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Encyclopedia > Berry
Four fruits that are true berries (size not to scale). Clockwise from right:Concord grapes, persimmon, red gooseberries, red currants (top)
Four fruits that are true berries (size not to scale). Clockwise from right:
Concord grapes, persimmon, red gooseberries, red currants (top)

The word berry has two meanings: one based on a botanical definition, the other on common identification. True berries are a simple fruit having seeds and edible pulp produced from a single ovary. In common parlance, however, berries are more broadly recognized as small, round or semi-oblong, usually brightly colored, sweet or sour fruit desirable in a healthy diet. Berry can have several meanings: A berry is a type of fruit (see also pome). ... Concord grapes Closeup. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... In general terms, eating is the process of consuming something edible. ... Pulp can refer to: Soft shapeless substances in general. ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ...

Contents

True berries

Several types of common "berries", none of which is a berry by botanical definition:The blueberry is a false berry, raspberries and blackberries are aggregate fruit, and strawberries are accessory fruit.
Several types of common "berries", none of which is a berry by botanical definition:
The blueberry is a false berry, raspberries and blackberries are aggregate fruit, and strawberries are accessory fruit.

In botany, the berry is the most common type of simple fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. The flowers of these plants have a superior ovary and one or more carpels within a thin covering and fleshy interiors. The seeds are embedded in the common flesh of the ovary. Examples of botanical berries include the tomato, grape, lychee, loquat, lucuma, plantain, avocado, persimmon, eggplant, guava, uchuva (ground cherry), and chili pepper. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1792x2700, 2238 KB) Image of Strawberries, Blackberries and Blueberries. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1792x2700, 2238 KB) Image of Strawberries, Blackberries and Blueberries. ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A false berry or epigynous berry is an accessory fruit found in certain plant species with an inferior ovary. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Binomial name Sonn. ... Binomial name (Thunb. ... Origin Lucuma or Lucumo is a subtropical fruit of peruvian andean origin, adapted to to the subtropical-dry valleys of Peru. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Species See text A Persimmon is any of a number of species of trees of the genus Diospyros, and the edible fruit borne by them. ... Aubergine redirects here. ... Species About 100 species, see text. ... Species About 80, see text Physalis is a genus of plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae, native to warm temperate and subtropical regions throughout the world. ... For other uses, see Chili. ...


Modified berries

The fruit of citrus, such as the orange, kumquat and lemon, is a modified berry called a hesperidium. For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species See text Potted kumquat trees at a kumquat liqueur distillery on Corfu. ... This article is about the fruit. ... A hesperidium is a fleshy berrylike fruit with a tough rind, as a lemon or an orange. ...


The fruit of cucumbers and their relatives are modified berries called "pepoes". A plant that bears berries is referred to as bacciferous. This article is about the fruit. ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A blueberry carries the five sepals of the flower at the tip, showing that the berry forms below the flower. ...


True berries are distinguishable from false berries like blueberries and cranberries for which the fruit is formed from other parts of the flower, not just the ovary. Also not true berries, aggregate fruits like raspberries are collections of small fruits, and accessory fruits like strawberries are formed from parts of the plant other than the flower. As explained below, none of these is a true berry. For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... “Cranberries” redirects here. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ...


Common usage

In common parlance, berry refers to any small, sweet, juicy and brightly-colored fruit. By contrasting in color with their background, berries are more attractive to animals that eat them, aiding in the dispersal of the plant's seeds. Most berries are edible, but some are poisonous. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the dangerous substance. ...


Berry colors are due to natural pigments synthesized by the plant. Medical research[1] has uncovered medicinal properties of pigmented polyphenols, such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins and other phytochemicals localized mainly in berry skins and seeds. Berry pigments are usually antioxidants and thus have oxygen radical absorbance capacity ("ORAC") that is high among plant foods.[2] Together with good nutrient content, ORAC distinguishes several berries within a new category of functional foods called "superfruits", a rapidly-growing multi-billion dollar industry that began in 2005[3] and is identified by DataMonitor as one of the top 10 food categories for growth in 2008[4]. Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Polyphenols are a group of vegetable chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... Anthocyanin is a pigment that reflects the red to blue range of the visible spectrum. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... This article is about the organ. ... This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities of different foods. ... Functional food or medicinal food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond the basic nutritional function of supplying nutrients, although there is no consensus on an exact definition of the term. ... In 2004, the term superfoods was popularized by a best-selling book discussing 14 whole foods with extraordinary nutrition. ...


A 2007 report combined four criteria — nutrient content, antioxidant qualities, medical research intensity and commercial success — giving an approximate rank of commercial activity for six exotic superfruits, including three berries — wolfberry, sea buckthorn and açaí — as the highest rated[5]. Species Lycium barbarum L. Lycium chinense Mill. ... Species Hippophae rhamnoides Hippophae salicifolia Hippophae tibetana The sea-buckthorns (Hippophae L.) are deciduous shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. ... Species About 25-30 species including: Euterpe edulis Euterpe macrospadix Euterpe oleracea Açaí Palm Euterpe is a genus of 25-30 species of palms native to tropical Central and South America, from Belize south to Brazil and Peru, growing mainly in floodplains and swamps. ...


Not a botanical berry

Many "berries" are not actual berries by the scientific definition, but fall into one of these categories:

  • False berries like blueberry and cranberry, are epigynous, made from a part of the plant other than a single ovary.
  • Compound fruit, which includes:
  • Other accessory fruit, where the edible part is not generated by the ovary, such as the strawberry for which the seed-like achenes are actually the "fruit" derived from the ovary.
Botanical parlance
True berry Pepo Hesperidium False berry (Epigynous) Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Other accessory fruit
Common parlance Berry Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Gooseberry Cranberry, Blueberry Blackberry, Raspberry, Boysenberry Mulberry Strawberry
Not a berry Tomato, Eggplant, Guava, Lucuma, Chili pepper, Pomegranate, Avocado, Kiwifruit, Grape Pumpkin, Gourd, Cucumber, Melon Orange, Lemon, Lime, Grapefruit Banana Hedge apple Pineapple, Fig Apple, Peach, Cherry, Green bean, Sunflower seed
Alaska wild "berries" from the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge.
Alaska wild "berries" from the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge.

A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... A boysenberry is a cross between a blackberry, red raspberry and loganberry. ... Mulberry is a kind of multiple fruit. ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... Binomial name L. The Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a species of Ribes berry native to central and northern Europe and northern Asia. ... Binomial name L. The Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family Grossulariaceae, native to parts of western Europe (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, and northern Italy). ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ribes uva-crispa See Physalis peruviana for the tomato-like fruit commonly known as the Cape gooseberry and kiwifruit for the fruit sometimes known as the Chinese gooseberry. ... “Cranberries” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... A boysenberry is a cross between a blackberry, red raspberry and loganberry. ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Aubergine redirects here. ... Species About 100 species, see text. ... Origin Lucuma or Lucumo is a subtropical fruit of peruvian andean origin, adapted to to the subtropical-dry valleys of Peru. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Binomial name C.F.Liang. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the dried fruit shell. ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Melon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Macfad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... Green common beans on the plant Green beans (American English) or French beans (British English) or Mahune (South Slavic, Balkans) are the unripe fruits of any kind of bean, including the yardlong bean, the hyacinth bean, the winged bean, and especially the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), whose pods are also... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... Download high resolution version (2401x1563, 633 KB)Alaska Wild Berries from the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge. ... Download high resolution version (2401x1563, 633 KB)Alaska Wild Berries from the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge. ... The Innoko National Wildlife Refuge is a wildlife refuge in western Alaska in the United States. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Gross PM (2007-07-09). "Scientists zero in on health benefits of berry pigments". Natural Products Information Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  2. ^ Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE, Prior RL (2004-06-16). "Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States". J Agric Food Chem 2004 Jun 16;52(12):4026-37.. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  3. ^ Gross PM (2007-02-26). "Superfruits take center stage: Defining an emergent category". Natural Products Information Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  4. ^ Fresh, super and organic top trends for 2008, FoodNavigator.com-USA, November 2007
  5. ^ Gross PM. Tracking market meteors: exotic superfruits. Natural Products Insider, November 16, 2007

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Berries

Here are lists of fruits considered edible in some cuisine. ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A blueberry carries the five sepals of the flower at the tip, showing that the berry forms below the flower. ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... Mulberry is a kind of multiple fruit. ...

External links

  • The National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens - Description of berries
  • Encarta.msn.com - Differentiation between true berries, pepos, and hesperidia
  • United States National Berry Crops Initiative
  • Berry Health Benefits Network - Scientists working on the health properties of berries
For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... An apple is an example of a pome fruit. ... A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. ... Mulberry is a kind of multiple fruit. ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A blueberry carries the five sepals of the flower at the tip, showing that the berry forms below the flower. ... An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ...

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