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Encyclopedia > Zune
Microsoft Zune
Manufacturer Microsoft
Type Portable media player
Release date Zune 30 - November 14, 2006[1], Zune 4, 8, 80 - November 13, 2007[2]
Connectivity Wi-Fi (Zune to Zune, Sync to PC), USB, Wirelessly with Microsoft Surface
Retail availability November 14, 2006
Units sold 1.2 million units[3]
Operating system Windows Embedded
CPU Freescale i. MX31L processor ARM Core
Storage capacity 4 and 8 GB Flash Drive, 30 and 80 GB Hard drive
Display Zune 4, 8: 1.8 Inch Glass LCD screen, with a resolution of 320x240
Zune 30: 3 Inch QVGA LCD screen, with a resolution of 320×240
Zune 80: 3.2 Inch Glass LCD screen, with a resolution of 320x240 at 4:3 aspect ratio
Online service Zune Marketplace
Touchpad Circular Directional Pad (30 GB Release), Touch-sensitive Zune pad (Later 4, 8, 80 GB Releases)

Zune is the name of a brand of digital music products and services sold by Microsoft. It includes digital audio players, client software, and the Zune Marketplace online music store.[4] AROS family/development tree. ... In computer programming, widget toolkits (or GUI toolkits) are sets of basic building units for graphical user interfaces. ... Wikibooks Aros has a page on the topic of Zune Zune is an object-oriented GUI toolkit which is part of the AROS (AROS Research Operating System) project and nearly a clone, at both an API and look and feel level, of Magic User Interface (MUI), a well-known Amiga... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... A portable multimedia player (PMP) is a self-reliant electronic device that is capable of storing and playing files in one or more media formats. ... The Zune 30 is the first Zune music player from Microsoft. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Zune 4 and Zune 8 are new models of the Zune lineup announced October 2, 2007 and will be released November 2007. ... The Zune 80 is the largest digital media player produced and marketed by Microsoft. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ) is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Microsoft Surface (Codename: Milan), is a forthcoming Multi-touch product from Microsoft which is developed as a software and hardware combination technology that allows a user, or multiple users, to manipulate digital content by the use of natural motions, hand gestures, or physical objects. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... American corporation Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... A flash drive, related to a solid state drive, is a storage device that uses flash memory rather than conventional spinning platters to store data. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... The Quarter Video Graphics Array (also known as Quarter VGA or QVGA) is a popular term for a computer display with 320x240 resolution. ... The Zune Pad is the primary control mechanism for Zune 4, 8 and Zune 80. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... A hard-drive-based player (Apple iPod) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) A flash-based player (iBox Mediaman) A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ... In computing, a client is a system that accesses a (remote) service on another computer by some kind of network. ... Zune is a Microsoft brand of portable media players, associated software, and an online service for acquiring and sharing media. ...


The devices come in three styles, all of which play music, pictures, and videos; display images; and receive FM radio. They can share files wirelessly with other Zunes and via USB with Xbox 360s, and can sync wirelessly with PCs. FM radio is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... USB redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ...


The Zune Software, which runs on Windows XP, Vista, and the Xbox 360, allows users to manage files on the player, rip audio CDs, and buy songs at the online store. Zune refers to Microsofts digital audio player, online music store, and client software, which were released in the United States on November 14, 2006. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s...


The first Zune player was released in the United States on November 14, 2006. The Zune 4, 8 and 80 were announced on October 2, 2007. The new Zunes offer the ability to sync wirelessly (automatically if connected to a power supply), a new touchpad-style input device, additional file support for H.264 and MPEG-4 files, podcast support, upgraded song-sharing licensing, and software that includes support for DRM-free music in the Marketplace. The Zune 80 also has a larger, 3.2" screen. A free firmware update added the new software features to the original Zune (now called the Zune 30) and was released on November 13, 2007. [5] is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Zune 4 and Zune 8 are new models of the Zune lineup announced October 2, 2007 and will be released November 2007. ... The Zune 80 is the largest digital media player produced and marketed by Microsoft. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... The Zune 30 is the first Zune music player from Microsoft. ...

Contents

History

The Zune was created while Microsoft was in close cooperation with Toshiba, which took the design of the Gigabeat S and redeveloped it under the name Toshiba 1089 as registered with the FCC.[6] Xbox 360 overseer J Allard ran the project, codenamed 'Argo', which consisted of some Xbox and MSN Music store developers,[7] who worked on 'Alexandria' and finalized it as Zune Marketplace,[8] then later unveiled both products united under a single brand in the U.S. market as the Zune. Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Template:Uppercase The gigabeat is a line of digital audio players by Toshiba. ... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... J Allard (his legal name; formerly James Allard) (born January 12, 1969 in Glens Falls, New York)[1] is a Corporate Vice President and the Chief XNA Architect at Microsoft. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... MSN Music was created by Microsoft in 2004 to compete with Apples iTunes Music Store. ...


The Zune 4GB, 8GB, and 80GB were announced [9]on October 2, 2007. The 4 and 8 GB Zunes are flash-based and smaller in size than the 80GB version. is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Music player

Models

The Zune 30 was the first Zune music player, and has a 30GB hard drive for storage. The Zune 4 is a second generation Zune with 4GB of flash memory for storage and is smaller than the Zune 30. The second generation Zune has a Zune Pad instead of the simple directional pad included on the Zune 30. The Zune 8 is the same as the Zune 4, with the exception that it has 8GB of storage rather than 4GB. The Zune 80 is a replacement to the Zune 30, with a larger 80GB hard drive. It is thinner and lighter than the Zune 30 and also includes the Zune Pad. The Zune Pad is the primary control mechanism for Zune 4, 8 and Zune 80. ...


Specifications

Zune 30 Zune 4 Zune 8 Zune 80
Size 2.4 × 4.4 × 0.58 inches 1.6 × 3.6 × 0.33 inches 2.4 × 4.25 × 0.5 inches
Weight 5.6 ounces (158.8 g) 1.7 ounces (47 g) 4.5 ounces (127.6 g)
Screen 3 inches 320×240 pixel 1.8 inches 3.2 inches
Storage 30GB HDD 4GB Flash 8GB Flash 80GB HDD
Wi-Fi Zune-to-Zune, sync with computer/ wireless network (with firmware update) Zune-to-Zune, sync with computer/ wireless network
Colors Brown, black, white, red, pink, hot pink, orange, dark brown (Halo 3), black (Halo 3) Pink, green, black, red Black and choose your zune originals
Navigation Circular directional pad Zune pad
released 2006-11 2007-11
Price (USD) $199.99 $149.99 $199.99 $249.99

The Zune 30 is the first Zune music player from Microsoft. ... The Zune 4 and Zune 8 are new models of the Zune lineup announced October 2, 2007 and will be released November 2007. ... The Zune 4 and Zune 8 are new models of the Zune lineup announced October 2, 2007 and will be released November 2007. ... The Zune 80 is the largest digital media player produced and marketed by Microsoft. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial unit of length. ... For other meanings of gram, see gram (disambiguation). ... A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive,[1] is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ) is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... A microcontroller, like this PIC18F8720 is controlled by firmware stored inside on FLASH memory In computing, firmware is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. ... Halo 3, a landmark game for the Xbox 360 that sold a record 3,300,000 copies in its first week of sales alone,[1] featured heavy marketing and hype. ... The Zune Pad is the primary control mechanism for Zune 4, 8 and Zune 80. ... USD redirects here. ...

Accessories

The Zune comes with earphones, USB data cable, and carrying bag. Accessories sold separately include:

  • Charging devices (car adapter, AC wall-socket adapters, external battery).
  • I/O adapters (A/V composite, FM transmitters, headphones, USB data cable).
  • Docks (charging, multimedia large speaker, vertical hands-free assist).
  • Protection (glass screen protection, hardened/cushioning material case protection).
  • Carrying cases (standard issue, armband type, and belt clip).
  • Replacement parts and upgrades (battery, hard drive, LCD, etc.).

Among the firms that make Zune accessories are Microsoft, Altec Lansing, Belkin Corp., Digital Lifestyle Outfitters (DLO), Dual Electronics, Griffin Technology, Harman Kardon and JBL, Integrated Mobile Electronics, Jamo International, Klipsch Audio Technologies, Logitech, Monster Cable Products Inc., Speck, Targus Group International Inc. and VAF Research.[10] Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... An old Altec Lansing PC speaker. ... Belkin International, Inc. ... Griffin Technology enjoys a longstanding reputation as the creative leader in ingenious peripherals and accessories for iPod Mac and PC and now, PSP. Find out more about Griffins entire range of products for audio, video, USB, etc. ... A Harman Kardon PC speaker Harman Kardon, a division of Harman International Industries (NYSE: HAR), is a manufacturer of home and car audio equipment. ... For professional wrestler John Bradshaw Layfield, see John Layfield. ... Klipsch Audio Technologies is one of the most successful consumer and professional speaker companies in America. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Monster Cable is a brand of audio and video cable for electronics, primarily speaker cable and cable for audio and video components. ... The Targus Corporation is a United States-based, popular manufacturer of accessories mostly related to mobile computing. ...


Firmware

Users often refer to on-device software as firmware, differing from the desktop media player as Zune software. Zune's operating system is based on Windows CE kernel for ARM architecture and uses a distribution like the Portable Media Center found on the Gigabeat S. Zune's native file compatible formats are Windows CE (sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is a variation of Microsofts Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... A software distribution is a bundle of a specific software (or a collection of multiple, even an entire operating system), already compiled and configured. ... A Portable Media Center (PMC) is a hard drive-based portable media player device that can play digital video and audio files. ... Template:Uppercase The gigabeat is a line of digital audio players by Toshiba. ... A native format, in the context of software applications, refers to the file format which the application works with during creation, edition or publication of a file. ...

  • JPEG for images;
  • WMV, MPEG-4 and H.264 (both formats not currently natively supported by Zune 30) for video;
  • MP3, AAC (.m4a), Zune Marketplace (Protected and DRM free), WMA Pro (2-channel), WMA Standard, WMA lossless for audio.

The graphical user interface (GUI) (called the "twist interface" by Microsoft) has sections for music, video, pictures, social, radio, podcasts, and settings. It is said to provide "two-dimensional navigation" for scrolling through items with its directional pad.[11] In the music section, users can add songs to a quick playlist without reconnecting to the desktop software. In the picture section, the background can be personalized using any image as wallpaper. In the radio section, users can receive and play FM radio internally, with North American, Japanese, and European tuning ranges and show song information on supported FM stations. In the social section, users can broadcast user profile and current activity to others nearby. In the setting section, users can control backlight settings and output analog TV in with purchase of a separate connection. JPG redirects here. ... Windows Media Video (WMV) is a generic name for the set of streaming video technologies developed by Microsoft. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... MPEG-4 AAC DRM encoding as used in the iTunes Store Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. ... Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. ... GUI redirects here. ... The D-pad first came to prominence on the controller for the Famicom. ... A screenshot of Ubuntu 6. ... Backlights are lights that are attached to LCD displays so that they can be seen at night. ...


The very first updates to the firmware added sharing features (send, community, list nearby Zune users) as described in FCC filings.[12][13] Firmware 1.1 allowed device to inherit sharing capabilities described by codename Pyxis. Early firmwares patched software bugs. Later, the much anticipated 2.2 firmware released from about a year after first generation Zune added support for DVR-MS (Media Center Recorded TV) files, lossless playback, added wireless syncing when plugged into its dock, and GUI interface improvements.[citation needed] A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... A microcontroller, like this PIC18F8720 is controlled by firmware stored inside on FLASH memory In computing, firmware is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. ... A software bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. ...


Zune supports the Windows Media DRM (WMDRM) digital rights management system incompatible with other DRM systems and not part of the PlaysForSure platform or program.[14][15] Multimedia content is transferred though Media Transfer Protocol (MTP); however, its proprietary MTP extensions ("MTPZ") place an interoperability barrier between the Zune and previous MTP-based software. Windows Media DRM is a Digital Rights Management service for the Windows Media platform. ... Microsoft PlaysForSure is a certification given by Microsoft to portable devices (portable media players, phones, etc. ... The Media Transfer Protocol is a set of custom extensions to the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) devised by Microsoft, to allow the protocol to be used for devices other than digital cameras, for example digital audio players such as MP3 players, and other portable media devices, for example portable video...


Zune Software

Zune Software functions as management software for the device and library and as a client to the online music store. The old version was a modified version of Windows Media Player 11, and the latest version is built from the ground up, with additional DirectShow decoders for AAC, MPEG-4 and H.264, it supports the following formats — for audio: MP3 (.mp3), AAC (Low complexity) (.aac, .mp4, .m4a, .m4b, .mov), WMA (.wma); for video: MPEG4 (in .mp4, .m4v and .mov containers), H.264 (in .mp4, .m4v and .mov containers), WMV (.wmv), ASF (.asf); and for still images: JPEG (.jpg). It synchronizes music, pictures, and videos to the device. It streams files to the Xbox 360. It organizes the media in its library and allows users to add to the library by ripping from CDs and to organize the metadata. It can automatically pull down album art and metadata tag data for some content in the library. There is also an inbox feature in the desktop client software as well on the device, which keeps track of flagged music (for later consideration) as well as songs swapped with other Zune users. Although the Zune software was originally a modified version of Windows Media Player, the Zune device was designed to only work with the Zune software. Zune software requires Windows XP or Vista, but can run on other versions of Windows with minor modifications. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... In computing, a client is a system that accesses a (remote) service on another computer by some kind of network. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Windows Media Player (WMP) is a digital media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio, video and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices. ... Logo of the DirectX Media SDK - the first time DirectShow was distributed under its current name. ... MPEG-4 AAC DRM encoding as used in the iTunes Store Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... MPEG-4 AAC DRM encoding as used in the iTunes Store Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... WMA can refer to: Windows Media Audio World Medical Association William Morris Agency This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... MPEG-4, introduced in 1998, is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). ... H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ... Windows Media Video (WMV) is a generic name for the set of streaming video technologies developed by Microsoft. ... Look up asf in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... JPG redirects here. ... File synchronization (or syncing) in computing is the process of making sure that two or more locations contain the same up-to-date files. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... CD redirects here. ... Metadata is data about data. ... In computer programming, flag refers to one or more bits that are used to store a binary value or code that has an assigned meaning. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... 1. ...


The current version of the software is 2.1.888.0 released along side 2.2 firmware update.


Several versions of the software were released. A history of each version reveals:

Version Date Software and Firmware changes
1.0.5341.0
-
Device default
1.1 2006-11-14 Added menu item "community" allowing to search for nearby Zunes, see their status, and transfer music and pictures. Improved performance.
1.2.5511.0 2006-12-19 Fixed compatibility with Windows Vista and improved browsing performance.[16]
1.3.5728.0 2007-03-28 Prevents FM tuner from draining the battery while the device is sleeping. Fixed Zune Marketplace music to not skip on the device. Improved device detection and syncing.[17]
1.4 2007-05-31 Improved shuffling. The dev team states: "this firmware update makes successive shuffle actions produce more random lists."[18]
2.2 2007-11-13 Improved performance and added several new features, including wireless sync and podcast support. New user interface on both the Zune device and the Zune software.[19] This software did come with some caveats, as many users report metadata mismatches with title or album information or both. The removal of user editing options and lack of patch for the issue makes this a permanent change for most users.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Zune Marketplace

Zune Marketplace is an online music store that integrates with the device. Initially offering two million songs it grew to more than three million songs. With the update to version 2.2 the Zune Marketplace also offers videos. Music on the marketplace is provided by the big four music groups (EMI, Warner Music Group, Sony BMG, Universal Music Group) and smaller music labels. Like other tech companies in the music business, the Zune team at Microsoft had a team of music experts responsible for the Zune marketplace editorial content and programming. The team is led by Kyle Hopkins (also known as DJ "Kid Hops" on KEXP-FM ).[20] Content is offered in DRM-restricted WMA format (2-pass CBR @ 192kbit/s) for a per-song or per-album fee, or via a Zune Pass monthly subscription. Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Zune is a Microsoft brand of portable media players, associated software, and an online service for acquiring and sharing media. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The world music market, or global music market consists of record companies, labels and publishers that distribute recorded music products internationally and that often control the rights to those products. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bertelsmann is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in G tersloh, Germany. ... Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry. ...


Songs downloaded from the Marketplace are restricted by DRM similar to yet slightly different from PlaysForSure DRM, meaning that songs purchased from PlaysForSure partners could not be playable in Zune Software, although the reverse is true. [citation needed] Internally, Zune DRM is referred to as "9.1", differentiating itself from PlaysForSure DRM, which is version "9". While removal of PlaysForSure DRM has been facilitated with several tools, none would remove Zune DRM until July 14, 2007 when one of the tools ("FairUse4WM" [Windows Media]) was updated to support removal of the Zune DRM wrapper, thus allowing interoperability between the platforms. As of September 6th, 2007, an update from Microsoft has broken FairUse4WM once again, resulting in that anyone with the updated license cannot strip the DRM (presumably until FairUse4WM is updated again). Note that updating the Zune software to the most recent version (2.1, as of November, 2007) will not affect previously functioning DRM components. The acronym DRM can stand for: Digital Rights Management - Technologies to give content providers control over redistribution and access to material. ... PlaysForSure is a marketing certification given by Microsoft to portable hardware media players that have been verified to work with Microsoft Windows, specifically Windows XP and newer releases. ... Windows Media DRM is a Digital Rights Management service for the Windows Media platform. ...


Purchases are made through a system called Microsoft Points, in which users prepay US$5 for a block of 400 points that can be applied to downloads at 79 points per song. This works out to $0.9875 per song, plus whatever remainder is left after a user makes his or her final purchase from the Marketplace. Cost and minimum purchase varies with foreign currency exchange rates and taxes. The points used for the Zune Marketplace are the same points used to buy media from the Xbox Live Marketplace. Purchased songs can be burned to Audio CD. Microsoft Points are the currency of the Xbox Live Marketplace and Zune online stores. ... -1... Xbox Live Marketplace Logo The Xbox Live Marketplace (XBLM) is a virtual market designed for Microsofts Xbox 360 console that allows Xbox Live members to download purchased or promotional content. ...


Somewhat fewer songs are available through the US$14.99-per-month subscription service called a "Zune Pass." This allows a member to download and play participating Zune Marketplace content for a flat monthly fee. Zune Pass downloads cannot be burned to Audio CD and will become unplayable when the subscription lapses.[21] Initially, Zunes included a 14-day Zune Pass free trial in the package.


When the Marketplace is upgraded for the launch of the new Zune devices, it will sport a new interface (as opposed to being a modified version of URGE), and will drop DRM for around 1 million tracks (out of roughly 3 million). DRM-free MP3s will sell for the same price as protected tracks, and will have no watermarks. Music Videos and Podcasts will also be added to the Marketplace. Urge Music Store on WMP 11 for Windows Vista The URGE digital music store is an online music distribution service run by MTV Networks. ...


Sales and marketing

Marketing

Microsoft launched several campaigns to jump-start the Zune. The company had planned a $100 million campaign to promote Zune with "music the way it wants to be" as a major theme.[22] Also, the company had enlisted about 300 "Zune masters" to advertise the device on American college campuses, to promote the item, and to run Zune-related events as expected. In exchange, they have received free merchandise, including a Zune.[23] In stores it was still overshadowed by the iPod: a survey of 40 retailers on November 2006[24] found that only 8% of the salespeople recommended the Zune compared to the 75% who recommended the iPod, and that some of the salespeople were unaware of the Zune or who made it. An opinion poll is a survey of opinion from a particular sample. ...


The choice of branding and distribution were part of the Zune as a decision of "two strategies in the market right now: cross-brand ecosystems [...] and singular brand ecosystems [...]. The former is gaining in share and units sold, but the latter has enormous share and won’t give that up easily"[15]. For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ...

Zune desktop theme.

Microsoft normally follows a platform (cross-brand) strategy, as exemplified by the PlaysForSure system. However, its Xbox division has gained some experience with the vertically-integrated strategy in which it controls everything end-to-end from the hardware to the online store. With Apple dominating the audio market with its vertically-integrated iPod system, the Xbox division won permission to try the same approach, separately from PlaysForSure and PlayReady. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/png) Luna, Windows Classic, Silver, Olive Green, Royale, Royale Noir, and Zune. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/png) Luna, Windows Classic, Silver, Olive Green, Royale, Royale Noir, and Zune. ... PlayReady is the name of a Digital Rights Management (DRM) product from Microsoft for portable devices. ...


Microsoft also wanted to go beyond Apple's efforts and promote the tagline "the social" and Wi-Fi (wireless sharing) as key differentiators. Chris Stephenson, leader of Zune's marketing and manager of Global Marketing for the Entertainment Business,[25] said, "we see a great opportunity to bring together technology and community to allow consumers to explore and discover music together."[15] Promotion may mean: Promotion (chess), a term used in the game of chess Promotion (marketing), a marketing term Promotion (rank), an increase in position in a hierarchy Promotion (academic), German academic degree that is roughly equivalent to the Ph. ... A tagline is a variant of a branding slogan typically used in marketing materials and advertising. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ) is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ...


Microsoft also released a Zune theme for Windows XP that replaced the appearance of the operating system. This theme includes an orange Start button and black taskbar/Start menu.


Zune has also expanded its brand efforts by creating a gen-y friendly website and campaign focused on emerging artist talent: Zune Arts


Sales

NPD Group
Zune's Hard Disk Unit Share
D '06 J '07 F M April May
10.2%[26] 9.9%[26] 8.7% 9.1% 9.2% 11.3%

During its launch week, the Zune, now Zune 30, was the second-most-sold portable media device with a 9% unit share; behind the market-leading iPod's 63%.[27] For the first 6 months after launch, NPD Group figures show that the Zune 30 achieved approximately 10% [26][28][29] market share in the Hard Drive based MP3 market and 3% [30][31][32] in the overall MP3 player market. According to Bloomberg Television 1.2 million Zune 30 players were shipped to retailers between November 2006 and June 2007,[33] surpassing a milestone[34]. In November 2007, retailers were still selling those 1.2 million Zunes, at a 65% discount over the original price. The NPD Group, Inc. ... The NPD Group, Inc. ... Bloomberg Television are cable television networks around the world that broadcast business and financial news 24 hours a day. ...


Critical reception for the new flash based Zunes and the Zune 80 has been positive,[citation needed] but sales remain to be seen.


Criticism

Digital rights management

Several entities have expressed the effect of Microsoft imposing Digital Rights Management (DRM) passively to the customer before and immediately after the introduction of the Zune. The Electronic Frontier Foundation, in opposition to the Zune's DRM, wrote: Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of...

Microsoft's Zune will not play protected Windows Media Audio and Video purchased or 'rented' from Napster 2.0, Rhapsody, Yahoo! Unlimited, Movielink, Cinemanow, iTunes, or any other online media service. The Zune will not even play content previously purchased from Microsoft's own MSN Music service. ...The media that Microsoft promised would Play For Sure doesn't even play on Microsoft's own device.[35]

The EFF calls this "a stark example of DRM under the DMCA giving customers a raw deal."[36] A technology reviewer Leo Laporte of G4techTV Canada said in his November 11, 2006 radio show that Zune may be the "beginning of the end" for DRM as a business tactic.[37] Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. ... Napster was a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Limewire, iMesh, Morpheus, and BearShare, which are now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files. ... Launched on May 11, 2005, Yahoo! Music Unlimited is an on-demand online music service provided by Yahoo, Inc. ... CinemaNow is a World Wide Web-based digital video distribution company. ... The iTunes Store is an online business run by Apple Inc. ... Microsoft PlaysForSure is a certification given by Microsoft to portable devices (portable media players, phones, etc. ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a controversial United States copyright law which criminalizes production and dissemination of technology that can circumvent measures taken to protect copyright, not merely infringement of copyright itself, and heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet. ... Leo Gordon Laporte (born November 29, 1956 in New York City, New York)[1] is an American technology broadcaster and author. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Before the release of Zune 2, 4, 80, DRM critics said Zune's wireless-transfer policy was restrictive and unfair. They claim the Zune is more restrictive than the face value of this common phrase: "three days or three plays whichever comes first."[38][39][40] Extra restrictions were applied in a way that:

  • apply to songs for which the recipient owns a paid-for and current Zune Pass;[41]
  • force 'three-days three-plays' rule indiscriminately to any audio content after being transferred between Zune devices;[40][42]
  • expire a song in three days even if it has not been played at all;[39]
  • show playing a portion of a song counts as one "play";[43][39][44]
  • prevent someone attempting to re-trade a traded song.[44]

Still preceding the second generation devices, DRM critics also noted that researchers have reported that about 40% of the most popular Zune store downloads cannot be shared, which trigger the message "cannot send some songs due to rights restrictions."[45] A Microsoft spokesperson attributed the problem as being a "new experience, and its implementation is in a version 1.0 stage" and saying that the company "is working to expand the number of songs that can be shared."[46] Initially, observers criticized two music publishers, UMG and Sony, for what was assumed to be an intentional restriction, while criticizing the Zune Marketplace for not disclosing which songs could not be shared.[47] Music publishers denied having placed any such restrictions.[46]


Microsoft later became more lax with the use of DRM. With the introduction of the Zune 4, 8, 80 devices and a firmware upgrade to 2.0 for Zune 30, the next version of Zune Marketplace dropped the DRM for around a third of its tracks. Also, the "three days or three plays" rule were cut to simply "three plays", with no timed expiration, and traded tracks will be able to be re-traded on.[citation needed]


Availability outside the U.S.

Currently, Microsoft has no plans to release the Zune outside the U.S. anytime soon. A Microsoft spokesperson said a European launch might not occur until 2008[48]. Microsoft has even made efforts to bar visitors outside the U.S. from zuneoriginals.net and the Zune community forums. [49] Microsoft has hinted at bringing the new Zunes to Canada before the 2007 Holiday season.


Compatibility

CNET noted that at its release date, the Zune was unable to function as a hard drive. However, it was also stated that, "Overall, the Zune is a well-designed portable media device with good playback performance, a snappy processor, and an excellent interface. Wi-Fi sharing worked well, but prospective owners should know its format support, especially for videos, is limited." Though there is free video conversion software avaliable at CNET's website, http://www.download.com and has no limitations.[50][14] CNET Networks, Inc. ...


The Zune software is restricted to specific Windows platforms[51]. The initial version of the Zune software was criticized for faulty device detection and buggy installation. [52] The software has since been completely rewritten, resolving these issues [citation needed]. The software initially did not support 64-bit versions of Windows or Windows Vista. It now supports Vista in both 32 and 64 bit editions, but it does not support Windows XP x64.


See also

Microsoft Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... // ^ Archos Introduces Its First Flash-Based Portable Media Player With The Archos 405. ... The following table lists online music stores that carry a very wide selection of songs by many record labels and artists. ... These handheld devices use Wi-Fi technology for connectivity to the internet or other devices ^  Nintendo DS Browser sold separately for both Nintendo DS and Nintendo DS Lite ^  PlayStation Portable web browser was released for free with the 2. ...

References

  1. ^ Microsoft. Microsoft to Put Zune Experience in Consumers’ Hands on Nov. 14.
  2. ^ Amazon. Amazon Release Date For Zune 4, 8, 80 Set For November 13.
  3. ^ It's Official: Zune Hits (and exceeds) One Million Mark.
  4. ^ Fried, Ina. "Swan song for Microsoft's music allies?", CNET, 2006-07-25. 
  5. ^ Microsoft's new Zunes: officially in 80, 8, and 4GB sizes. Engadget.
  6. ^ Miller, Paul. "Zune revealed by FCC as "Toshiba 1089"", Engadget, 2006-08-25. Retrieved on 2007-01-03. 
  7. ^ Dudley, Brier. "Argo aims guns at more than iPod", Seattle Times, 2006-07-10. Retrieved on 2007-03-30. 
  8. ^ Oswald, Ed. "October Debut for Microsoft 'iPod Killer'", BetaNews, 2006-07-20. Retrieved on 2007-05-05. 
  9. ^ Menta, Richard. "Zune 2 Unveiled", MP3 Newswire, 2007-10-03. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
  10. ^ Microsoft (2006-09-14). Microsoft’s Zune Delivers Connected Music and Entertainment Experience. Press release.
  11. ^ Sadun, Erica (2007-01-26). A Half Dozen Lessons that Apple should take from the Zune. O'Reilly Media.
  12. ^ Clunky-looking Microsoft Zune player revealed in filing. AppleInsider (2006-08-25).
  13. ^ Zune review. Engadget (2006-11-15). Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  14. ^ a b Kim, James (2006-11-14). Zune (30GB, black) Reviews. CNET.
  15. ^ a b c Kirn, Peter (2006-07-31). Microsoft Not Turning Back on PlaysForSure with Zune Player.
  16. ^ How to update the firmware for your Zune device
  17. ^ "Zune firmware update v1.3 is out", Engadget, 2007-03-28. 
  18. ^ "Zune Insider - Firmware Update 1.4: Today", Zune Insider, 2007-05-31. 
  19. ^ "How to update to the current Zune device software version", Microsoft. 
  20. ^ Bishop, Todd (2007-02-26). Software Notebook: Microsoft, others tap music veterans. Zune Insider.
  21. ^ Farivar, Cyrus. "Zune Marketplace To Keep Your Zune Player Happy", Engadget, 2006-09-14. 
  22. ^ Solman, Gregory. "Microsoft Preps Big Spend for Zune MP3 Player", Brandweek, 2006-11-16. 
  23. ^ "Zune Masters Program", ZuneInfo.com, 2006-12-28. 
  24. ^ Frommer, Dan. "Zune Who?", Forbes.com, 2006-11-28. 
  25. ^ Chris Stephenson. Microsoft Corp..
  26. ^ a b c Claburn, Thomas (2007-03-22). Google News Thinks "Zune" Is a Typo. InformationWeek. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  27. ^ Block, Ryan. "Zune takes #2 spot in retail launch week", Engadget, 2006-11-29. 
  28. ^ Bishop, Todd. "Zune market share slips in February", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2007-03-28. Retrieved on 2007-03-31. 
  29. ^ Rosmarin, Rachel (2007-03-30). Apple Says Buy Another iPod. Forbes.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  30. ^ Cruz, Phillip. "U.S. Top Selling Computer Hardware for January 2007", Bloomberg, 2007-03-13. Retrieved on 2007-03-31. 
  31. ^ Eran, Daniel (2007-03-16). Market Share Myth 2007: iPod vs Zune and Mac vs PC. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  32. ^ Eran, Daniel. "Market Share Myth 2007: iPod vs Zune and Mac vs PC", roughlydrafted.com, 2007-03-16. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  33. ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aKNQROlvcaOM
  34. ^ http://www.news.com/2100-1041_3-6141431.html
  35. ^ "Zune problems for MSN customers", BBC News, BBC, 2006-11-06. 
  36. ^ Slater, Derek. "Microsoft's Zune Won't Play Protected Windows Media", Electronic Frontier Foundation, September 15, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-25. 
  37. ^ Laporte, Leo (2006-11-11). KFI Tech Guy 299. (9:50)
  38. ^ Steve Ballmer Speaks Passionately about Microsoft, Leadership ... and Passion. Knowledge@Wharton (2007-01-10).
  39. ^ a b c Chansanchai, Athima (2006-11-11). Microsoft's new portable media device isn't the apple of our iPod eyes. Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
  40. ^ a b Levy, Steven (2006-11-11). Tune Into Zune?. Newsweek.
  41. ^ Jayson, Seth. Microsoft's New Paperweight. The Motley Fool.
  42. ^ Van Buskirk, Eliot (2006-11-27). Zune, Creative Commons Don't Mix. Wired News.
  43. ^ Mossberg, Walter S. (2006-11-09). Microsoft's Zune Challenges iPod. Personal Technology from The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company.
  44. ^ a b Pogue, David (2006-11-09). Trying Out the Zune: IPod It’s Not. New York Times.
  45. ^ Miller, Paul. "Universal and Sony prohibit Zune sharing for certain artists", Engadget, 2007-01-19. 
  46. ^ a b Bass, Dina. "Zune unable to share all songs, Microsoft says", Bloomberg, 2007-01-23. Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  47. ^ Dunn, Jason (2007-01-15). Zune Marketplace Song Sharing: A Test.
  48. ^ http://www.afterdawn.com/news/archive/9980.cfm
  49. ^ [1]
  50. ^ Kim, James (2006-11-22). MP3 Insider: The Zune chronicles, part II - CNET reviews. CNET.
  51. ^ Zune Software Release Notes - Minimum System Requirements. Microsoft.
  52. ^ Block, Ryan. Installing the Zune... sucked. Engadget.

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
A Reply to Stephen Zune's on the Jews and Cynthia McKinney's Defeat (921 words)
Zunes says it was not just Jewish money that did McKinney in, there were "cross-over votes" and even larger sums from business and other establishment parties hostile to her.
But Zunes fails to mention that just a few weeks earlier Ike Hilliard, another fl representative who had been critical of Israeli policy, was similarly crushed, and there were no "crossover votes" or business hostility in that case, just massive sums of Jewish money.
Zunes shows not the slightest concern about the consequences of these bullying practices on freedom of speech or for policy-making on the Middle East.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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