Deore crankset, drive-side showing crankarm, spider, and three chainrings The crankset is the component of a bicycle drivetrain that converts the reciprocating motion of the riders legs into rotational motion used to drive the chain, which in turn drives the rear wheel. ... A square-taper cartridge bottom bracket. ...


On a bicycle with chain drive, a crank arm may have one or more chainrings or sprockets attached. A chainring drives the chain, which in turn rotates the rear wheel via the rear sprockets (cassette or freewheel). A gearing system is used to vary the number of rear wheel revolutions produced by each turn of the pedals. Roller chain and sprocket A bicycle chain is a chain that transfers power from the pedals to the drive-wheel of a bicycle thus propelling it. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... On a bicycle, the cassette or the freewheel is the set of rear sprockets that attaches to a hub on the rear wheel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

A bicycle with shaft drive instead of a chain
A bicycle with shaft drive instead of a chain

When the bicycle chain shifts to a larger rear sprocket, or to a smaller front sprocket (a lower gear) every turn of the pedal leads to fewer rotations in the freewheel (and hence the rear wheel). This allows the force required to move the same distance to be distributed over more pedal cycles, reducing fatigue when riding uphill, with a heavy load, or against strong winds. The reverse process allows the cyclist to make fewer pedal cycles to maintain a higher speed, but with more effort per cycle. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A shaft-driven bicycle. ...


Road bicycles have close set multi-step gearing, which allows fine control of cadence, while utility bicycles offer fewer, more widely spaced speeds. Mountain bikes, touring bikes and many entry-level racing bicycles offer an extremely low gear to facilitate climbing slowly on steep hills. Single-speed bicycles have only one gear. A road bicycle is a bicycle designed for use on roads, as opposed to rough terrain. ... a Dutch utility bicycle A utility bicycle is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to sport bicycles which are designed for recreation and competition, such as touring bicycles, racing bicycles and mountain bicycles. ... A hardtail mountain bike. ... A touring bicycle is a road bicycle designed for long-distance travel, and especially bicycle touring. ... An aluminum racing bicycle made by Raleigh and built using Shimano components. ... Single-speed mountain bike A single-speed bicycle is a type of bicycle with a single gear ratio. ...


Steering and seating

Conventional dropdown handlebars with added aerobars
Conventional dropdown handlebars with added aerobars

The handlebars turn the fork and the front wheel via the stem, which rotates within the headset. Three styles of handlebar are common. Upright handlebars, the norm in Europe and elsewhere until the 1970s, curve gently back toward the rider, offering a natural grip and comfortable upright position. Drop handlebars are "dropped", offering the cyclist either an aerodynamic "crouched" position or a more upright posture in which the hands grip the brake lever mounts. Mountain bikes feature a straight handlebar which can provide better low-speed handling due to the wider nature of the bars. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (948 × 788 pixel, file size: 182 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Profile 2000 aerobars added to conventional dropdown bars. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (948 × 788 pixel, file size: 182 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Profile 2000 aerobars added to conventional dropdown bars. ... Triathlon bars is a catch-all term referring to various styles of aerodynamic handlebars for racing bicycles. ... Bicycle handlebar or often bicycle handlebars refers to the steering mechanism for bicycles; the equivalent of a steering wheel. ... bicycle fork A bicycle fork is the portion of a bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows one to steer. ... The stem is the component on a bicycle that connects the handlebars to the steer tube of a bicycle. ... Parts of a threadless headset before installation. ...

A Selle San Marco saddle designed for women
A Selle San Marco saddle designed for women

Saddles also vary with rider preference, from the cushioned ones favored by short-distance riders to narrower saddles which allow more room for leg swings. Comfort depends on riding position. With comfort bikes and hybrids the cyclist sits high over the seat, their weight directed down onto the saddle, such that a wider and more cushioned saddle is preferable. For racing bikes where the rider is bent over, weight is more evenly distributed between the handlebars and saddle, and the hips are flexed, and a narrower and harder saddle is more efficient. Differing saddle designs exist for male and female cyclists, accommodating the genders' differing anatomies, although bikes typically are sold with saddles most appropriate for males. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A modern, inexpensive plastic saddle with spring suspension. ...


A recumbent bicycle has a reclined chair-like seat that some riders find more comfortable than a saddle, especially riders who suffer from certain types of seat, back, neck, shoulder, or wrist pain. Recumbent bicycles may have either under-seat or over-seat steering. Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ... A bicycle seat, unlike a saddle is designed to support 100% of the riders weight and is found attached to a recumbent bicycle. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ...


Brakes

Main article: Bicycle brake systems
Linear-pull brake on rear wheel of a mountain bike
Linear-pull brake on rear wheel of a mountain bike

Modern bicycle brakes are either rim brakes, in which friction pads are compressed against the wheel rims, internal hub brakes, in which the friction pads are contained within the wheel hubs, or disc brakes. Disc brakes are common on off-road bicycles, tandems and recumbent bicycles, but are considered impractical on road bicycles, which rarely encounter conditions where the advantages of discs are significant. Hub drum brakes do not cope well with extended braking, so rim or disc brakes are favored in hilly terrain. Linear-pull brake on rear wheel of a mountain bike Bicycle brake systems are used to slow down, or brake a bicycle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 523 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 1076 pixel, file size: 831 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) It is an enhanced photography of bicycle brakes Image:Brake. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 523 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 1076 pixel, file size: 831 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) It is an enhanced photography of bicycle brakes Image:Brake. ... A hardtail mountain bike. ... On automobiles, disc brakes are located within the wheel The disc brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. ... A traditional tandem bicycle. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ...


With hand-operated brakes, force is applied to brake levers mounted on the handlebars and transmitted via Bowden cables or hydraulic lines to the friction pads. A rear hub brake may be either hand-operated or pedal-actuated, as in the back pedal coaster brakes which were popular in North America until the 1960s, and are still common in children's bicycles. Invented by Frank Bowden, a bowden cable is a type of flexible cable used to transmit mechanical force or energy by the movement of an inner cable (most commonly of steel or stainless steel) relative to a hollow outer cable housing. ...

A front disc brake, mounted to the fork and hub
A front disc brake, mounted to the fork and hub

Track bicycles do not have brakes. Brakes are not required for riding on a track because all riders ride in the same direction around a track which does not necessitate sharp deceleration. Track riders are still able to slow down because all track bicycles are fixed-gear, meaning that there is no freewheel. Without a freewheel, coasting is impossible, so when the rear wheel is moving, the crank is moving. To slow down one may apply resistance to the pedals. While it is illegal in most jurisdictions to cycle on roads without brakes, a fixed-gear bike without brakes can be slowed by skidding the rear wheel. This involves unweighting the rear wheel and applying a backwards force to the pedals, causing the rear wheel to lock up and slide along the road. Most track bike frames and forks do not have holes for mounting brakes, although with their increasing popularity among some road cyclists, some manufacturers have designed their track frames to enable the fitting of brakes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x702, 66 KB) Source: Ralf Roletschek (aka Marcela) Description: Scheibenbremse Magura history: de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x702, 66 KB) Source: Ralf Roletschek (aka Marcela) Description: Scheibenbremse Magura history: de. ... bicycle fork A bicycle fork is the portion of a bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows one to steer. ... A track bicycle A track bicycle is a type of fixed-gear bicycle specially designed for track cycling in a velodrome. ... A fixed gear bicycle A fixed-gear bicycle or fixed wheel bicycle, is any bicycle without a freewheel and usually only one gear ratio. ... Freewheel mechanism In mechanical or automotive engineering, a freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the driveshaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than the driveshaft. ...


Suspension

Main article: Bicycle suspension
This mountain bicycle features oversized tires, a full-suspension frame, two disc brakes and handlebars oriented perpendicular to the bike's axis
This mountain bicycle features oversized tires, a full-suspension frame, two disc brakes and handlebars oriented perpendicular to the bike's axis

Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle. This serves two purposes: A full suspension Mountain Bike // Bicycle suspension refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle in order to protect them from the roughness of the terrain over which they travel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1996x1332, 601 KB) Trek SLR 90 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bicycle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1996x1332, 601 KB) Trek SLR 90 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bicycle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... A hardtail mountain bike. ...

  • To keep the wheels in continuous contact with rough surfaces in order to improve control.
  • To isolate the rider and luggage from jarring due to rough surfaces.

Bicycle suspensions are used primarily on mountain bicycles, but are also common on hybrid bicycles, and can even be found on some road bicycles, as they can help deal with problematic vibration. Suspension is especially important on recumbent bicycles, since while an upright bicycle rider can stand on the pedals to achieve some of the benefits of suspension, a recumbent rider cannot. A mountain bike in the forest Freeriding on a Hardtail freeride bicycle A full suspension Mountain Bike A rider during a Cross Country race A mountain bike, mountain bicycle or ATB (All Terrain Bicycle) is a bicycle designed for riding off-road, either on dirt trails or other unpaved environments... For motorized-pedal hybrids, see motorized bicycle // The 2005 Giant Innova is an example of a typical 700C hybrid bicycle. ... A road bicycle is a bicycle designed for use on roads, as opposed to rough terrain. ... Tandem recumbent bicycle manufactured by BikeE A recumbent bicycle is a variety of bicycle which places the rider in a seated or supine position (rarely, in a prone position). ...


Wheels

Main article: Bicycle wheel

A bicycle wheel is almost always built up from a hub, rim, and spokes, and fitted with rubber pneumatic tires. Wheelset redirects here. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... Firestone tire A tire (U.S. spelling) or tyre (UK spelling) is a roughly toroidal piece of material placed on the circumference of a wheel, either for the purpose of cushioning or to protect the wheel from wear and tear. ...


Spokes are steel or stainless steel, and can be replaced if broken. Hubs and rims can be aluminum or steel, but steel wheels are becoming rare in most countries. Aluminum rims are lighter and give much better braking in wet conditions. Typically they are anodized except for the braking surfaces. With disc brakes, the whole rim can be anodized, usually in black or silver. Wheels may also be cast or molded in one piece from aluminum alloy, plastic, and carbon fiber for various specialty bikes; plastic, for example, was once favored for BMX bikes. These inexpensive decorative carabiners have an anodized aluminium surface that has been dyed and are made in many colors. ... A BMX race. ...


The wheel axle fits into dropouts in the frame and forks. A pair of wheels may be called a wheelset, especially in the context of ready-built "off the shelf", performance-oriented wheels. A horizontal dropout on a steel frame road bicycle converted to a single-speed. ... Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ... bicycle fork A bicycle fork is the portion of a bicycle that holds the front wheel and allows one to steer. ... The front wheel from a racing bicycle made using a Mavic rim A bicycle wheel is a wheel designed for a bicycle. ...


Tires vary enormously. Skinny, road-racing tires may be completely smooth, or (slick). On the opposite extreme, off-road tires are wider and thicker, and usually have a deep tread for gripping in muddy conditions. A wheel with a slick tire. ...


Accessories, repairs, and tools

Touring bicycle equipped with head lamp, pump, rear rack, fenders/mud-guards, water bottles and cages, and numerous saddle-bags.
Touring bicycle equipped with head lamp, pump, rear rack, fenders/mud-guards, water bottles and cages, and numerous saddle-bags.
Patch kit with tire levers, a tube of glue, a metal grater to clean off an area of the tube around the puncture, round and oval patches, a piece of chalk to mark the puncture location, and a tire boot.
Patch kit with tire levers, a tube of glue, a metal grater to clean off an area of the tube around the puncture, round and oval patches, a piece of chalk to mark the puncture location, and a tire boot.

Some components, which are often optional accessories on sports bicycles, are standard features on utility bicycles to enhance their usefulness and comfort. Mudguards, or fenders, protect the cyclist and moving parts from spray when riding through wet areas and chainguards protect clothes from oil on the chain. Kick stands keep a bicycle upright when parked. Front-mounted baskets for carrying goods are often used. Luggage carriers and panniers can be used to carry equipment or cargo. Parents sometimes add rear-mounted child seats and/or an auxiliary saddle fitted to the crossbar to transport children. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1408x1068, 197 KB) // Beschreibung Author Ralf Roletschek (User:Marcela) Description Kamera Ricoh RDC-i500 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Bicycle ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1408x1068, 197 KB) // Beschreibung Author Ralf Roletschek (User:Marcela) Description Kamera Ricoh RDC-i500 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Bicycle ... Bicycle lighting has two purposes: seeing and being seen. ... Bicycle Floor Pump Foot operated bike pump Frame mounted bike pump A bicycle pump is a type of positive-displacement pump specifically designed for inflating balls (basket,soccer). ... A bottle cage is a bicycle accessory used to affix a water bottle to the bike. ... a Dutch utility bicycle A utility bicycle (aka city bicycle) is one which is designed for a practical purpose, as opposed to sport bicycles which are designed for recreation and competition, such as touring bicycles, racing bicycles and mountain bicycles. ... A mudguard is any device which is designed to prevent or reduce the amount of mud and dirt which sticks to the wheels of a land vehicle while it is in motion, and then thrown from the wheels of the vehicle as a result of centrifugal force. ... Choppers often have stylized fenders Fender is the US English term for the part of an automobile, motorcycle or other vehicle body that frames a wheel well. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Kickstand on a Dutch utility bike The kickstand of a bicycle allows it to be kept upright without the aid of a person. ... A bicycle basket allows a bicycle rider to carry cargo or objects without using their hands. ... For the locomotive, see Pannier tank locomotive A pannier is a basket, bag, or similar container, possibly large, and carried either in pairs slung over the back of a beast of burden, or attached to a bicycle or motorcycle. ...


Toe-clips and toestraps and clipless pedals help to keep the foot planted firmly in the proper position on the pedals, and enable the cyclist to pull as well as push the pedals. Technical accessories include cyclocomputers for measuring speed and distance. Other accessories include lights, reflectors, security lock, mirror, water bottles and cages, and bell.[8] A bicycle pedal is the part of a bicycle that the rider places their feet on when cycling. ... An electronical speedometer mounted atop bicycle handle bars. ... Bicycle lighting has two purposes: seeing and being seen. ... The front wheel is locked with a U-lock but the rest of the bicycle has been stolen, as locking the front wheel is not a sufficient security measure. ... A bottle cage is a bicycle accessory used to affix a water bottle to the bike. ...


Bicycle helmets may help reduce injury in the event of a collision or accident, and a certified helmet is legally required for some riders in some jurisdictions. Helmets are classified as an accessory[8] or an item of clothing by others.[9] Bicycle helmet A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. ...


Many cyclists carry tool kits. These may include a tire patch kit (which, in turn, may contain any combination of a tire pump or CO2 cartridges, tire levers, spare tubes, self-adhesive patches, or tube-patching material, an adhesive, a piece of sandpaper or a metal grater to clean off a section of the tube,[10] and sometimes even a block of French chalk.), wrenches, hex keys, screwdrivers, and a chain tool. There are also cycling specific multi-tools that combine many of these implements into a single compact device. More specialized bicycle components may require more complex tools, including proprietary tools specific for a given manufacturer. Bicycle Floor Pump Foot operated bike pump Frame mounted bike pump A bicycle pump is a type of positive-displacement pump specifically designed for inflating balls (basket,soccer). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... A Tire lever is a tool for removing tires from wheel rims. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... French chalk is an essential ingredient required for the repair of punctured inner tubes of pneumatic tyres, such as are found on bicycles. ... Combination wrench, or combination spanner (left: box-end/ring, right: open-end) A wrench or spanner is a tool used to provide a mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn bolts, nuts or other hard-to-turn items. ... Hex keys of various sizes. ... A basic screwdriver made by Craftsman (slotted tip shown) A rechargeable battery-powered electric screwdriver from Black & Decker The screwdriver is a device specifically designed to insert and tighten, or to loosen and remove, screws. ... A chain tool is a small mechanical device used to break a bicycle chain in such a way that it could be mended with the same tool. ... A multitool is a portable, versatile hand tool that combines several individual tool functions in a single grip or in the shape of a credit card. ...


Some bicycle parts, particularly hub-based gearing systems, are complex, and many cyclists prefer to leave maintenance and repairs to professional bicycle mechanics. In some areas it is possible to purchase road-side assistance from companies such as the Better World Club. Other cyclists maintain their own bicycles, perhaps as part of their enjoyment of the hobby of cycling or simply for economic reasons. Repair and Maintenance is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it get out of order or broken (repair) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Better World Club provides services to motorists in the USA, and supports organizations seeking to reduce the environmental damage done by automobiles. ... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ...


Standards

A number of formal and industry standards exist for bicycle components, to help make spare parts exchangeable:

  • ISO 5775 Bicycle tire and rim designations
  • ISO 8090 Cycles—Terminology (same as BS 6102-4)
  • ISO 4210 Cycles—Safety requirements for bicycles

ISO 5775 is an international standard for labeling the size of bicycle tyres and rims. ...

Parts

For details on specific bicycle parts, see list of bicycle parts and category:bicycle parts. Bicycle parts include: See also Groupset Categories: Bicycle parts | Cycling | Sporting goods ...


Social and historical aspects

The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both the cultural and industrial realms.


Bicycles in daily life

A commuting bike in Amsterdam
A commuting bike in Amsterdam

Around the turn of the 20th century, bicycles helped reduce crowding in inner-city tenements by allowing workers to commute from more spacious dwellings in the suburbs. They also reduced dependence on horses, with all the knock-on effects this brought to society. Bicycles allowed people to travel for leisure into the country, since bicycles were three times as energy efficient as walking, and three to four times as fast. This is an image I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... This is an image I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...

A bike-sharing station in Barcelona
A bike-sharing station in Barcelona

Recently, several European cities have implemented successful schemes, known as Community bicycle programs or bike-sharing schemes. These initiatives are designed to complement a city's public transport system and offer an alternative to motorized traffic to help reduce congestion and pollution. Users can take a bicycle at a parking station, use it for a limited amount of time, and then return it to the same, or a different, station. Examples of such schemes are Bicing in Barcelona, Vélo'v in Lyon and Vélib' in Paris. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 495 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 495 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Bicing is the name of a community bicycle program in Barcelona inaugurated in March 2007, similar to the Vélô service in Toulouse, Vélov in Lyon and Vélib in Paris. ... White bicycles for free use, in Hoge Veluwe national park, the Netherlands Community bicycle programs (also known as Yellow bicycle programs, White bicycle programs, bike sharing, public bike or free bike) are one variation on an international movement to provide environmentally friendly transportation options to citizens. ... Bicing is the name of a community bicycle program in Barcelona inaugurated in March 2007, similar to the Vélô service in Toulouse, Vélov in Lyon and Vélib in Paris. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... A Vélov Bicycle A Vélov Station Vélov is bicycle rental service run by the city of Lyon, France, in conjunction with the advertising company JCDecaux. ... This article is about the French city. ... Vélib’ (“vélo libre” or “vélo liberté”, English: ) is a public bicycle rental programme in Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


In cities where the bicycle is not an integral part of the planned transportation system, commuters often use bicycles as elements of a mixed-mode commute, where the bike is used to travel to and from train stations or other forms of rapid transit. Folding bicycles are useful in these scenarios, as they are less cumbersome when carried aboard. “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Until recently, bicycles have been a staple of everyday life in the People's Republic of China. They are the most frequently used method of transport for commuting to work, school, shopping, and life in general. As a result bicycles there are almost always equipped with baskets and back seats.




Female emancipation

Woman with bicycle, 1890s
Woman with bicycle, 1890s

The diamond-frame safety bicycle gave women unprecedented mobility, contributing to their emancipation in Western nations. As bicycles became safer and cheaper, more women had access to the personal freedom they embodied, and so the bicycle came to symbolize the New Woman of the late nineteenth century, especially in Britain and the United States. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (496x816, 61 KB) Summary Woman with bicycle, 1890s Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (496x816, 61 KB) Summary Woman with bicycle, 1890s Source: http://www. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... The New Woman was a feminist ideal which emerged in the final decades of the 19th century in Europe and North America as a reaction to the role, as characterized by the so-called Cult of Domesticity, ascribed to women in the Victorian era. ...


The bicycle was recognized by nineteenth-century feminists and suffragists as a "freedom machine" for women. American Susan B. Anthony said in a New York World interview on February 2, 1896: "Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. I think it has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. It gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel...the picture of free, untrammeled womanhood." In 1895 Frances Willard, the tightly-laced president of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, wrote a book called How I Learned to Ride the Bicycle, in which she praised the bicycle she learned to ride late in life, and which she named "Gladys", for its "gladdening effect" on her health and political optimism. Willard used a cycling metaphor to urge other suffragists to action, proclaiming, "I would not waste my life in friction when it could be turned into momentum." Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom and United States, particularly in the years prior to World War I. The name was the Womens Social and Political Union (founded in 1903). ... For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony (disambiguation). ... The New York World was a newspaper published in New York from 1860 until 1931. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... The Womans Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is the oldest continuing non-sectarian womens organization in the US and worldwide. ...

Columbia Bicycles advertisement from 1886
Columbia Bicycles advertisement from 1886

Male anger at the freedom symbolized by the New (bicycling) Woman was demonstrated when the male undergraduates of Cambridge University showed their opposition to the admission of women as full members of the university by hanging a woman bicyclist in effigy in the main town square. This was as late as 1897.[11] The bicycle craze in the 1890s also led to a movement for so-called rational dress, which helped liberate women from corsets and ankle-length skirts and other restrictive garments, substituting the then-shocking bloomers. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Bicycle craze refers to several different times when, for a period of a few years, many people all over the world wanted to buy and ride a bicycle. ... During the middle and late Victorian period, various reformers proposed, designed, and wore clothing supposedly more rational and comfortable than the fashions of the time. ... 1850s fashion bloomers 1851 caricature of fashion bloomers as being similar to Turkish attire An example of late 19th-century / Edwardian athletic bloomers: the Smith College class of 1902 basketball team 1890s caricature of athletic bloomers as leading women to adopt masculine habits Bloomers is a word which has been...


Economic implications

Bicycle manufacturing proved to be a training ground for other industries and led to the development of advanced metalworking techniques, both for the frames themselves and for special components such as ball bearings, washers, and sprockets. These techniques later enabled skilled metalworkers and mechanics to develop the components used in early automobiles and aircraft. J. K. Starley's company became the Rover Cycle Company Ltd. in the late 1890s, and then simply the Rover Company when it started making cars. The Morris Motor Company (in Oxford) and Škoda also began in the bicycle business, as did the Wright Brothers.[12] Alistair Craig whose company eventually emerged to become the engine manufacturers Ailsa Craig also started from manufacturing bicycles in Glasgow in March 1885. A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement. ... Assorted washers: flat, split, star and insulated A washer is a thin disk with a hole, usually in the middle. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Car redirects here. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Morris Motor logo, from a UK Royal Mail van 1927 Morris Cowley 1928 Morris Minor Saloon 1946 Morris Ten Series M 1953 Morris Minor Series 2 1971 Morris 1000 Traveller The Morris Motor Company was a former British car manufacturing company. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Å koda Auto ( (help· info)) is a Czech automobile manufacturer and one of the four oldest car producers in the world. ... The Wright brothers, Orville (19 August 1871 – 30 January 1948) and Wilbur (16 April 1867 – 30 May 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human...


In general, U.S. and European cycle manufacturers used to assemble cycles from their own frames and components made by other companies, although very large companies (such as Raleigh) used to make almost every part of a bicycle (including bottom brackets, axles, etc.) In recent years, those bicycle makers have greatly changed their methods of production. Now, almost none of them produce their own frames.

Bike on beach in Goa, India
Bike on beach in Goa, India

Many newer or smaller companies only design and market their products; the actual production is done by Asian companies. For example, some sixty percent of the world's bicycles are now being made in China. Despite this shift in production, as nations such as China and India become more wealthy, their own use of bicycles has declined due to the increasing affordability of cars and motorcycles. One of the major reasons for the proliferation of Chinese-made bicycles in foreign markets is the lower cost of labour in China.[13] Image File history File linksMetadata Bikeinindia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bikeinindia. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ...


Legal requirements

Reflectors for riding after dark
Reflectors for riding after dark

The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic of the United Nations considers a bicycle to be a vehicle, and a person controlling a bicycle is considered a driver. The traffic codes of many countries reflect these definitions and demand that a bicycle satisfy certain legal requirements, sometimes even including licensing, before it can be used on public roads. In many jurisdictions it is an offence to use a bicycle that is not in roadworthy condition. A diagram of a bicycle. ... A diagram of a bicycle. ... The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic is an international treaty designed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by standardising the uniform traffic rules among the contracting parties. ... UN redirects here. ...


In most jurisdictions, bicycles must have functioning front and rear lights when ridden after dark. As some generator or dynamo-driven lamps only operate while moving, rear reflectors are frequently also mandatory. Since a moving bicycle makes little noise, some countries insist that bicycles have a warning bell for use when approaching pedestrians, equestrians and other bicyclists. The term jurisdiction has more than one sense. ... Bicycle lighting has two purposes: seeing and being seen. ... A retroreflector is a device that sends light or other radiation back where it came from regardless of the angle of incidence, unlike a mirror, which does that only if the mirror is exactly perpendicular to the light beam. ...


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Bicycle repair
Sustainable development Portal

General Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ...

Special uses and related vehicle types // The Bicycle Industry or Cycling Industry can broadly be defined as the industry concerned with bicycles and cycling. ... This page lists bicycle manufacturers and brands past and present. ... // Australia The Canberra Bicycle Museum - Dickson,Canberra Canada Canada Science and Technology Museum - Ottawa, Ontario Denmark Danmarks Cykelmuseet United Kingdom The National Cycle Collection - Llandrindod Wells United States Bicycle Museum of America - New Bremen, OH [1] The Metz Bicycle Museum - Freehold, NJ New England Muscle Bicycle Museum - Bloomfield,CT Pedaling... Bicycle lighting has two purposes: seeing and being seen. ... The front wheel is locked with a U-lock but the rest of the bicycle has been stolen, as locking the front wheel is not a sufficient security measure. ... Bicycle parts include: See also Groupset Categories: Bicycle parts | Cycling | Sporting goods ... Various bicycle tools have evolved over the years into specialized tools for working on a bicycle. ... The Trampe bicycle lift (Norwegian: Sykkelheisen Trampe) is the first, and currently only, bicycle lift in the world. ...

Other A balance bicycle is a training bicycle that helps the rider learn balance and steering. ... Two-wheel truss-frame trailer Image:BOB trailer. ... Two boda boda drivers wait for customers in Uganda. ... A betchak and its driver wait for a fare in Bandung, Indonesia Rickshaw in Hamburg. ... Traditional Dutch cargo tricycle Old-fashioned Dutch freight tricycle Modern long-wheelbase freight bicycle from Amsterdam Danish Long John freight bicycle Freight bicycles or Freight tricycles or cargo bikes are human powered vehicles designed and constructed specifically for transporting large loads. ... A modern touring quadricycle - a 2007 model Rhoades Car 4W2PCP Coupe two seater Rhombus layout quadricycle (1886) Coventry Rotary quadricycle (1885) A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... A shaft-driven bicycle. ... A traditional tandem bicycle. ... Trailer bike (also known as trailer cycle, Trailerbike, Trail-a-bike, and other trademarked names) is a one-wheeled bicycle trailer designed to carry one or more small riders in positions that closely resemble that of a bicycle rider. ... Antique tricycle 19th century tricycle used in Iran A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle. ... Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Cargo-bicycle and Trike for rent Bremen. ... A Torker unicycle A unicycle is a one-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... The velocipede was the predecessor of the bicycle, a human-powered vehicle introduced in the Victorian age. ... Pushing a loaded workbike in Jakarta, Indonesia A workbike is a bicycle built for some purpose other than strictly human transportation. ...

Human-powered transport is transport of person(s) and/or goods powered by human muscle. ... This is a list of topics related (in whole or in part) to (a) phenomena in the natural environment which have a definite or significantly possible connection with human activity or (b) features of human activity which have a definite or significantly possible connection with the natural environment, even if... Safety standards are standards designed to ensure the safety of products, activities or processes, etc. ... Timeline of transportation technology // 3500 BC - Wheeled carts are invented 3500 BC - River boats are invented 2000 BC - Horses are tamed and used for transport 770 - Iron horseshoes come into common use 1492 - Leonardo da Vinci describes a flying machine 1662 - Blaise Pascal invents a horse-drawn public bus which...

Notes

  1. ^ DidYouKnow.cd. There are about a billion or more bicycles in the world. Retrieved 30 July 2006.
  2. ^ a b Herlihy, David V. (2004). Bicycle: the history. Yale University Press, 200-250. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. 
  3. ^ Canada Science and Technology Museum: Baron von Drais’ Bicycle (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  4. ^ "Bicycle Technology", S.S. Wilson, Scientific American, March 1973
  5. ^ "Johns Hopkins Gazette", 30 August 1999
  6. ^ Whitt, Frank R.; David G. Wilson (1982). Bicycling Science, Second edition, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 277-300. ISBN 0-262-23111-5. 
  7. ^ How Much Do Bicycles Pollute? Looking at the Carbon Dioxide Produced by Bicycles
  8. ^ a b Bluejay, Michael. Safety Accessories. Bicycle Accessories. BicycleUniverse.info. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.
  9. ^ The Essentials of Bike Clothing. About Bicycling. About.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.
  10. ^ Sheldon Brown: Flat tires. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.
  11. ^ Newnham College Cambridge: The History of the College
  12. ^ The Wrights' bicycle shop (2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  13. ^ The Economist, 15 February 2003

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References

  • All About Bicycling, Rand McNally.
  • Richard Ballantine, Richard's Bicycle Book, Pan, 1975.
  • Caunter C. F. The History and Development of Cycles Science Museum London 1972.
  • Daniel Kirshner. Some nonexplanations of bicycle stability. American Journal of Physics, 48(1), 1980. The abstract reads "In this paper we attempt to verify a nongyroscopic theory of bicycle stability, and fail".
  • David B. Perry, Bike Cult: the Ultimate Guide to Human-powered Vehicles, Four Walls Eight Windows, 1995.
  • Roni Sarig, The Everything Bicycle Book, Adams Media Corporation, 1997
  • Randonneurs USA. PBP: Paris-Brest-Paris (March 31).
  • US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. "America's Highways 1776-1976", pp. 42-43. Washington, DC, US Government Printing Office.
  • David Gordon Wilson, Bicycling Science, MIT press, ISBN 0-262-73154-1
  • David V. Herlihy, Bicycle: The History, Yale University Press, 2004
  • Frank Berto, The Dancing Chain: History and Development of the Dérailleur Bicycle, San Francisco: Van der Plas Publications, 2005, ISBN 1-892495-41-4.
  • The Data Book: 100 Years of Bicycle Component and Accessory Design, San Francisco: Van der Plas Publications, 2005, ISBN 1-892495-01-5.
  • Bicycle facts. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.

Richard Ballantine is a cycling journalist, writer and advocate, born in America but now principally resident in London, England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canada Science and Technology Museum (French: Musée des sciences et de la technologie du Canada) is located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada on St. ... Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ... A Torker unicycle A unicycle is a one-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... Antique tricycle 19th century tricycle used in Iran A tricycle (often abbreviated to trike) is a three-wheeled vehicle. ... A modern touring quadricycle - a 2007 model Rhoades Car 4W2PCP Coupe two seater Rhombus layout quadricycle (1886) Coventry Rotary quadricycle (1885) A Quadricycle is a four-wheeled human-powered vehicle. ... A velomobile or bicycle car is a human-powered vehicle, enclosed for protection from weather and collisions. ... Kick scooter A kick scooter or push scooter is a small, 2 or more-wheeled platform that is propelled by a rider pushing off the ground. ... Blading redirects here. ... A standard skateboard An old-school skateboard 1970s surfer print fiberglass skateboard A skateboard is a four wheeled platform used for the activity of skateboarding. ... The Trikke works by shifting body weight. ... Wheelchair seating in a theater. ... A longboard is a skateboard with a longer and sometimes wider shape used for longboarding. ... This article is about the boat. ... Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Punt Pedalo Look up Pedalo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rowing in the Amstel River by a student rowing club. ... Cross-country skiing (aka XC skiing) is an adventure and fitness activity as well as a competitive winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily in Europe and Canada. ... Modern skates Ice skates are boots with blades attached to the bottom, used to propel ones self across ice surfaces. ... // Kicksled on ice Kicksled is a translation of the Swedish and Norwegian sparkstötting, commonly called spark. Some other possible translations are kicker and chair-sled. The kicksled is a small sled consisting of a chair mounted on a pair of flexible metal runners which extend backward to about twice... Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ...


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