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Encyclopedia > Afrikaner calvinism
John Calvin

St. Augustine
The Reformation
Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Reformation redirects here. ...

Calvin's Institutes
Five Solas
Five Points (TULIP)
Regulative principle
Confessions of faith Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... Calvinist theology is often identified in the popular mind as the so-called five points of Calvinism (remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP), which are a summation of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt and which were published in the Quinquarticular Controversy... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church... The Reformed churches express their consensus of faith in various creeds. ...

Theodore Beza
Synod of Dort
Puritan theology
Jonathan Edwards
Princeton theologians
Karl Barth
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. ... The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Karl Barth. ...

Reformed Baptist
-1... Presbyterianism is a form of Protestant Christianity, primarily in the Reformed branch of Western Christianity, as well as a particular form of church government. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct Christian denomination, but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Afrikaner Calvinists
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Pilgrims is the name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony, MA. Their leadership came from a religious congregation who had fled religious persecution in the East Midlands of England for the relative calm of Holland in the Netherlands. ... A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Laudian reform of the Church of England. ... The Scottish people are a nation[6] and an ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. ...

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Afrikaner Calvinism is, according to theory, a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa. From 1652 to 1835, settlers primarily from the Netherlands, and migrant and refugee Calvinist Protestants from Germany, France, Scotland, and elsewhere in Europe, combined in South Africa to form a distinct people[1], called the Afrikaners or Boers. A significant number of the French progenitors of the Boer people were Huguenots, who first began to arrive between 1687 and 1691 in flight from the persecution that lasted for one hundred years after the Edict of Nantes was revoked.[2] Between the end of the 18th century and the end of the 20th century, these people increasingly considered themselves Afrikaner rather than European. They spoke a their own, indigenious language, called Afrikaans, and were bound together by a form of Calvinist religion. Though they lost control of their South African republics to the British after the Boer Wars, the Afrikaners finally negotiated a home-rule arrangement 10 years later and firmly established themselves as the ruling minority in South Africa until international pressure and increasing chaos within South Africa compelled them to dismantle their policies of exclusive control, called Apartheid. In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Afrikaners are an ethnic group primarily associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant French Calvinists (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Redvers Buller Frederick Roberts Herbert Kitchener Paul Kruger Martinus Steyn Louis Botha Christiaan de Wet Casualties 22,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...

The Calvinism of the Boers of the Transvaal in South Africa developed in a different way from its European and American counterparts. This uniqueness is theoretically a direct result of geographical isolation and political and cultural estrangement, which shut out the influences of the Enlightenment. The cross-currents of change which arose within the Protestant cultures of Europe in response to the Enlightenment had minimal effect upon the development of religious thought among the Boers. Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... ...

This view of Afrikaner Calvinism implies that it is a purer expression of what Calvinism originally was, without the diluting effects of the Enlightenment. Particularly, this view implies that cultural development under the influence of Boer civil religion is an illustration of the cultural implications of Calvinism. This is especially interesting to contemporaries considering that a form of nationalistic Calvinism arose, which had direct bearing upon the establishment of the Apartheid policy in 1948. The intended meaning of the term civil religion often varies according to whether one is a sociologist of religion or a professional political commentator. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


Settlement period

The Dutch settlement of the Cape of Good Hope was the first colonial success in South Africa. The key to this success was the establishment of strict rules of trade between the settlement and the native population. No trade or Christian missionary ventures among the Africans were permitted without the permission of the company administrator. Stealing or shooting cattle was especially forbidden as a cause of inevitable conflict with the natives. The early Europeans were appalled by the appearance and the customs of the Africans, and the completely false report that the natives were cannibals reinforced their motive to avoid unnecessary contact. The Cape was a walled garden, with Africa on the outside and Europe within. This strict order minimized conflicts with the Africans during the early settlement period. The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Since the Lausanne Congress of 1974, a widely-accepted definition of a Christian mission has been to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...

Yet, many of the settlers had arrived with a missionary motive. The synthesis of these attitudes of strict avoidance and a missionary conscience resulted in the widespread practice of indenturing the native Khoisan population, and within that master/servant relationship, to teach the Bible to them in hope that the message would filter back through the servant's family (along with reports of the superiority of European life) and thus bring about conversion. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...

The farmers who lived outside of the physical walls of the towns had a different arrangement than the townspeople. To them, occupation meant ownership, and ownership implied the right to protect their property. As they settled into the seemingly unnoccupied territories surrounding the Cape, they enforced these assumptions of ownership and its rights when the wandering hunters or herding tribes would cross the Fish River into farm territories in search of grazing land or game. Thus, the farms represented an extension beyond the towns of the wall of separation between the white and the black occupants of the land. As in the towns, plantation slavery was sometimes seen as a means of evangelism. Fish River is a river in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. ... // This article is about crop plantations. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Separation and rules of exchange were opposed very early in the Afrikaner mind to invasion and conquest. And, this anti-imperialism extended also to the theory of missionary obligation that developed within the Dutch Reformed Church: the kingdom of God will grow within the sphere of influence assigned to the church by divine providence, as children are taught the Gospel by their parents and family. If God deems it fitting for the Gospel to be received by the natives, and taught to their children, then this is his glory. Toward that end, Christians have a defining role given them from God, a calling, or covenantal responsibility as God's people, to keep themselves pure in the faith and just in their dealings with the heathen, and to be absolutely unyielding in their protection of what has been legitimately claimed in the name of the Triune God. The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ...

Folk Religion

This history is essential to understanding the distinctive concept of "calling" that developed among the Afrikaners. These attitudes, very early adopted, went with them through later conflicts, formed in a way that seemed to them obviously crafted by the hand of God Himself. They believed themselves preserved by God's own wisdom and Providence. The things they suffered, and the strong bonds between them that were formed through it all, seemed to confirm this idea at every turn. Their history as a people has a central place in forming the Boer religion. In this way, a distinctive folk character became attached to their Calvinistic beliefs. In theology, Divine Providence, or simply Providence, is the sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over events in peoples lives and throughout history. ...

This folk religion was not articulated in a formal way. It was the experience of the Afrikaners, which they interpreted through their assurance that their absolutely sovereign Creator and Lord had shown special grace to them as a particular people. Their faith, tied as it was to their identity as a people, produced in them no appreciable trouble of conscience over their treatment of blacks as though they were incorrigible and dull-witted children, or animals in the shape of men. It offered no resistance to the slave-trade dependent culture ruled over by the Dutch company. Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and cultural practices transmitted from generation to generation. ...


However, the French Revolution brought these habits of thought more self-consciously to the surface. Because the Dutch of the Netherlands supported the French and American revolutions, the British declared war on the Netherlands and began seizing their trade routes. They landed at the Cape of Good Hope in 1797. After the Dutch declared bankruptcy, the British annexed the Cape and appointed British land administrators there in 1805, who were zealous propagators of the Enlightenment. They loosened the trade and labor regulations, speaking of the blacks as 'noble savages' whose untainted natural souls they professed to admire, finally outlawing slavery in 1835. They called the blacks equals, and gave them access to the courts in suit against white landowners. And, they professed to believe in their own autonomous Reason above all else. i heart kate young The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to... The painting Dutch attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that reasoning be merged into this article or section. ...

A more antithetical message could hardly be imagined, as the English Enlightenment forced itself upon the Afrikaners. From the Boer point of view, the Enlightenment invaded their shores, seized their properties, annexed their farms, imposed alien laws, liberated their slaves without compensation, justified these actions by appeal to Reason alone, and claimed in all of this to be more virtuous than God. They were exposed to the Enlightenment, and it appeared to them to be a revolution against God.

Laager strategy

The laager became symbolic of white African identity and solidarity
The laager became symbolic of white African identity and solidarity

Resorting once again to the time-tested wisdom of progress through separation, thousands of farmers, called Voortrekkers, left the Cape beginning in 1835, and travelled in ox-drawn wagons as far as the Transvaal. Along the way on this Great Trek, the pioneers heading east were attacked by Xhosa tribes who were also moving into the region in retreat from the Zulus. To the north, they were attacked by the Zulu, when trade relations failed. And behind them, the British offered no protection. The great journey of the Voortrekkers is a central, defining event in the history of the Afrikaners. At the symbolically significant Battle of Blood River in December, 1838, fewer than 500 Boers circled their wagons to fight off tens of thousands of Zulus without losing a single member of their own party. The laager (wagon fortress) became symbolic of Boer solidarity, and of their confidence that God would keep them safe against overwhelming odds, if only they would be faithful to Him and rally to the aid of one another. The partly mythologized history of the Boers grew into a theological/nationalistic consciousness in the second half of the 19th century. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A laager is a defensive formation of vehicles. ... The Voortrekker Monument built in 1949. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Trekboers on the Karoo. ... The Xhosa (IPA ) people are a group of peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central southern parts of the country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Voortrekker Monument built in 1949. ... Combatants Voortrekkers Zulu Commanders Andries Pretorius Dambuza Ndlela kaSompisi Strength about 470 men between 10,000 and 20,000 men Casualties 3 wounded 3,000 dead The Battle of Blood River (Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier) was fought on 16 December 1838 on the banks of the Blood River (Bloedrivier) in... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A laager is a defensive formation of vehicles. ...

Because the Cape Dutch Reformed Church was seen by the trekkers as being an agent of the Cape government, they also did not trust its ministers and emissaries, seeing them as attempts by the Cape government to regain political control. There were also religious divisions among the trekkers themselves. A minister from the Netherlands, Dirk van der Hoff went to the Transvaal in 1853, and became a minister in the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, which was constituted in 1856, and in 1860 recognised as the State Church of the South African Republic, separate from the Cape Church. Trekkie (or Trekker) is a term used to describe a fan of the Star Trek science fiction franchise. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Capital Pretoria Created 1857 - Independence 1881 - First Boer War Dissolved 1877 - 1st British Annexation 1900 - Formal Annexation Official language Dutch Spoken language Afrikaans This article is about the former country in Africa. ...

Meanwhile, back in the Netherlands, the Dutch church had been transformed by the Enlightenment, a change represented in the minds of those opposed it, by the loss of any meaningful profession of faith as requisite for adult church members, and the singing of hymns and other innovations in worship and doctrine. In the Netherlands a movement grew in reaction to this perceived dismantlement of Biblical faith. It was called the Doleantie (grieving), a movement that led to schism in the Dutch Reformed Church, and the formation of the Christian Reformed Church in the Netherlands. The writings of Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, and the leader of the Doleantie, Abraham Kuyper, began to become known to the Afrikaners. Highly critical of the Enlightenment, the "revolution" as they called it, the Doleantie in the church had counterparts in education and in politics. The timing of this influence was significant, coming on the crest of a wave of evangelical revival, the Reveil (Awakening) in the Dutch Reformed Church which had been led in South Africa by the Scottish preacher, Andrew Murray (minister). The slogan of the Doleantie, which eventually rang with unintended nationalist nuance for the Afrikaners was, "Separation is Strength". The Christian Reformed Church in North America (CRCNA or CRC) is a Protestant Christian denomination which follows Reformed Calvinist theology. ... Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer (August 21, 1801 - May 19, 1876), Dutch politician and historian, was born at Voorburg, near the Hague. ... Portrait of Abraham Kuyper by Jan Veth Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) was born in the town of Maassluis and was a Dutch Calvinist theologian, scholar, and statesman. ... Andrew Murray (1828-1917) was the child of Dutch Reformed Church missionaries from Scotland to South Africa, younger brother of John Murray. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ...


In the South African Dutch Reformed Church, the more conservative party (known as Doppers) were opposed to singing hymns in church. A minister from this group, Dirk Postma also traveled to the South African Republic, and was accepted as a minister of the Hervormde Kerk, but on learning that he and his congregation could be required to sing hymns (rather than the Psalms only), he and the Doppers, numbering about 6,000, broke away from the state church to form the Gereformeerde Kerk. There were thus now three Dutch Reformed Churches in South Africa -- the Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk (the Cape Synod), the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, which was the state church of the South African Republic, and the Gereformeerde Kerk, the smallest of the three, led by Postma. Exclusive psalmody is the particular worship practice of some churches in using the Book of Psalms from the Bible as the only manual of songs that may be sung in their services. ...

The originally contemptuous name, Dopper, may come from the Dutch domp (wick-snuffers) for their opposition to candles and other innovations in worship, perhaps representing their contempt for the Enlightenment; or, Dopper may originate from Dutch dop (and thus drinkers), perhaps on account of their strong opposition to small, individual communion cups.[3][4]

The separatism of the Doppers, expressed in the severity of their doctrine, the austere puritanism of their worship, and even in their distinctive dress and speech, set them in stark contrast to European influence. Nevertheless, the Doppers were symbolic of resistance to all things English in South Africa, and despite their small size and distinctiveness they were culturally sophisticated and disproportionately influential during and after the Great Trek. It was the Dopper church that established Potchefstroom University. It was from this sect that Paul Kruger arose.[5] The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Potchefstroom campus of the North-West University (nicknamed Pukke) was formerly known as the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education (abbreviated PU for CHE). ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ...

The new Boer states which arose after the Great Trek needed a comprehensive philosophy upon which to organize a genuinely Afrikaner society. Voortrekker 'Uncle' Paul Kruger, first president of the South African Republic upon its reacquired independence after the brief British annexation, adopted the Doleantie in its political form, and formulated the Afrikaner cultural mandate based on the African Calvinist conviction that the South Africans had a special calling from God, not unlike the people of Israel in the Bible. The Doppers waged an intellectual war against outlander culture which was flooding into South Africa through the mass settlements of foreign squatters lured by gold and diamonds, accompanied by British armies. To the Afrikaner mind, the British represented imperialism, viciousness, outlander oppression, covetousness, envy, and unbelief.[6] When the Anglo-Boer wars broke out, Paul Kruger's idealized version of Afrikaner history forged the Afrikaners into a united and formidable force. The Afrikaner's Boer War experience, including the death of 28 000 civilians and the destruction of homesteads, reinforced their laager mentality, so as to preserve themselves and their way of life against the British melting pot. Capital Pretoria Created 1857 - Independence 1881 - First Boer War Dissolved 1877 - 1st British Annexation 1900 - Formal Annexation Official language Dutch Spoken language Afrikaans This article is about the former country in Africa. ...

Afrikaner Broederbond

The Boer Wars had left many of the Afrikaners utterly destitute. The ruined farmers were seen in the hundreds, following the war, lining the highways selling produce by the basket. After the British reorganized the Union of South Africa and relinquished control to democratic elections, a small, anonymous group of young intellectuals called the Afrikaner Broederbond, formed in the years following the Second Anglo-Boer War to discuss strategies for addressing the overwhelming social problem of poor whites and other Afrikaner interests. By the account of Irving Hexham, according to Klaus Venter and Hendrick Stoker who were themselves disgruntled members of the secret organization, in 1927 the Broederbond moved to Potchefstroom University, asking that the school would take over leadership of the then-struggling group. That year, the Broederbond formally adopted the Calvinist philosophy based on the work of Abraham Kuyper.[7] The Broederbond believed, with deep-rooted conviction, that what their past had provided them through the interpretation of faith was a model of anti-imperialism, self-discipline and responsibility, which in the end would preserve justice for all — blacks, coloured, and whites — against Communist deceit. These strategies that arose from the Broederbond were directly responsible for the establishment of apartheid, in 1948. National motto: Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Official languages Afrikaans, Dutch and English. ... The Afrikanerbond or, as it was known throughout most of its history, the Afrikaner Broederbond, is an organization which promotes the interests of Afrikaners. ... Irving Hexham (April 14, 1943) is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...

However some who had been members of the organization before 1927 preferred the philosophy of Fichte, and other versions of European Nationalism. A Fascist, social Darwinist agenda in sympathy with Hitler arose among some whites in South Africa during the Second World War, which became an unwelcome ally in support of these policies. The Calvinist party within the Broederbond tried to distance itself from this movement, with very limited success because of the secrecy of the organization, their later confessed complete misunderstanding of the real ambitions of non-Afrikaners and blindness to the agony of 'Coloureds' and 'Blacks' under apartheid, and the extreme unpopularity of the apartheid policies in the eyes of non-Afrikaners. The anti-Calvinist nationalists, led by H.F. Verwoerd, overcame the Calvinists in 1950 and used the Broederbond to advance his own political ambitions. International pressures mounted, increasingly isolating the Afrikaners and identifying their policies with the worst kind of godless oppression; but this was a long time in producing a crisis of conscience - or at least, it did not for some time produce sufficient energy to dismantle the complex social system that had been founded upon apartheid. 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... Social Darwinism in the most basic form is the idea that biological theories can be extended and applied to the social realm. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Silver medal commemorating Verwoerds death. ...

After the Sharpeville massacre in 1960, under enormous international pressure, the Broederbond began a slow and quiet re-examination of their policy proposals. And yet no significant changes took place to reform the apartheid system until the Soweto riots in 1976. Some time after this, the Broederbond declared apartheid an irreformable failure and began work to dismantle it. The conviction had finally become established, although not universally that, if the Afrikaner people, language and religion were to survive, they must take the initiative to emerge from the laager, and invite South Africa in. The Broederbond (dropping the policy of secrecy and with the new name Afrikanerbond) began proposing initiatives for land reform and the reversal of apartheid. The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

Radical changes

The reversal of apartheid has cast the Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK) into a period of change. While remaining confessionally Calvinist, the religious character of the church is now less cohesive and more difficult to assess. Having been thoroughly conflated with apartheid, historic Calvinism appears to have fallen out of favor. In some quarters, Liberation theology which embraces the Enlightenment idea of Revolution has gained a foothold, and appears to have advocates on the left and the right ends of the political spectrum. American-style evangelicalism also appears to have made inroads, which with its more individualistic emphasis has less potential for a full-scale civil religion. Certainly, the old synthesis of revealed and Natural theology is largely repudiated; officially at least. But, the folk religion of the Afrikaners is not dead. Some scholars and revisionist historians are attempting to draw lines of distinction between Calvinism per se, and the history of the Afrikaners, and the civil religion of the apartheid regime in particular. The Nederduits Gereformeerde Church is a Dutch Reformed Church from the Netherlands which took root in South Africa, where it is the oldest and largest of several Dutch Reformed Churches. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the Oppressed. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ...


See also: History of South Africa The history of South Africa is viewed differently by various scholars and by its various population groups because South Africa is a multicultural country. ...

  1. ^ The History and Character of Calvinism, John Thomas MacNeill, 1954, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195007433, p 381
  2. ^ History of South Africa 1486-1691, George McCall Theal, Published 1888 S. Sonnenschein, Lowrey, & co, public domain via Google Books, Nov 30, 2005, chapter XIV, p 337ff
  3. ^ "CHRISTIANITY IN CENTRAL SOUTHERN AFRICA PRIOR TO 1910", Irving Hexham AND Karla Poewe, Reformed Christianity in Transorangia"
  4. ^ THE CHRISTIAN AFRIKANERS A Brief History of Calvinistic Afrikanerdom from 1652 - 1980 by Rev. Prof. Dr. Francis Nigel Lee
  5. ^ The Last Trek: A Study of the Boer People and the Afrikaner Nation, Sheila Patterson, p. 183-184, ISBN 041532999X
  6. ^ The Afrikaners: Biography of a People (Reconsiderations in Southern African History), by Hermann Giliomee, September 2003, University of Virginia Press, pg 177, ISBN 0813922372
  7. ^ Review of Bloomberg, Charles ..., Irving Hexham, 22 February 1991


  • The Irony of Apartheid : the struggle for national independence of Afrikaner Calvinism against British imperialism by Irving Hexham, New York : Edwin Mellen Press, c1981, ISBN 0889469040



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