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Encyclopedia > Zviad Gamsakhurdia
ზვიად გამსახურდია
Zviad Gamsakhurdia
Zviad Gamsakhurdia

In office
June, 1991 – January, 1992
Preceded by Soviet era
Succeeded by Eduard Shevardnadze

Born March 31, 1939
Tbilisi, Georgia
Died December 31, 1993
Khibula, Georgia
Spouse Manana Archvadze-Gamsakhurdia

Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia[1] (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია, IPA: [zvɪad̥ k’ɔnst̪’ant̪ɪn dzɛ gamsaxʊrd̥ɪa]) (March 31, 1939December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (426x640, 32 KB) Zviad Gamsakhurdia Author: Georgian Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:rofl. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Coordinates:  - Governing Mayor Giorgi Gigi Ugulava Area    - City 372 km² Population (2005)  - City 1,093,000 Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი , IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura (Mtkvari) River, at . ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively opposes an established opinion, policy, or structure. ... The physicist Albert Einstein is probably the most famous scientist of our time. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... This article is about the political process. ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... Motto: (Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem: (Freedom) Capital (and largest city)  Tbilisi Official languages Georgian (also Abkhaz within the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic) Government Unitary republic  - President Mikheil Saakashvili  - Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation    - Establishment of first Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... The Post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the independent nations which split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991. ...

Contents

Gamsakhurdia as dissident

Early career

Zviad Gamsakhurdia was born in the Georgian capital Tbilisi in 1939, in a distinguished Georgian family; his father, Academician Konstantine Gamsakhurdia (1893-1975), was one of the most famous Georgian writers of the 20th century. Perhaps influenced by his father, Zviad received training in philology and began a professional career as a translator and literary critic. Coordinates:  - Governing Mayor Giorgi Gigi Ugulava Area    - City 372 km² Population (2005)  - City 1,093,000 Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი , IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura (Mtkvari) River, at . ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Konstantine Gamsakhurdia (May 3, 1893 - July 17, 1975) was a classic of Georgian literature of the 20th century and famous public benefactor, Academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, Ph. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ...


Despite (or perhaps because of) the country's association with Stalin, Soviet rule in Georgia was particularly harsh during the 1950s and sought to restrict Georgian cultural expression. In 1955, Zviad Gamsakhurdia established a youth underground group which he called the Gorgasliani (a reference to the ancient line of Georgian kings) which sought to circulate reports of human rights abuses. In 1956, he was arrested during demonstrations in Tbilisi against the Soviet policy of russification and was arrested again in 1958 for distributing anti-communist literature and proclamations. He was confined for six months to a mental hospital in Tbilisi where he was diagnosed as suffering from "psychopathy with decompensation", thus perhaps becoming an early victim of what became a widespread policy of using psychiatry for political purposes. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages None; Russian de facto Government Socialist Republic/Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Psychiatry is a medical specialty dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of mental illness. ...


He and his wife Manana had three sons.


Human rights activism

He achieved wider prominence in 1972 during a campaign against the corruption associated with the appointment of a new Katolikos of the Georgian Orthodox Church, of which he was a "fervent"[2] adherent. He co-founded the Initiative Group for the Defence of Human Rights in 1973, became the first Georgian member of Amnesty International in 1974 and co-founded the Georgian Helsinki Group in 1976 (renamed the Georgian Helsinki Union in 1989). Gamsakhurdia was Chairman of this human rights organization. He was very active in the underground network of samizdat publishers, contributing to a wide variety of underground political periodicals including Okros Satsmisi ("The Golden Fleece"), Sakartvelos Moambe ("The Georgian Herald"), Sakartvelo ("Georgia"), Matiane ("Annals") and Vestnik Gruzii. He participated in the Moscow underground periodical "Chronicle of Current Events", edited by Sergey Kovalev. Gamsakhurdia was also the first Georgian member of the International Society for Human Rights (ISHR-IGFM). 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... His Holiness and Beatitude Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia is the head of the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church. ... The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (Saqartvelos Samotsiqulo Avtokepaluri Martlmadidebeli Eklesia in Georgian language) is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Helsinki Watch was an independent NGO created in mid-1970s to monitor compliance to the Helsinki Accords (signed 1975). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Samizdat, book published by Pathfinder Press containing a collection of forbidden Trotskyist Samizdat texts. ... Chronicle of Current Events may refer to: Chronicle of Current Events (samizdat) - soviet 1968-1983 samizdat periodical (Russian: Хроника текущих событий) Chronicle of Current Events (film) - a 1971 film by Peter Handke, with Rüdiger Vogler (German: Chronik der laufenden Ereignisse) [1] Category: ... Sergei Kovalev Sergei Adamovich Kovalev (Russian: ) (born March 2, 1930) is a notable dissident and political prisoner in the former Soviet Union, and a human rights activist and politician in post-Soviet Russia. ... The International Society for Human Rights (ISHR-IGFM) is an international non-governmental, non-profit human rights organization with Consultative status to the Council of Europe and Associate status to the United Nations. ...


Perhaps seeking to emulate his father, Zviad Gamsakhurdia also pursued a distinguished academic career. He was a Senior Research Fellow of the Institute of Georgian Literature of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (1973-1977, 1985-1990), Associate Professor of the Tbilisi State University (1973-1975, 1985-1990) and member of the Union of Georgia's Writers (1966-1977, 1985-1991), PhD in the field of Philology (1973) and Doctor of Sciences (Full Doctor, 1991). He wrote a number of important literary works, monographs and translations of British, French and American literature, including translations of works by T. S. Eliot, William Shakespeare and Charles Baudelaire. He was also an outstanding Rustvelologist (Shota Rustaveli was a great Georgian poet of the 12th century) and researcher of history of the Iberian-Caucasian culture. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888–January 4, 1965) was a poet, dramatist and literary critic, whose works, such as The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The Waste Land, The Hollow Men, and Four Quartets, are considered major achievements of twentieth century Modernist poetry. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shota Rustaveli, an artistic notion of the poet by Sergo Kobuladze (1937) Shota Rustaveli (შოთა რუსთაველი) was a Georgian poet of the 12th century, considered by many to be one of the greatest representatives of the literature of the medieval world. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Although he was frequently harassed and occasionally arrested for his dissidence, for a long time Gamsakhurdia avoided serious punishment, probably as a result of his family's prestige and political connections. His luck ran out in 1977 when the activities of the Helsinki groups in the Soviet Union became a serious embarrassment to the Soviet government of Leonid Breznev. A nationwide crackdown on human rights activists was instigated across the Soviet Union. In Georgia, the government of Eduard Shevardnadze (who was then First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party) arrested Gamsakhurdia and his fellow dissident Merab Kostava. The two men were sentenced to three years' hard labour plus three years' exile for "anti-Soviet activities". Their imprisonment attracted international attention, leading to members of the United States Congress nominating Gamsakhurdia and Kostava for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978 (though it went to Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin instead). Kostava was exiled to Siberia, while Gamsakhurdia was exiled to the Russian autonomous republic of Dagestan. For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Leonid Brezhnev Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: Леонид Ильич Брежнев) (December 19, 1906 - November 10, 1982) was effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Merab Kostava (May 26, 1939–October 13, 1989) was a Georgian dissident, musician and poet; one of the leaders of the National-Liberation movement in Georgia. ... Type Bicameralism Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D, since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D, since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ...   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


At the end of June 1979, Gamsakhurdia was released from jail and pardoned in controversial circumstances after serving only two years of his sentence (Kostava remained in prison until 1987). The authorities claimed that he had confessed to the charges and recanted his beliefs; a film clip was shown on Soviet television to substantiate their claim. [1] According to a transcript published by the Soviet news agency TASS, Gamsakhurdia spoke of "how wrong was the road I had taken when I disseminated literature hostile to the Soviet state. Bourgeois propaganda seized upon my mistakes and created a hullabaloo around me, which causes me pangs of remorse. I have realised the essence of the pharasaic campaign launched in the West, camouflaged under the slogan of 'upholding human rights.'" For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ITAR-TASS (ИТАР-ТАСС), Information Telegraph Agency of Russia, is the major news agency of the Russian Federation. ...


His supporters, family and Merab Kostava claimed that his recantation was coerced by the KGB, and although he publicly acknowledged that certain aspects of his anti-Soviet endeavors were mistaken, he did not renounce his leadership of the dissident movement in Georgia. Perhaps more importantly, his actions ensured that the dissident leadership could remain active. Kostava and Gamsakhurdia later both independently stated that the latter's recantation had been a tactical move. In an open letter to Shevardnadze, dated April 19, 1992, Gamsakhurdia claimed that "my so-called confession was necessitated ... [because] if there was no 'confession' and my release from the prison in 1979 would not have taken place, then there would not have been a rise of the national movement." [2] April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Media:rofl. ...


Gamsakhurdia returned to dissident activities soon after his release, continuing to contribute to samizdat periodicals and campaigning for the release of Merab Kostava. In 1981 he became the spokesman of the students and others who protested in Tbilisi about the threats to Georgian identity and the Georgian cultural heritage. He handed a set of "Demands of the Georgian People" to Shevardnadze outside the Congress of the Georgian Writers Union at the end of March 1981, which earned him another spell in jail. 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Moves towards independence

Pro-independence protest in Tbilisi, 1990
Pro-independence protest in Tbilisi, 1990

When the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev initiated his policy of glasnost, Gamsakhurdia played a key role in organising mass pro-independence rallies held in Georgia between 1987-1990, in which he was joined by Merab Kostava on the latter's release in 1987. In 1988, Gamsakurdia became one of the founders of the Society of Saint Ilia the Righteous (SSIR), a combination of a religious society and a political party which became the basis for his own political movement. The following year, the brutal suppression by Soviet forces of a large peaceful demonstration held in Tbilisi in April 4-9, 1989 proved to be a pivotal event in discrediting the continuation of Soviet rule over the country. The progress of democratic reforms was accelerated and led to Georgia's first democratic multiparty elections, held in October 28, 1990. Gamsakhurdia's SSIR party and the Georgian Helsinki Union joined with other opposition groups to head a reformist coalition called "Round Table — Free Georgia" ("Mrgvali Magida — Tavisupali Sakartvelo"). The coalition won a convincing victory, with 64% of the vote, as compared with the Georgian Communist Party's 29.6%. On November 14, 1990, Zviad Gamsakhurdia was elected by an overwhelming majority as Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia. Image File history File links TL021483. ... Image File history File links TL021483. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov ( , IPA: , commonly written as Mikhail Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was the last leader of the Soviet Union, serving from 1985 until its collapse in 1991. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ilia Chavchavadze Prince Ilia Chavchavadze, known as Saint Ilia the Righteous, (October 27, 1837 – August 30, 1907) was a prominent figure of new Georgian literature, famous public benefactor, jurist, leader of the Georgias National-liberation movement in 1861-1907. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia was the first National Parliament of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era (in 1990 - 1992). ...


Georgia held a referendum on restoring its pre-Soviet independence on March 31, 1991 in which 90.08% of those who voted declared in its favour. The Georgian parliament passed a declaration of independence on April 9, 1991, in effect restoring the 1918-21 Georgian state. However, it was not recognised by the Soviet Union and although a number of foreign powers granted early recognition, universal recognition did not come until the following year. Gamsakhurdia was elected President in the election of May 26 with 86.5% per cent of the vote on a turnout of over 83%. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ...


Gamsakhurdia as President

On taking office, Gamsakhurdia was faced with major economic and political difficulties, especially regarding Georgia's relations with the Soviet Union. A key problem was the position of Georgia's many ethnic minorities (making up 30% of the population). Although minority groups had participated actively in Georgia's return to democracy, they were underrepresented in the results of the October 1990 elections with only nine of 245 deputies being non-Georgians. Even before Georgia's independence, the position of national minorities was contentious and led to outbreaks of serious inter-ethnic violence in Abkhazia during 1989. Some Georgian nationalists campaigned on a slogan of "Georgia for the Georgians." (George Khutsishvili in Perspective, February-March 1994, at [3]). At its most innocuous, this meant ending the Soviet domination and Russification of the country. Others used it to mean the abolition of the autonomous status of minority regions, and a few extremists demanded the complete expulsion of minorities. 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The slogan, and others like it, aroused alarm among minorities. Minority nationalists responded by demanding unification with ethnic counterparts across the Russian border or, in extremis, outright independence. [4] Other Soviet republics faced similar inter-ethnic difficulties, notably concerning the Russian minorities in Latvia, Estonia and Moldova and the Armenian minority in Azerbaijan — the latter two cases led to full-scale civil wars. While there were certainly legitimate concerns among many minority groups, it was widely believed by local and foreign observers that forces in Moscow were deliberately exploiting ethnic tensions to undermine the independence of the former Soviet republics. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ...


In 1989, violent unrest broke out in the autonomous district of South Ossetia between the Georgian population of the region and Ossetians demanding that their region be unified with North Ossetia (part of Russia). South Ossetia's government announced that the region would secede from Georgia and unite with their counterparts in the Russian Federation. In response, the Georgian Supreme Soviet annulled the autonomy of South Ossetia in March 1990. A three-way power struggle between Georgian, Ossetian and Soviet military forces broke out in the region, which resulted (by March 1991) in the deaths of 51 people and the eviction from their homes of 25,000 more. After his election as Chairman of the newly renamed Supreme Council, Gamsakhurdia denounced the Ossetian move as being part of a Russian ploy to undermine Georgia, declaring the Ossetian separatists to be "direct agents of the Kremlin, its tools and terrorists." In February 1991, he sent a letter to Mikhail Gorbachev demanding the withdrawal of Soviet army units and an additional contigent of interior troops of the USSR from the territory of former Authonomous District of South Ossetia. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National anthem Unknown Official languages Ossetian, with Russian having and widespread use by government and other institutions Political status De facto independent Capital Tskhinvali Capitals coordinates 42°14′N 43°58′E President Eduard Djabeevich Kokoity Prime Minister Yury Morozov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  1991-11-28  none... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The rise of the opposition

Gamsakhurdia's opponents were highly critical of what they regarded as "unacceptably dictatorial behaviour", which had already been the subject of criticism even before his election as President. Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua and two other senior ministers resigned on August 19 in protest against Gamsakhurdia's policies. The three ministers joined the opposition, accusing him of "being a demagogue and totalitarian" and complaining about the slow pace of economic reform. In an emotional television broadcast, Gamsakhurdia claimed that his enemies were engaging in "sabotage and betrayal" within the country. Tengiz Sigua (b. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Gamsakhurdia's response to the coup against President Gorbachev was a source of further controversy. On August 19 he, the Georgian government, and the Presidium of the Supreme Council issued an appeal to the Georgian population to remain calm, stay at their workplaces, and perform their jobs without yielding to provocations or taking unauthorized actions. The following day, Gamsakhurdia appealed to international leaders to recognize the republics (including Georgia) that had declared themselves independent of the Soviet Union. He claimed publicly on August 21 that Gorbachev himself had masterminded the coup in an attempt to boost his popularity before the Soviet presidential elections, an allegation rejected as "ridiculous" by US President George H. W. Bush. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


In a particularly controversial development, the Russian news agency Interfax reported that Gamsakhurdia had agreed with the Soviet military that the Georgian National Guard would be disarmed and on August 23 he issued decrees abolishing the post of commander of the Georgian National Guard and redesignating its members as interior troops subordinate to the Georgian Ministry of Internal Affairs. In defiance of Gamskhurdia, the sacked National Guard commander Tengiz Kitovani led most of his troops out of Tbilisi on August 24. By this time, however, the coup had clearly failed and Gamsakhurdia publicly congratulated Russia's President Boris Yeltsin on his victory over the putschists (Russian Journal "Russki Curier", Paris, September, 1991). Georgia had survived the coup without any violence, but Gamsakhurdia's opponents accused him of not being resolute in opposing it. Kitovani's supporters reportedly distributed leaflets in Tbilisi denouncing the government for not opposing the coup. [5] Interfax is a Russian non-governmental press agency based in Moscow. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... Tengiz Kitovani (b. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Yeltsin redirects here. ...


Gamsakhurdia reacted angrily, accusing shadowy forces in Moscow of conspiring with his internal enemies against Georgia's independence movement. In a rally in early September, he told his supporters: "The infernal machinery of the Kremlin will not prevent us from becoming free... Having defeated the traitors, Georgia will achieve its ultimate freedom." He shut down an opposition newspaper, "Molodiozh Gruzii," on the grounds that it had published open calls for a national rebellion. Giorgi Chanturia, whose National Democratic Party was one of the most active opposition groups at that time, was arrested and imprisoned on charges of seeking help from Moscow to overthrow the legal government. It was also reported that Channel 2, a television station, was closed down after employees took part in rallies against the government. [6] Giorgi Chanturia (1959-1994) was a prominent Georgian politician and the National Democratic Party leader who was murdered in Tbilisi, Georgia in December 1994. ...


The government's activities aroused controversy at home and strong criticism abroad. A visiting delegation of US Congressmen led by Representative Steny Hoyer reported that there were "severe human rights problems within the present new government, which is not willing to address them or admit them or do anything about them yet." American commentators cited the human rights issue as being one of the main reasons for Georgia's inability to secure widespread international recognition. The country had already been granted recognition by a limited number of countries (including Romania, Turkey, Canada, Finland, Ukraine, the Baltic States and others) but recognition by major countries eventually came during Christmas 1991, when the USA, Sweden, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Pakistan, India and others formally recognized Georgian independence. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Steny Hamilton Hoyer (born June 14, 1939) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the Marylands 5th congressional district since 1981. ... It has been suggested that Baltic Republics be merged into this article or section. ...


The political dispute turned violent on September 2, when an anti-government demonstration in Tbilisi was dispersed by police. The most ominous development was the splintering of the Georgian National Guard into pro- and anti-government factions, with the latter setting up an armed camp outside the capital. Skirmishes between the two sides occurred across Tbilisi during October and November with occasional fatalities resulting from gunfights. Paramilitary groups — one of the largest of which was the anti-Gamsakhurdia "Mkhedrioni" ("Horsemen" or "Knights"), a nationalist militia with several thousand members — set up barricades around the city. September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mkhedrioni is a paramilitary group and political organisation in the Republic of Georgia, outlawed since 1995 but subsequently reconstituted as the Union of Patriots political party. ...


Coup d'état

Opposition militia shooting the Government building during the violent Coup d'état in Tbilisi
Opposition militia shooting the Government building during the violent Coup d'état in Tbilisi

On December 22, 1991, armed opposition supporters launched a violent coup d'etat and attacked a number of official buildings including the Georgian parliament building, where Gamsakhurdia himself was sheltering. Heavy fighting continued in Tbilisi until January 6, 1992, leaving at least 113 people dead. On January 6, Gamsakhurdia and members of his government escaped through opposition lines and made their way to Azerbaijan where they were denied asylum. Armenia finally hosted Gamsakhurdia for a short period and rejected Georgian demand to extradite Gamsakhurdia back to Georgia. After Georgian new authorities threatened to block Armenia, the Armenian Minister of Interior Ashot Manucharian finally refused to hand over Gamsakhurdia to Shevardnadze's regime, stating that "Armenians are not the policemen of Georgian people".[citation needed] In order not to complicate alsmot tense relations with Georgia, Armenian authorities allowed Gamsakhurdia to move to the breakaway Russian republic of Chechnya, where he was granted asylum by the rebelious government of General Dzhokhar Dudayev. Prior to his departure from Armenia, Gamsakhurdia appeared on Armenian TV where he thanked to Armenia and Armenian people for asylum, hospitality and security provided to him and his family members.[citation needed] Image File history File links 0000272465-008. ... Image File history File links 0000272465-008. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... Media:rofl. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water Ranked 78th - 15,300 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 49th - est. ... Dzhokar Dudayev Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudaev (Джоха́р Муса́евич Дуда́ев, 15 February 1944 – 21 April 1996) was a Chechen leader, the first (separatist) president of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, a...


It was later claimed (although apparently not confirmed) that Soviet forces had been involved in the coup against Gamsakhurdia. On December 15, 1992 the Russian newspaper Moskovskie Novosti ("Moscow News") printed a letter claiming that the former Vice-Commander of the Trans-Caucasian Military District, Colonel General Sufian Bepaev, had sent a "subdivision" to assist the armed opposition. If the intervention had not taken place, it was claimed, "Gamsakhurdia's supporters' victory would be guaranteed." It was also claimed that Soviet special forces had helped the opposition to attack the state television tower on December 28. December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:rofl. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ...


A Military Council made up of Gamsakhurdia opponents took over the government on an interim basis. One of its first actions was to formally depose Gamsakhurdia as President. It reconstituted itself as a State Council and appointed Gamsakhurdia's old rival Eduard Shevardnadze as chairman in March 1992. The change in power was effected as a fait accompli, without any formal referendum or elections. He ruled as de facto president until the formal restoration of the presidency in November 1995. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gamsakhurdia in exile

The government building in flames after President Gamsakhurdia was ousted from Tbilisi
The government building in flames after President Gamsakhurdia was ousted from Tbilisi

After his overthrow, Gamsakhurdia continued to promote himself as the legitimate president of Georgia. He was still recognized as such by some governments and international organizations, although as a matter of pragmatic politics the insurrectionist Military Council was quickly accepted as the governing authority in the country. Gamsakhurdia himself refused to accept his ouster, not least because he had been elected to the post with an overwhelming majority of the popular vote (in conspicuous contrast to the undemocratically appointed Shevardnadze). In November-December 1992, he was invited to Finland (by the Georgia Friendship Group of the Parliament of Finland) and Austria (by the International Society for Human Rights). In both countries, he held press conferences and meetings with parliamentarians and government officials (source: Georgian newspaper Iberia-Spektri, Tbilisi, December 15-21, 1992). Image File history File links Civilwartbilisi01. ... Image File history File links Civilwartbilisi01. ...


Clashes between pro- and anti-Gamsakhurdia forces continued throughout 1992 and 1993 with Gamsakhurdia supporters taking captive government officials and government forces retaliating with reprisal raids. One of the most serious incidents occurred in Tbilisi on June 24, 1992, when armed Gamsakhurdia supporters seized the state television center. They managed to broadcast a radio message declaring that "The legitimate government has been reinstated. The red junta is nearing its end." However, they were driven out within a few hours by the National Guard. They may have intended to prompt a mass uprising against the Shevardnadze government, but this did not materialize. June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... Media:rofl. ...


Shevardnadze's government imposed a harshly repressive regime throughout Georgia to suppress "Zviadism", with security forces and the pro-government Mhekdrioni militia carrying out widespread arrests and harassment of Gamsakhurdia supporters. Although Georgia's poor human rights record was strongly criticised by the international community, Shevardnadze's personal prestige appears to have convinced them to swallow their doubts and grant the country formal recognition. Government troops moved into Abkhazia in September 1992 in an effort to root out Gamsakhurdia's supporters among the Georgian population of the region, but well-publicised human rights abuses succeeded only in worsening already poor ethnic relations. Later, in September 1993, a full-scale war broke out between Georgian forces and Abkhazian separatists. This ended in a decisive defeat for the government, with government forces and 300,000 Georgians being driven out of Abkhazia and an estimated 10,000 people being killed in the fighting. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


The 1993 civil war

Gamsakhurdia soon took up the apparent opportunity to bring down Shevardnadze. He returned to Georgia on September 24, 1993, establishing what amounted to a "government in exile" in the western Georgian city of Zugdidi. He announced that he would continue "the peaceful struggle against an illegal military junta" and concentrated on building an anti-Shevardnadze coalition drawing on the support of the regions of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Abkhazia. He also built up a substantial military force that was able to operate relatively freely in the face of the weak state security forces. After initially demanding immediate elections, Gamsakhurdia took advantage of the Georgian army's rout to seize large quantities of weapons abandoned by the retreating government forces. A civil war engulfed western Georgia in October 1993 as Gamsakhurdia's forces succeeded in capturing several key towns and transport hubs. Government forces fell back in disarray, leaving few obstacles between Gamsakhurdia's forces and Tbilisi. September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Zugdidi is a city in the Western Georgian historical province of Mingrelia (Samegrelo). ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... Mingrelia (Samegrelo in Georgian) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... National anthem Aiaaira Official languages Abkhaz, with Russian having co-official status and widespread use by government and other institutions Political status De facto independent Capital Sukhumi Capitals coordinates President Sergei Bagapsh Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  23 July 1992  none Currency Russian ruble Official...

Gamsakhurdia with his militia in Ochamchire, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict
Gamsakhurdia with his militia in Ochamchire, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict

However, Gamsakhurdia's capture of the economically vital Georgian Black Sea port of Poti threatened the interests of Russia, Armenia (totally landlocked and dependent on Georgia's ports) and Azerbaijan. In an apparent and very controversial quid pro quo, all three countries expressed their support for Shevardnadze's government, which in turn agreed to join the Commonwealth of Independent States. While the support from Armenia and Azerbaijan was purely political, Russia quickly mobilised troops to aid the Georgian government. On October 20, around 2,000 Russian troops moved to protect Georgian railroads and provided logistical support and weapons to the poorly armed government forces. The uprising quickly collapsed and Zugdidi fell on November 6. Image File history File links Gamsakhurdiaochamchire. ... Image File history File links Gamsakhurdiaochamchire. ... Poti is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of the Republic of Georgia. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ...


Gamsakhurdia's death

On December 31, 1993, Zviad Gamsakhurdia died in circumstances that were (and still are) very unclear. It is known that he died in the village of Khibula in the Samegrelo region of western Georgia and later was re-buried in the village Jikhashkari (in the Samegrelo region also). According to British press reports, the body was found with a single bullet wound to the head. A variety of reasons have been given for his death, which is still controversial and remains unresolved: December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ...


Suicide: Gamsakhurdia's wife later told the Interfax news agency that her husband shot himself on December 31 when he and a group of colleagues found the building where he was sheltering surrounded by forces of the pro-Shevardnadze Mkhedrioni militia. The Russian media reported that his bodyguards heard a muffled shot in the next room and found that Gamsakhurdia had killed himself with a shot to the head from a Stechkin pistol. The Chechen authorities published what they claimed was Gamsakhurdia's suicide note: "Being in clear conscience, I commit this act in token of protest against the ruling regime in Georgia and because I am deprived of the possibility, acting as the president, to normalize the situation, to restore law and order". Most observers outside Georgia accept the view that his death was self-inflicted. December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Died in infighting: The Georgian Interior Ministry under Shevardnadze's regime suggested that he had either been deliberately killed by his own supporters, or had died following a quarrel with his former chief commander, Loty Kobalia.


Gamsakhurdia's death was announced by the Georgian government on January 5, 1994. Some refused to believe that Gamsakhurdia had died at all but this question was eventually settled when his body was recovered on February 15, 1994. Zviad Gamsakhurdia's remains were re-buried in the Chechen capital Grozny on February 24, 1994. January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


Gamsakhurdia's legacy

On January 26, 2004, in a ceremony held at the Kashueti Church of Saint George in Tbilisi, the newly elected President Mikhail Saakashvili officially rehabilitated Gamsakhurdia to resolve the lingering political effects of his overthrow in an effort to "put an end to disunity in our society", as Saakashvili put it. He praised Gamsakhurdia's role as a "great statesman and patriot" and promulgated a degree granting permission for Gamsakhurdia's body to be reburied in the Georgian capital, declaring that the "abandon[ment of] the Georgian president's grave in a war zone ... is a shame and disrespectful of one's own self and disrespectful of one's own nation". He also renamed a major road in Tbilisi after Gamsakhurdia and released 32 Gamsakhurdia supporters imprisoned by Shevardnadze's government in 1993-1994, who were regarded by many Georgians and some international human rights organisations as being political prisoners. January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mikhail Saakashvili briefing the press at UN headquarters Mikhail Saakashvili (Georgian: მიხეილ სააკაშვილი) (born December 21, 1967, in Tbilisi) is a Georgian jurist and politician and the current President of Georgia. ...


Gamsakhurdia's supporters continue to promote his ideas through a number of public societies. In 1996, a public, cultural and educational non-governmental organisation called the Zviad Gamsakhurdia Society in the Netherlands was founded in the Dutch city of 's-Hertogenbosch. It now has members in a number of European countries. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... s-Hertogenbosch (literally Dukes Woods; Dutch and sometimes in French: Bois-le-Duc), unofficially also called Den Bosch, is a municipality in the Netherlands, the capital of the province of North Brabant. ...


Some important works of Zviad Gamsakhurdia

  • "20th century American Poetry" (a monograph). Publishing House "Ganatleba", Tbilisi, 1972, 150 pp. (In Georgian, English summary).
  • The Man in the Panther's Skin" in English" (a monograph). Publishing House "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, 1984, 222 pp. (In Georgian, English summary).
  • "Goethe's Weltanschauung from the Anthroposophic point of view."- J. "Tsiskari", Tbilisi, No 5, 1985 (In Georgian).
  • "Tropology (Image Language) of "The Man in the Panther's Skin"" (a monograph). Publishing House "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, 1991, 354 pp. (In Georgian, English summary).
  • "Collected articles and Essays". Publishing House "Khelovneba", Tbilisi, 1991, 574 pp. (In Georgian).
  • "The Spiritual mission of Georgia" (1990)
  • "The Spiritual Ideals of the Gelati Academy" (1989)
  • "Dilemma for Humanity."- "Nezavisimaia Gazeta", Moscow, May 21, 1992 (In Russian).
  • "Between deserts" (about the creative works of L.N. Tolstoy).- "Literaturnaia Gazeta", Moscow, No 15, 1993 (In Russian).
  • "Fables and Tales". Publishing House "Nakaduli", Tbilisi, 1987 (In Georgian).
  • "The Betrothal of the Moon" (Poems). Publishing House "Merani", Tbilisi, 1989 (In Georgian).

May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... Media:rofl. ...

References

  1. ^ Particularly in Soviet-era sources, his patronymic is sometimes given as Konstantinovich in the Russian style.
  2. ^ Kolstø, Pål. Political Construction Sites: Nation-Building in Russia and the Post-Soviet States, p. 70. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 2000.

Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Links and literature

  • President Zviad Gamsakhurdia's Memorial Page
  • Reports of the International Society for Human Rights (ISHR-IGFM)
  • Reports of the British Helsinki Human Rights Group (BHHRG)
  • Georgian Media in the 90s: a Step To Liberty
  • Country Studies: Georgia — U.S. Library of Congress
  • SHAVLEGO
  • [7] "The Lion in Winter — My Friend Zviad Gamsakhurdia", Todor Todorev, May 2002
  • Zviad Gamsakhurdia. "Open Letter to E. Shevardnadze"
  • Zviad Gamsakhurdia. "The Nomenklatura Revanche in Georgia"
  • "The Transcaucasian Republics and the Coup", Elizabeth Fuller, August 1991

Media articles and references

  • "Soviets Release Penitent Dissident" — The Washington Post, June 30, 1979
  • "New Leaders Show Their Old Habits; Georgia, Some Other Soviet Republics Cling to Authoritarian Ways" — The Washington Post, September 18, 1991
  • (Russian) "Russki Curier", Paris, September, 1991.
  • (Finnish) Aila Niinimaa-Keppo. "Shevardnadzen valhe" ("The Lie of Shevardnadze"), Helsinki, 1992.
  • (German) Johan Michael Ginther, "About the Putch in Georgia" — Der Presse Spiegel (Germany), No 14, 1992.
  • "Repression Follows Putsch in Georgia!" — "Human Rights Worldwide", Frankfurt/M., No 2 (Vol. 2), 1992.
  • (Finnish) "Purges, tortures, arson, murders..." — Iltalehti (Finland), April 2, 1992.
  • (Finnish) "Entinen Neuvostoliito". Edited by Antero Leitzinger. Publishing House "Painosampo", Helsinki, 1992, pp. 114-115. ISBN 952-9752-00-8.
  • "Attempted Coup Blitzed in Georgia; Two Killed" — Chicago Sun-Times, June 25, 1992.
  • "Moskovskie Novosti" ("The Moscow News"), December 15, 1992.
  • (Georgian) "Iberia-Spektri", Tbilisi, December 15-21, 1992.
  • J. "Soviet Analyst". Vol. 21, No: 9-10, London, 1993, pp. 15-31.
  • Otto von Habsburg.- ABC (Spain). November 24, 1993.
  • Robert W. Lee. "Dubious Reforms in Former USSR".- The New American, Vol. 9, No 2, 1993.
  • (English)/(Georgian) "Gushagi" (Journal of Georgian political emigrés), Paris, No 1/31, 1994. ISSN 0763-7247, OCLC 54453360.
  • Mark Almond. "The West Underwrites Russian Imperialism" — The Wall Street Journal, European Edition, February 7, 1994.
  • "Schwer verletzte Menschenrechte in Georgien" — Neue Zürcher Zeitung. August 19, 1994.
  • "Intrigue Marks Alleged Death Of Georgia's Deposed Leader" — The Wall Street Journal. January 6, 1994
  • "Georgians dispute reports of rebel leader's suicide" — The Guardian (UK). January 6, 1994
  • "Ousted Georgia Leader a Suicide, His Wife Says" — Los Angeles Times. January 6, 1994
  • "Eyewitness: Gamsakhurdia's body tells of bitter end" — The Guardian (UK). February 18, 1994.
  • (German) Konstantin Gamsachurdia: "Swiad Gamsachurdia: Dissident — Präsident — Märtyrer", Perseus-Verlag, Basel, 1995, 150 pp. ISBN 3-907564-19-7.
  • Robert W. Lee. "The "Former" Soviet Bloc." — The New American, Vol. 11, No 19, 1995.
  • "CAUCASUS and unholy alliance." Edited by Antero Leitzinger. ISBN 952-9752-16-4. Publishing House "Kirja-Leitzinger" (Leitzinger Books), Vantaa (Finland), 1997, 348 pp.
  • (Dutch) "GEORGIE — 1997" (Report of the Netherlands Helsinki Union/NHU), s-Hertogenbosch (The Netherlands), 1997, 64 pp.
  • "Insider Report" — The New American, Vol. 13, No 4, 1997.
  • Levan Urushadze. "The role of Russia in the Ethnic Conflicts in the Caucasus."- CAUCASUS: War and Peace. Edited by Mehmet Tutuncu, Haarlem (The Netherlands), 1998, 224 pp. ISBN 90-901112-5-5.
  • "Insider Report" — The New American, Vol. 15, No 20, 1999.
  • "Gushagi", Paris, No 2/32, 1999. OCLC 54453360.
  • (Dutch) Bas van der Plas. "GEORGIE: Traditie en tragedie in de Kaukasus." Publishing House "Papieren Tijger", Nijmegen (The Netherlands), 2000, 114 pp. ISBN 90-6728-114-X.
  • (English) Levan Urushadze. "About the history of Russian policy in the Caucasus."- IACERHRG's Yearbook — 2000, Tbilisi, 2001, pp. 64-73.
Preceded by
Soviet era
President of Georgia
1991–1992
Succeeded by
Eduard Shevardnadze


June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Media:rofl. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... Media:rofl. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:rofl. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Heads of State of Georgia

Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921): Noe Zhordania | Nikolay Chkheidze The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... Motto: None Anthem: Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Capital Tbilisi Largest city Tbilisi Official language(s) Georgian Government Chairman of the Government Parliamentary democracy Noe Zhordania Independence - Declared - Formerly From the Russian Empire May 26, 1918 Transcaucasian Federation Population c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(1990-2004). ... Noe Zhordania Noe Zhordania (January 2, 1868 – January 11, 1953) was a Georgian journalist and politician. ... Nikolay (Karlo) Chkheidze (1864-1926) was a Georgian revolutionary and politician, one of the founders and leaders of the Social-Democratic (Menshevik) Party of Georgia. ...

Georgia since 1991: Zviad Gamsakhurdia | Eduard Shevardnadze | Nino Burjanadze (acting) | Flag of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili Motto: (Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem: (Freedom) Capital (and largest city)  Tbilisi Official languages Georgian (also Abkhaz within the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic) Government Unitary republic  - President Mikheil Saakashvili  - Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation    - Establishment of first Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(1990-2004). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nino Burjanadze Nino Burjanadze (Georgian: ნინო ბურჯანაძე) (born on July 16, 1964) is a Georgian jurist and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Mikhail Saakashvili briefing the press at UN headquarters Mikhail Saakashvili (Georgian: მიხეილ სააკაშვილი) (born December 21, 1967), Georgian jurist and politician, is the President of Georgia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Konstantine Gamsakhurdia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (274 words)
Konstantine Gamsakhurdia was born in 1893, in Abasha (Samegrelo region of Western Georgia).
In 1918-1919 Gamsakhurdia was the 1st Secretary of the Embassy of the Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG) in Germany, in 1920 - Plenipotentiary Envoy of DRG in Italy.
Konstantine Gamsakhurdia was author of outstanding Georgian novels ("The hand of the great master", "Kidnapping of the moon", the tetralogy "David the Builder", etc.), founder of the Georgian scientific school of study of life and works of Goethe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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