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Encyclopedia > Andes
Andes (Quechua: Anti(s/kuna))
Range
The Andes between Chile and Argentina
Countries Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Cities Bogotá, La Paz, Santiago, Quito, Cusco
Highest point Aconcagua
 - location Argentina
 - elevation 6,962 m (22,841 ft)
 - coordinates 32°39′10″S 70°0′40″W / -32.65278, -70.01111
Length 7,000 km (4,350 mi)
Width 500 km (311 mi)

The Andes form the world's longest exposed mountain range.[1] They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. It is over 7,000 km (4,400 miles) long, 500 km (300 miles) wide in some parts (widest between 18° to 20°S latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). Andes may refer to: Andes, the mountain range. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Antisuyu flag Anti Suyu is the eastern part of the Inca Empire which bordered with modern-day Upper Amazon region where the Anti inhabited. ... Subject: The Andes as seen from a plane flying from Santiago, Chile to Buenos Aires, Argentina Source: Property of User:Cantus File links The following pages link to this file: Andes Categories: GFDL images ... Bogota redirects here. ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... For other uses, see Quito (disambiguation). ... This article is the city in Peru. ... For other uses, see Aconcagua (disambiguation). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The Andean range is composed principally of two great ranges, the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental, often separated by a deep intermediate depression, in which arise other chains of minor importance, the chief of which is Chile's Cordillera de la Costa. Other small chains arise on the sides of the great chains. The Cordillera de la Costa starts from the southern extremity of the continent and runs in a northerly direction, parallel with the coast, being broken up at its beginning into a number of islands and afterwards forming the western boundary of the great central valley of Chile. To the north this coastal chain continues in small ridges or isolated hills along the Pacific Ocean as far as Venezuela, always leaving the same valley more or less visible to the west of the Western Great Chain. The mountains extend over seven countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, some of which are known as Andean States. The Andes between Chile and Argentina Computer generated image of the Andes, made from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 arcseconds The Andes is a vast mountain range forming a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. ... There are several Cordillera Occidental mountain ranges: Cordillera Occidental, Bolivia Cordillera Occidental, Colombia Cordillera Occidental, Peru This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Chilean Coast Range (Spanish: Cordillera de la Costa) is a mountain range that runs southward parallel with the Andean Mountains, from the morro de Arica to the Taitao Peninsula where it ends together with the Nazca Plate. ... The Andean States are nations in South America that contain portions of—or border—the Andes mountain range. ...


The Andes mountain range is the highest mountain range outside Asia. The highest peak, Aconcagua, rises to 6,962 m (22,841 ft) above sea level. The summit of Mount Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is the point on the Earth's surface most distant from its center, because of the equatorial bulge. For other uses, see Aconcagua (disambiguation). ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... The inactive stratovolcano Chimborazo is Ecuadors highest summit. ... An equatorial bulge is a planetological term which describes a bulge which a planet may have around its equator, distorting it into an oblate spheroid. ...

Contents

Name

There are many theories about the etymology of the name Andes. Some believe Andes derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "high crest". Some believe Andes derives from one of the four regions of the Inca empire, or Anti(s). Some believe Andes derives from the Spanish word "andén" which means terrace in reference to the cultivation terraces used by the Incas and other related peoples. Some believe Andes is Old Spanish shorthand for "Andenes" or "Andenerías"[citation needed]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Antisuyu flag Anti Suyu is the eastern part of the Inca Empire which bordered with modern-day Upper Amazon region where the Anti inhabited. ... Terraced vineyards near Lausanne The Incan terraces at Písac are still used today. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Physical features

The Andes can be divided into three sections: the Southern Andes in Argentina and Chile; the Central Andes, including the Chilean and Peruvian cordilleras and parts of Bolivia; and the northern section in Venezuela, Colombia, and northern Ecuador consisting of two parallel ranges, the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental. In Colombia, north to the border with Ecuador, the Andes split in three parallel ranges, western, central and eastern. (cordillera occidental, central y oriental). The eastern range is the only one that extends to Venezuela. The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word meaning 'rope'. The Andes range is approximately 200–300 km (125–190 mi) wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is 640 km (398 mi) wide. The islands of Aruba,Bonaire, and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range. “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Anthem: Tera di Solo y suave biento Capital (and largest city) Kralendijk Official languages Dutch Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles  - Bonaire Administrator  - Governor of N.A. Frits Goedgedrag Constitutional monarchy part of the Netherlands Antilles  Area  - Total 288 km² 111 sq mi  Population  - 2001 census 10,791  - Density... For other uses, see Curaçao (disambiguation). ...


Geology

The Andes fundamentally are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. The boundary between the two plates is marked by the Peru-Chile oceanic trench. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 343 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 686 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I shot this photo in Ecuador, on the road between Zumbahua and Laguna Quilotoa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 343 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 686 pixel, file size: 152 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I shot this photo in Ecuador, on the road between Zumbahua and Laguna Quilotoa. ... African Rift Valley. ... Quilotoa (key-low-TOE-ah) is a water-filled caldera and the westernmost volcano in the Ecuadorian Andes. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ...  The Nacza plate, shown in light blue The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America. ...  The South American plate, shown in purple The South American Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The Peru-Chile Trench, also called Atacama Trench, is a submarine trench in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 100 miles (160 km) off the coast of Peru and Chile. ...


The formation of the Andes began in the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting, faulting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east. Tectonic forces along the subduction zone along the entire west coast of South America where the Nazca Plate and a part of the Antarctic Plate are sliding beneath the South American Plate continue to produce an ongoing orogenic event resulting in minor to major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to this day. In the extreme south a major transform fault separates Tierra del Fuego from the small Scotia Plate. Across the 1,000 km (620 mi) wide Drake Passage lie the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula south of the Scotia Plate which appear to be a continuation of the Andes chain. The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ... Very tight folds. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of a pre-existing rock type, the protolith, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form, derived from the Greek words meta, change, and morphe, form. The protolith is subjected to extreme heat (>150 degrees Celsius) and pressure causing profound... World geologic provinces. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ...  The Nacza plate, shown in light blue The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America. ... The Antarctic plate is shown in blue on this map The Antarctic Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans. ...  The South American plate, shown in purple The South American Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... A transform fault is a geological fault that is a special case of strike-slip faulting which terminates abruptly, at both ends, at a major transverse geological feature. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...  The Scotia plate, shown in blue-green towards the bottom of the map The Scotia Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate bordering the South American Plate on the north, the South Sandwich microplate to the east, and the Antarctic Plate on the south and west. ... Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ...


The Andes range has many active volcanoes, including Cotopaxi, one of the highest active volcanoes in the world. Cotopaxi is a volcano located about 50 km south of Quito, Ecuador. ...


Climate

The climate in the Andes varies greatly depending on location, altitude, and proximity to the sea. The southern section is rainy and cool, the central Andes are dry. The northern Andes are typically rainy and warm, with an average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F) in Colombia. The climate is known to change drastically. Rainforests exist just miles away from the snow covered peak, Cotopaxi. The mountains have a large effect on the temperatures of nearby areas. The snow line depends on the location. It is at between 4,500–4,800 m (14,800–15,800 ft) in the tropical Ecuadorian, Colombian, Venezuelan, and northern Peruvian Andes, rising to 4,800–5,200 m (15,800–17,060 ft) in the drier mountains of southern Peru south to northern Chile south to about 30°S, then descending to 4,500 m (14,760 ft) on Aconcagua at 32°S, 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at 40°S, 500 m (1,640 ft) at 50°S, and only 300 m (980 ft) in Tierra del Fuego at 55°S; from 50°S, several of the larger glaciers descend to sea level.[2] For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... The snow line is the point above which, or poleward of which, snow and ice cover the ground throughout the year. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...


Fauna and flora

A male Andean Cock-of-the-rock, a species found in humid Andean forests
A male Andean Cock-of-the-rock, a species found in humid Andean forests

The Andes is very rich in fauna and flora. An estimated 30,000 species of vascular plants occur in the Andes, roughly half being endemic to the region, thereby surpassing the diversity of any other hotspot.[3] With almost 1000 species, of which roughly 2/3 are endemic to the region, the Andes is the most important region in the world for amphibians.[3] For other major groups the numbers are equally impressive: Almost 600 species of mammals (13% endemic), more than 1,700 species of birds (c. 1/3 endemic), more than 600 species of reptiles (c. 45% endemic), and almost 400 species of fishes (c. 1/3 endemic).[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 683 pixel, file size: 332 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 683 pixel, file size: 332 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Rupicola peruviana Latham, 1790 The Andean Cock-of-the-rock, Rupicola peruviana is a medium-sized bird, up to 28cm long, with large disk-like crest and scarlet or brilliant orange plumage. ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are those plants that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues, including the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, but not mosses, algae, and the like (nonvascular... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, the most abundant fish species in the world, Photo by Uwe Kils This page is about the animals which live in water. ...


Tropical rainforests and rainforests used to encircle the northern Andes, but is now greatly diminished, especially in the Chocó and inter-Andean valleys of Colombia. The small tree Cinchona pubescens, a source of quinine which is used to treat malaria, is found widely in the Andes as far south as Bolivia. Other important crops that originated from the Andes are tobacco and potatoes. The high-altitude Polylepis forests and woodlands are found in the Andean areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. These trees, by locals referred to as Queñua, Yagual and other names, can be found at altitudes of 4,500 m (14,760 ft) above sea level. It remains unclear if the patchy distribution is natural, or the result of clearance which started during the Incan period. Regardless, in modern times the clearance has accelerated, and the trees are now considered to be highly endangered, with some believing that as little as 10% of the original woodland remains.[4] A number of species such as the Royal Cinclodes and White-browed Tit-spinetail are associated with Polylepis, and consequently also threatened. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Extending from Southern Panama to the North of Peru the Choco is one of the world’s great ecosystems and features habitats ranging from mangroves and moist rainforests to dry tropical forests. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... Polylepis is a genus of trees and shrubs restricted to the Andes of South America. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... The term Modern Times is used by historians to loosely describe the period of time immediately following what is known as the Early Modern Times. ... An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ... Binomial name Cinclodes aricomae (Carriker, 1932) The Royal Cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae) is a passerine bird which breeds in the Andes of south-east Peru and adjacent Bolivia. ... Binomial name Chapman, 1921 The White-browed Tit-spinetail (Leptasthenura xenothorax) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family. ... Threatened species refers to animal and plant species under a serious, but perhaps not imminent, threat of extinction. ...


The Vicuña and Guanaco can be found living in the Altiplano, while the closely related domesticated Llama and Alpaca are widely kept by locals as pack animals and for their meat and wool. The nocturnal chinchillas, two threatened members of the rodent order, inhabits the Andes' alpine regions. The Andean Condor, the largest bird of its kind in the Western Hemisphere, occurs throughout a large part of the Andes, but generally in very low densities. Other animals found in the relatively open habitats of the high Andes include the huemul, cougar, foxes in the genus Pseudalopex, and, for birds, certain species of Tinamous (notably members of the genus Nothoprocta), Andean Goose, Giant Coot, flamingos (mainly associated with hypersaline lakes), Lesser Rhea, Andean Flicker, Diademed Sandpiper-Plover, miners, sierra-finches and Diuca-finches. The massive Lake Titicaca hosts several endemics, among them the highly endangered Titicaca Flightless Grebe and Titicaca Water Frog. A few species of hummingbirds, notably some hillstars, can be seen at altitudes above 4,000 m (13,100 ft), but far higher diversities can be found at lower altitudes, especially in the humid Andean forests ("cloud forests") growing on slopes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and far north-western Argentina. These forest-types, which includes the Yungas and parts of the Chocó, are very rich in flora and fauna, although few large mammals exists, exceptions being the threatened Mountain Tapir, Spectacled Bear and Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey. Birds of humid Andean forests include Mountain-Toucans, Quetzals and the Andean Cock-of-the-rock, while mixed species flocks dominated by tanagers and Furnariids commonly are seen - in contrast to several vocal, but typically cryptic, species of wrens, tapaculos and antpittas. As a direct opposite of the humid Andean slopes are the relatively dry Andean slopes in most of western Peru, Chile and Argentina. Along with several Interandean Valles, they are typically dominated by deciduous woodland, shrub and/or xeric vegetation, reaching the extreme in the slopes near the virtually lifeless Atacama Desert. Binomial name (Molina, 1782) The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... Puno, Peru, is one of larger cities of the Altiplano. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... For other uses, see Llama (disambiguation). ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... A pack animal is a beast of burden used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weigh bears on the animals back; the term may be applied to either an individual animal or a species so employed. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chinchilla (disambiguation). ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... For other uses, see condor (disambiguation). ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Species Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782 Hippocamelus antisensis dOrbigny, 1834 The huemuls are endangered mammals of the Cervidae family, in the genus Hippocamelus. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation), Puma (disambiguation), or Panther. ... Species Pseudalopex culpaeus Pseudalopex fulvipes Pseudalopex griseus Pseudalopex gymnocercus Pseudalopex sechurae Pseudalopex vetulus Pseudalopex is the genus name for South American members of the Canidae family. ... Genera Tinamus Nothocercus Crypturellus Rhynchotus Nothoprocta Nothura Taoniscus Eudromia Tinamotis The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Binomial name Chloephaga melanoptera (Eyton, 1838) The Andean Goose, Chloephaga melanoptera, is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Species See text For other uses, see Flamingo (disambiguation). ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Binomial name Rhea pennata dOrbigny, 1834 Synonyms Pterocnemia pennata Darwins Rhea (Rhea pennata), also known as the Lesser Rhea, is the smaller of the two extant species of rhea at 90 to 100 centimeters (3 ft to 3 ft 4 in) tall, and has larger wings than other... Binomial name DOrbigny, 1840 The Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola) is a species of bird in the Picidae family. ... Species Geositta peruviana Geositta cunicularia Geositta tenuirostris Geositta antarctica Geositta isabellina Geositta saxicolina Geositta maritima Geositta punensis Geositta rufipennis Geositta poeciloptera Geositta crassirostris Geositta is a genus of passerine birds in the ovenbird family, Furnariidae. ... Lake Titicaca sits 3,812 m (12,507 feet) above sea level making it the highest commercially navigable lake in the world. ... Binomial name Rollandia microptera (Gould, 1868) The Titicaca Flightless Grebe Rollandia microptera is a grebe found on freshwater lakes on the altiplano of Peru and Bolivia, including Lake Titicaca. ... For the Australian jangle pop band, see The Hummingbirds. ... Species richness is the simplest measure of biodiversity and is simply a count of the number of different species in a given area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Yungas is an area in the eastern piedmont of the Andes Mountains, primarily in Bolivia. ... Binomial name Tapirus pinchaque (Roulin, 1829) The Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) is the smallest of the four species of tapir and is the only one to live outside of tropical rainforests in the wild. ... Binomial name (Cuvier, 1825) Synonyms Ursus ornatus Cuvier, 1825 The Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean Bear and locally as ukuko, jukumari or ucumari, is the last of the lineage of short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene age. ... Binomial name Oreonax flavicauda (Humboldt, 1812) The Yellow-tailed Woolly monkey, Oreonax flavicauda, is a New World primate endemic to Peru. ... For other uses, see Quetzal (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Rupicola peruviana Latham, 1790 The Andean Cock-of-the-rock, Rupicola peruviana is a medium-sized bird, up to 28cm long, with large disk-like crest and scarlet or brilliant orange plumage. ... Genera many: see text There were traditionally about 240 species of tanagers in the bird family Thraupidae. ... Crypsis is a phenomena where an organisms appearance allows it to blend well into its environment. ... This article is about the bird. ... Genera Pteroptochos Scelorchilus Rhinocrypta Teledromas Liosceles Psilorhamphus Merulaxis Melanopareia Eugralla Myornis Scytalopus Acropternis The tapaculos are a family (Rhinocryptidae) of small passerine bird species found in South America. ... Genera Formicarius Chamaeza Pittasoma Grallaria Hylopezus Myrmothera Grallaricula The Formiciidae are a family of smallish passerine bird species of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Deserts and xeric shrublands is a biome characterized by a dry climate. ... Atacama Desert The Atacama Desert is a virtually rainless plateau in South America, extending 966 km (600 mi) between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. ...


People

Map showing cultural influence in the Andes.
Map showing cultural influence in the Andes.

The Inca Empire developed in the northern Andes during the 1400s. The Incas formed this civilization through imperialistic militarism as well as careful and meticulous governmental management. The government sponsored the construction of aqueducts and roads, some of which, like those created by the Romans, are still in existence today. The aqueducts turned the previously scattered Incan tribe into the agricultural and eventually militaristic masters of the region.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x3600, 3986 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Andes ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x3600, 3986 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Andes ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... This article is about the structure aqueduct, for the racecourse see Aqueduct Racetrack. ... This page is related to transport; you may be looking for the 2002 Bollywood movie Road. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Devastated by deadly European diseases to which they had no immunity, and by a terrible civil war, in 1532 the Incas were defeated by an alliance composed by tens of thousands allies from nations they had subjugated (huancas, chachapoyas, cañaris, etc) and a small army of 180 Spaniards led by Pizarro. One of the few Inca cities the Spanish never found in their conquest was Machu Picchu, which lay hidden on a peak on the edge of the Andes where they descend to the Amazon. The main surviving languages of the Andean peoples are those of the Quechua and Aymara language families. Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... The Chachapoyas, also called the Warriors of the Clouds, were an Andean people living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas region of present-day Peru. ... Francisco Pizarro ( 1475–June 26, 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Inca Empire and founder of the city of Lima. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: , Old mountain) is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,400 meters (7,875 ft) above sea level[1]. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 km (50 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ...


Mountaineering/surveying

Woodbine Parish and Joseph Barclay Pentland surveyed a large part of the Bolivian Andes from 1826 to 1827. Sir Woodbine Parish (September 14, 1796—August 16, 1882) was a British diplomat and traveler. ... Medallion of Joseph Barclay Pentland, by Pierre Jean David Joseph Barclay Pentland (1797-1873) was an Irish geographer, natural scientist, and traveler. ...


Transportation

Several major cities exist in the Andes, among them the capital of Colombia, Bogotá, the capital of Ecuador, Quito, the capital of Bolivia, La Paz, and the famous Peruvian city of Cusco. These and most other cities are now connected with asphalted roads, while smaller town often are connected by dirt roads, which may require a 4x4 vehicle. Due to the arduous terrain, localities where vehicles are of little use remain. Locally, Llamas continue to play an important role as pack animals, but this use has generally diminished in modern times. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Bogota redirects here. ... For other uses, see Quito (disambiguation). ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470... This article is the city in Peru. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ...


Agriculture

The ancient peoples of the Andes such as the Incas have practiced irrigation techniques for over 6,000 years. Because of the mountain slopes, terracing has been a common practice. Terracing, however, was only extensively employed after Incan imperial expansions to fuel their expanding realm. The potato holds a very important role as an internally consumed staple crop. Maize was also an important crop for these people. However, they were mainly used for the production of the culturally important chicha. Currently, tobacco, cotton and coffee are the main export crops. Coca, despite eradication programmes in some countries, remains an important crop for legal local use in a mildly stimulating herbal tea, and, both controversially and illegally, for the production of cocaine. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Terraced vineyards near Lausanne The Incan terraces at Písac are still used today. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Herbal tea An herbal tea, tisane, or ptisan is an herbal infusion not made from the leaves of the tea bush (Camellia sinensis). ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ...

Photograph of young Peruvian farmers sowing maize and beans.
Photograph of young Peruvian farmers sowing maize and beans.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 654 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Young farmers sow a mixture of corn and beans in a terrace in Andamarca, Valley Sondondo, Perú. Conquistadors brought plows and cattle when they arrived in... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 654 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Young farmers sow a mixture of corn and beans in a terrace in Andamarca, Valley Sondondo, Perú. Conquistadors brought plows and cattle when they arrived in...

Mining

Mining is quite prosperous in the Andes, with iron, gold, silver, tin and copper being the main production minerals.


Peaks

This list contains some of the major peaks in the Andes mountain range.


Argentina

See also List of mountains in Argentina
  • Aconcagua, 6,962 m (22,841 ft)
  • Cerro Bonete, 6,759 m (22,175 ft) (not 6,872 m)
  • Galán, 5,912 m (19,396 ft) (not 6,600 m)
  • Mercedario, 6,720 m (22,047 ft)
  • Pissis, 6,795 m (22,293 ft) (not 6,882 m)

Border between Argentina and Chile

Bolivia

Ancohuma is the third highest mountain in Bolivia. ... Cabaray is stratovolcano in Bolivia. ... Chacaltaya is a mountain in Bolivia with an elevation of 5421 m (17,785 feet). ... Huayna Potosí is a mountain in Bolivia, located about 25 km north of La Paz in the Cordillera Real. ... Illampu is the fourth highest mountain in Bolivia. ... Illimani is an extinct stratovolcano in western Bolivia, just south of La Paz and east of the Altiplano, in the Cordillera Oriental range of the Andes Mountains. ... Macizo de Larancagua is a stratovolcano in Bolivia. ... Macizo de Pacuni is a stratovolcano in Bolivia. ... Nevado Analljsi is stratovolcano in Bolivia. ... Nevado Sajama is an extinct stratovolcano and the highest peak in Bolivia. ... Patilla Pata is a stratovolcano in Bolivia. ... Tata Sabaya is a stratovolcano in Bolivia. ...

Border between Bolivia and Chile

Chile

See also List of mountains in Chile

Colombia

Galeras is a volcano in Colombia, near the city of Pasto. ... Nevado del Huila is a volcano located in Huila Department, Colombia. ... Space radar image of Nevado del Ruiz Nevado del Ruiz 2006 Nevado del Ruiz is an Andean stratovolcano in Caldas Department, Colombia. ... Ritacuba Blanco is the highest point of Cordillera Oriental, in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. ... Snow Mountain of Quindio is a volcano in the Andes of central colombia. ...

Ecuador

Peru

  • Alpamayo, 5,947 m (19,511 ft)
  • Artesonraju, 6,025 m (19,767 ft)
  • Carnicero, 5,960 m (19,554 ft)
  • El Misti, 5,822 m (19,101 ft)
  • El Toro, 5,830 m (19,127 ft)
  • Huascarán, 6,768 m (22,205 ft)
  • Jirishanca, 6,094 m (19,993 ft)
  • Pumasillo, 5,991 m (19,656 ft)
  • Rasac, 6,040 m (19,816 ft)
  • Rondoy, 5,870 m (19,259 ft)
  • Sarapo, 6,127 m (20,102 ft)
  • Seria Norte, 5,860 m (19,226 ft)
  • Siula Grande, 6,344 m (20,814 ft)
  • Yerupaja, 6,635 m (21,768 ft)
  • Yerupaja Chico, 6,089 m (19,977 ft)

Venezuela

References

  1. ^ Explanation: The world's longest mountain range of any type is the undersea Ocean ridge, with a total length of 80,000 km (49,700 mi).
  2. ^ Climate of the Andes. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  3. ^ a b c Tropical Andes - biodiversityhotspots.org
  4. ^ Plants of the Andes. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  • John Biggar, The Andes: A Guide For Climbers, 3rd. edition, 2005, ISBN 0-9536087-2-7
  • Tui de Roy, The Andes: As the Condor Flies. 2005, ISBN 1-55407-070-8
  • Fjeldså, J., & N. Krabbe (1990). The Birds of the High Andes. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen. ISBN 87-88757-16-1
  • Fjeldså, J. & M. Kessler. 1996. Conserving the biological diversity of Polylepis woodlands of the highlands on Peru and Bolivia, a contribution to sustainable natural resource management in the Andes. NORDECO, Copenhagen.

An oceanic ridge is an underwater mountain range, usually formed by plate tectonics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (8192x4096, 10000 KB) Land surface, ocean color, sea ice and clouds. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Andes Mountain Range (401 words)
The Andes Mountains are located in South America, running north to south along the western coast of the continent.
The latitude is 10° N. to 57° S. The longitude is 70° W. to 80° E. The Andes Mountains are the longest and one of the highest mountain ranges in the world.
In the northern region, it is hotter because it is closest to the equator.
Andes - MSN Encarta (998 words)
The Andes formed during the Cretaceous period (about 138 million to about 65 million years ago) when the Pacific crustal plate began to slowly slide beneath the South American plate, uplifting and folding the sedimentary rocks that comprise the Andes (see Plate Tectonics).
The northern Andes curve in an arc from northeast to southwest.
The two main ranges of the central Andes, which are also known as the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental, enclose the Altiplano, an extensive plateau in Bolivia and southern Peru between 3,600 to 4,000 m (12,000 to 14,000 ft) above sea level.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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