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Encyclopedia > Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

In office
14 August 1973 – 5 July 1977
President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
Preceded by Nurul Amin
Succeeded by Muhammad Khan Junejo

In office
20 December 1971 – 13 August 1973
Prime Minister Nurul Amin
Preceded by Yahya Khan
Succeeded by Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry

In office
15 June 1963 – 12 September 1966
Preceded by Muhammad Ali Bogra
Succeeded by Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada

Born 5 January 1928(1928-01-05)
Larkana, British India
Died April 04, 1979 (aged 51)
Flag of Pakistan Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Political party Pakistan Peoples Party
Religion Sunni Islam

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, IPA: [zʊlfɪkɑɽ ɑli botɔ]; Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (January 5, 1928April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. He was the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP), one of the largest and most influential political parties of Pakistan. Image File history File links Bhutto_1974. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Urdu: فضل الہی چودھری) (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978. ... Nurul Amin (Bengali: নূরুল আমীন, Urdu: نورالامین , 15 July, 1893 - 2 October, 1974) was a prominent Bengali leader of the Pakistans Muslim League, and served as Chief Minister of East Pakistan and both Prime Minister and Vice President of Pakistan. ... Muhammad Khan Junejo, Prime Minister of Pakistan Muhammad Khan Junejo (Urdu: محمد خان جونیجو ) (born August 18, 1932 died 1992) was former Pakistani Prime Minister. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Nurul Amin (Bengali: নূরুল আমীন, Urdu: نورالامین , 15 July, 1893 - 2 October, 1974) was a prominent Bengali leader of the Pakistans Muslim League, and served as Chief Minister of East Pakistan and both Prime Minister and Vice President of Pakistan. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Urdu: فضل الہی چودھری) (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978. ... The Foreign Minister of Pakistan heads the Foreign Office of Pakistan. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Mohammad Ali Bogra Muhammad Ali Bogra (1909 - 1963) was a Pakistani statesman of Bengali origin, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1953 until 1955. ... Image:Jinnah-pirzada-gandhi. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Larkana or Larkano (Urdu: لاڑکانہ, Sindhi: لاڙڪاڻو) is the fourth largest city located in the Northwest of Sindh Province, Pakistan, located in Larkana District. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rawalpindi (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی ) is a mainstream centre-left political party in Pakistan. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Example of writing in the alphabet- Zabān-e-UrdÅ«-e-moalla Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) is a mainstream political party in Pakistan. ...


His daughter Benazir Bhutto has also served twice as prime minister. Bhutto was executed in 1979 following a controversial trial for apparently authorizing the murder of a political opponent. The move was largely seen as being politically motivated under the directives of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively opposes an established opinion, policy, or structure. ... General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Urdu: ) (b. ...

Contents

Family

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born to Khursheed Begum née Lakhi Bai and Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto in their residence near Larkana in what later became the province of Sindh. He was their third child — their first one, Sikandar died from pneumonia at age seven in 1914 and the second child, Imdad Ali died of cirrhosis at the age of 39 in 1953.[1][2] His father was a wealthy landlord, zamindar, businessman, and a prominent politician in Sindh, who enjoyed an influential relationship with the officials of the British Raj. As a young boy, Bhutto moved to Worli Seaface in Mumbai (then Bombay) to study at the Cathedral and John Connon School. During this period, he also became a student activist in the League's Pakistan movement. Upon completing high school, Bhutto attended Premier College Nazamabad. In 1943, his marriage was arranged with Shireen Amir Begum. He later left her, however, in order to remarry. In 1947, Bhutto was admitted to the University of Southern California. Shah Nawaz Bhutto (Urdu: شاہ نواز بھٹو) was a well known feudal lord and politician hailing from Larkana in Sindh province of Pakistan. ... Larkana or Larkano (Urdu: لاڑکانہ, Sindhi: لاڙڪاڻو) is the fourth largest city located in the Northwest of Sindh Province, Pakistan, located in Larkana District. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ...


During this time, Bhutto's father, Sir Shahnawaz, played a controversial role in the affairs of the state of Junagadh (now in Gujarat). Coming to power in a palace coup as the dewan, he secured the accession of the state to Pakistan, which was ultimately negated by Indian intervention in December, 1947.[3] In 1949, Bhutto transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, where he earned an honours degree in political science. Here he would become interested in the theories of socialism, delivering a series of lectures on the feasibility of socialism in Islamic countries. In June, 1950 Bhutto travelled to England to study law at the Christ Church, Oxford. Upon finishing his studies, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1953. Junagadh is a city, in Junagadh District, in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... and of the Christ Church College name Christ Church Latin name Ædes Christi Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister college Trinity College, Cambridge Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR president Laura Ellis Undergraduates 426 GCR president Tim Benjamin Graduates 154 Location of Christ Church within central Oxford... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Part of Lincolns Inn drawn by Thomas Shepherd c. ...


Bhutto married his second wife, the Iranian Begum Nusrat Ispahani, in Karachi on September 8, 1951. Their first child, his daughter, Benazir was born in 1953. She was followed by Murtaza in 1954, a second daughter, Sanam, in 1957, and the youngest, child, Shahnawaz Bhutto in 1958. He accepted the post of lecturer at the Sindh Muslim College before establishing himself in a legal practise in Karachi. He would also take over the management of his family's estate and business interests after his father's death.   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... Murtaza Bhutto Murtaza Bhutto (September 18, 1954 - September 20, 1996) was a Pakistani politician. ... ... Lecturer is a term of academic rank. ... The Sindh Muslim Law College or S.M. Law College, is located on Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed Road, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ...


Political career

In 1957, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the youngest member of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations. He would address the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression on October 25, 1957 and lead Pakistan's deputation to the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Seas in 1958. In the same year, Bhutto became the youngest Pakistani cabinet minister when he was given charge of the energy ministry by President Muhammad Ayub Khan, who had seized power and declared martial law. He was subsequently promoted to head the ministries of commerce, information and industries. Bhutto become a close and trusted advisor to Ayub, rising in influence and power despite his youth and relative inexperience in politics. Bhutto aided Ayub in negotiating the Indus Water Treaty with India in 1960. In 1961, Bhutto negotiated an oil exploration agreement with the Soviet Union, which also agreed to provide economic and technical aid to Pakistan. In 1963, he was appointed Pakistan's foreign minister. His swift rise to power also brought him national prominence and popularity. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression was a committee of the United Nations organised in 1958 to prepare U.N. and international legal and policy doctrine on aggression between nations. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The United Nations Conference on the Law of the Seas was held in 1958 to prepare international law over maritime activities. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... The Indus Waters Treaty Historical context The partition of the Indian subcontinent created a conflict over the waters of the Indus basin. ...


As foreign minister, Bhutto significantly transformed Pakistan's hitherto pro-Western foreign policy. While maintaining a prominent role for Pakistan within the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization and the Central Treaty Organization, Bhutto began asserting a foreign policy course for Pakistan that was independent of U.S. influence. Bhutto criticised the U.S. for providing military aid to India during and after the Sino-Indian War of 1962, which was seen as an abrogation of Pakistan's alliance with the U.S. Bhutto worked to establish stronger relations with the People's Republic of China.[4] Bhutto visited Beijing and helped Ayub negotiate trade and military agreements with the Chinese regime, which agreed to help Pakistan in a large number of military and industrial projects. Bhutto also signed the Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement on March 2, 1963 that transferred 750 kilometres of territory from Pakistan-administered Kashmir to Chinese control. Bhutto asserted his belief in non-alignment, making Pakistan an influential member in non-aligned organisations. Believing in pan-Islamic unity, Bhutto developed closer relations with nations such as Indonesia, Saudi Arabia and other Arab states. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty or the Manila Pact, was an international organization for collective defense established on September 8, 1954. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, original name was Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, and Iran, as well as the United Kingdom. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... Peking redirects here. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Bhutto advocated hardline and confrontational policies against India over the Kashmir conflict and other issues. A brief skirmish took place in August 1965 between Indian and Pakistani forces near the international boundary in the Rann of Kutch which was resolved by the U.N. Pakistan hoped to support an uprising by Kashmiris against India. India launched a full-scale military operation in Kashmir and the Punjab region. Following the outbreak of war, Bhutto delivered a fiery speech at the UN Security Council waving his hands and index finger condemning India for aggression and declaring "we will fight for a thousand years" before ripping apart some Security Council papers and storming out of the hall. After two weeks of fierce fighting, both nations faced considerable political pressure from the U.S., the U.K. and the Soviet Union and agreed to a ceasefire sponsored by the U.N. The conflict had resulted in a stalemate. Bhutto joined Ayub in Tashkent to negotiate a peace treaty with the Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri. Ayub and Shastri agreed to exchange prisoners of war and withdraw respective forces to pre-war boundaries. This agreement was deeply unpopular in Pakistan, causing major political unrest against Ayub's regime. Bhutto's criticism of the final agreement caused a major rift between him and Ayub Khan. Initially denying the rumours, Bhutto resigned in June, 1967 and expressed strong opposition to Ayub's regime.[4] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... Lal Bahadur Shastri (Hindi लालबहादुर शास्त्री) (October 2, 1904 - January 11, 1966) was the third Prime Minister of independent India and a significant figure in the Indian independence movement. ...


Leader of West Pakistan

Bhutto at a PPP rally.
Bhutto at a PPP rally.

Following his resignation, large crowds gathered to listen to Bhutto's speech upon his arrival in Lahore on June 21. Tapping a wave of anger and opposition against Ayub, Bhutto began travelling across the country to deliver political speeches. In a speech in October, 1966 Bhutto proclaimed "Islam is our faith, democracy is our policy, socialism is our economy. All power to the people."[5] On November 30, 1967 Bhutto founded the Pakistan People's Party in Lahore, establishing a strong base of political support in Punjab, Sindh and amongst the Muhajir communities. Bhutto's party became a part of the pro-democracy movement involving diverse political parties from all across Pakistan. PPP activists staged large protests and strikes in different parts of the country, increasing pressure on Ayub to resign. Bhutto's arrest on November 12, 1968 sparked greater political unrest. After his release, Bhutto attended the Round Table Conference called by Ayub in Rawalpindi, but refused to accept Ayub's continuation in office and the East Pakistani politician Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's Six point movement for regional autonomy. Image File history File links Bhu0-002. ... Image File history File links Bhu0-002. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rawalpindi (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangla: শেখ মুজিবর রহমান Shekh Mujibur Rôhman) (March 17, 1920 – August 15, 1975) was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. ... It has been suggested that Six Points be merged into this article or section. ...


Following Ayub's resignation, the new president Gen. Yahya Khan promised to hold parliamentary elections on December 7, 1970. Bhutto's party won a large number of seats from constituencies in West Pakistan.[5] However, Sheikh Mujib's Awami League won an outright majority from the constituencies located in East Pakistan. Bhutto refused to accept an Awami League government and famously promised to "break the legs" of any elected PPP member who dared to attend the inaugural session of the National Assembly of Pakistan. Capitalising on West Pakistani fears of East Pakistani separatism, Bhutto demanded that Sheikh Mujib form a coalition with the PPP.[5] Under substantial pressure from Bhutto and other West Pakistani political parties, Yahya postponed the inaugural session of the National Assembly after talks with Sheikh Mujib failed.[5] Amidst popular outrage in East Pakistan, Major Ziaur Rahman, at the direction of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared the independence of "Bangladesh" on March 25, 1971 after Mujibur was arrested by the Pakistani Army, which had been ordered by Yahya to suppress political activities. Under Operation Searchlight, Pakistani forces tortured and killed political activists as well as a large number of civilians, religious minorities and Bengali intellectuals. Controversially, some have characterized the repression as attempted genocide, while others have suggested that this was Indian government propaganda.[6] While supportive of the army's campaign and working to rally international support, Bhutto distanced himself from the Yahya regime. He refused to accept Yahya's scheme to appoint Bengali politician Nurul Amin as prime minister, with Bhutto as deputy prime minister. Indian intervention in East Pakistan led to the defeat of Pakistani forces, who surrendered on December 16. Bhutto and others condemned Yahya for failing to protect Pakistan's unity. Isolated, Yahya resigned on December 20 and transferred power to Bhutto, who became the president, army commander-in-chief as well as the first civilian chief martial law administrator.[5] Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Bengali units of Pakistan Army and civilian volunteers Pakistan Armed Forces Commanders Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed (April 17 -December 16) Col(ret). ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... Nurul Amin (Bengali: নূরুল আমীন, Urdu: نورالامین , 15 July, 1893 - 2 October, 1974) was a prominent Bengali leader of the Pakistans Muslim League, and served as Chief Minister of East Pakistan and both Prime Minister and Vice President of Pakistan. ... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Leading Pakistan

As president, Bhutto addressed the nation via radio and television, saying "My dear countrymen, my dear friends, my dear students, labourers, peasants… those who fought for Pakistan… We are facing the worst crisis in our country's life, a deadly crisis. We have to pick up the pieces, very small pieces, but we will make a new Pakistan, a prosperous and progressive Pakistan." He placed Yahya under house arrest, brokered a ceasefire and ordered the release of Sheikh Mujib, who was held prisoner by the army. To implement this, Bhutto reversed the verdict of Mujib's court trial that had taken place earlier, in which the presiding Brigadier Rahimuddin Khan (later General) had sentenced Mujib to death. Appointing a new cabinet, Bhutto appointed Gen. Gul Hasan as Chief of Army Staff. On January 2, 1972 Bhutto announced the nationalisation of all major industries, including iron and steel, heavy engineering, heavy electricals, petrochemicals, cement and public utilities.[7] A new labour policy was announced increasing workers rights and the power of trade unions. Although he came from a feudal background himself, Bhutto announced reforms limiting land ownership and a government take-over of over a million acres (4,000 km²) to distribute to landless peasants. More than 2,000 civil servants were dismissed on charges of corruption.[7] Bhutto also dismissed the military chiefs on March 3 after they refused orders to suppress a major police strike in Punjab. He appointed Gen. Tikka Khan as the new Chief of the Army Staff in March 1972 as he felt the General would not interfere in political matters and would concentrate on rehabilitating the Pakistan Army. Bhutto convened the National Assembly on April 14, rescinded martial law on April 21 and charged the legislators with writing a new constitution. Full General Rahimuddin Khan (Urdu: رحیم الدین خان) (born 21 July 1926) was the Governor of Balochistan, the largest province of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, for an unprecedented seven years (1978-1984), while simultaneously holding the military posts of Armoured Corps Commander as well as Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan, the latter... Categories: People stubs | Chiefs of Army Staff, Pakistan | Pakistani people ... Chief of Army Staff of Indian Army is the highest post in the Indian Army ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tikka Khan (Urdu: ٹکا خان) (b. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bhutto visited India to meet Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and negotiated a formal peace agreement and the release of 93,000 Pakistani prisoners of war. The two leaders signed the Shimla Agreement, which committed both nations to establish a Line of Control in Kashmir and obligated them to resolve disputes peacefully through bilateral talks.[8][7] Bhutto also promised to hold a future summit for the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir dispute and pledged to recognise Bangladesh.[9] Although he secured the release of Pakistani soldiers held by India, Bhutto was criticised by many in Pakistan for allegedly making too many concessions to India. It is theorised that Bhutto feared his downfall if he could not secure the release of Pakistani soldiers, the return of territory occupied by Indian forces.[10] Bhutto established an atomic power development programme and inaugurated the first Pakistani atomic reactor, built in collaboration with Canada in Karachi on November 28. In January 1973, Bhutto ordered the army to suppress a rising insurgency in the province of Balochistan and dismissed the governments in Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province.[7] On March 30, 59 military officers were arrested by army troops for allegedly plotting a coup against Bhutto, who appointed then-Brigadier Zia-ul-Haq to head a military tribunal to investigate and try the suspects. The National Assembly approved the new constitution, which Bhutto signed into effect on April 12. The constitution proclaimed an "Islamic Republic" in Pakistan with a parliamentary form of government.[11] On August 10, Bhutto turned over the post of president to Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry, assuming the office of prime minister instead.[7] Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Shimla Agreement on bilateral relations between India and Pakistan was signed by Prime Minister of India, Mrs. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Switzerland. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Urdu: فضل الہی چودھری) (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978. ...


Bhutto officially recognised Bangladesh in July. Making an official visit to Bangladesh, Bhutto was criticised in Pakistan for laying flowers at a memorial for Bangladeshi "freedom fighters." Bhutto continued to develop closer relations with China as well as Saudi Arabia and other Muslim nations. Bhutto hosted the Second Islamic Summit of Muslim nations in Lahore between February 22 and February 24 in 1974. However, Bhutto faced considerable pressure from Islamic religious leaders to declare the Ahmadiya communities as non-Muslims. Failing to restrain sectarian violence and rioting, Bhutto and the National Assembly amended the constitution to that effect. Bhutto intensified his nationalisation programme, extending government control over agricultural processing and consumer industries. Bhutto also, with advice from Admiral S.M. Ahsan, inaugurated Port Qasim, designed to expand harbour facilities near Karachi. However, the performance of the Pakistani economy declined amidst increasing bureaucracy and a decline in private sector confidence. In a surprise move in 1976, Bhutto appointed Gen. Zia-ul-Haq to replace Gen. Tikka Khan, surpassing five generals senior to Zia.[12] is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ... Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is a port in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan located at , (24. ...


Pakistan's Original "Nuclear Man"

Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan's nuclear program and its militarization was initiated in January 1972 and in its initial years was implemented by General Tikka Khan. Under his leadership, Pakistan developed into the first Muslim State with a nuclear capability. In his book If I am Assassinated written from his prison cell, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto revealed how Kissinger had said to him in 1976 "We will make an example of you." Kissinger had warned Zulfikar Ali Bhutto that if Pakistan continued with its nuclear program the Prime Minister would have to pay a heavy price, a statement some take to indicate an American hand in Mr Bhutto's shoddy trial and subsequent execution. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (born May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat and Nobel Peace Prize winner who played an important part in foreign affairs through the positions he held in several Republican administrations between 1969 and 1977. ...


Popular unrest and coup

Bhutto began facing considerable criticism and increasing unpopularity as his term progressed.[13]. Initially targeting leader of the opposition Abdul Wali Khan and his opposition National Awami Party (NAP). Despite the ideological similarity of the two parties the clash of egos both inside and outside the National Assembly became increasingly fierce and started with the Federal governments decision to oust the NAP provincial government in Balochistan for alleged secessionist activities[14] and culminating in the banning of the party and arrest of much of it's leadership after the death of a close lieutenant of Bhutto's, Hayat Khan Sherpao, in a bomb blast in the frontier town of Peshawar. Khan Abdul Wali Khan Khan Abdul Wali Khan (Urdu: خان عبد ل ولی خان ) (b. ... National Awami Party, a leftist political party in Pakistan. ... Hayat Muhammad Khan Sherpao was one of the co-founders of the Pakistan Peoples Party. ...


Dissidence also increased within the PPP and the murder of dissident leader Ahmed Raza Kasuri's father led to public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of masterminding the crime, however, it was later known that the Dictatorship used this scandal to get rid of Bhutto once and for all as he became overwhelmingly popular and powerful. Powerful PPP leaders such as Ghulam Mustafa Khar openly condemned Bhutto and called for protests against his regime. The political crisis in the NWFP and Balochistan intensified as civil liberties remained suspended and an estimated 100,000 troops deployed there were accused of human rights abuses and killing large numbers of civilians.[7] Ahmed Raza Kasuri is a former Pakistani politician and lawyer who is infamously known for his involvement in the murder case that led to the excution of Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. ... Ghulam Mustafa Khar at 68 Ghulam Mustafa Khar Malik (Urdu: غلام مصطفیٰ کھر), (born August 2, 1937) was a close ally of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and his chief minister in Punjab, Pakistan during the 1970s. ...


On January 8, 1977 a large number of opposition political parties grouped to form the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA).[7] Bhutto called fresh elections and the PNA participated in those elections with full force and managed to contest the elections jointly even though they had grave differences in their opinions and views. The PNA faced defeat but did not accept the results, accusing their opponents of rigging the election. They first claimed rigging on 14 seats and finally on 40 seats in the national assembly and boycotted provisional elections turn out in national elections was of highiest degree. Provincial elections were held amidst low voter turnout and an opposition boycott, violent PNA declare the newly-elected Bhutto government as illegitimate. Muslim leaders such as Maulana Maududi called for the overthrow of Bhutto's regime.[13] Intensifying political and civil disorder prompted Bhutto to hold talks with PNA leaders, which culminated in an agreement for the dissolution of the assemblies and fresh elections under a form of government of national unity.[15] However on July 5, 1977 Bhutto and members of his cabinet were arrested by troops under the order of General Zia.[7] is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Pakistan National Alliance was a nine-party alliance in Pakistan, formed in 1977 to overthrow the rule of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the first elected leader of that country. ... Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (سيد أبو الأعلى المودودي, alternative spelling Syed Maudoodi; often referred to as Maulana Maududi) (1903-1979) was one of the most influential Muslim theologians of the 20th century and the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Party), an Islamic political party in Pakistan. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


General Zia announced that martial law had been imposed, the constitution suspended and all assemblies dissolved. Zia also ordered the arrest of senior PPP and PNA leaders but promised elections in October. Bhutto was released on July 29 and was received by a large crowd of supporters in his hometown of Larkana. He immediately began touring across Pakistan, delivering speeches to large crowds and plan his political comeback. Bhutto was arrested again on September 3 before being released on bail on September 13. Fearing yet another arrest, Bhutto named his wife Begum Nusrat as the president of the Pakistan People's Party. Bhutto was imprisoned on September 17 and a large number of PPP leaders and activists arrested and disqualified from standing in elections. is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Trial

Nusrat Bhutto became the PPP's leader after her husband's arrest and execution.

Bhutto's trial began on October 24 on charges of "conspiracy to murder" Ahmed Raza Kasuri.[16] The prosecution produced a witness in Masood Mahmood, who had been the chief of the Federal Security Force under Bhutto. A very questionable and dubious witness, Mr Mahmood testified that Bhutto had ordered the killing of Kasuri. Four men who were arrested and charged as Kasuri's assassins testified to confirm Mahmood's testimony. Bhutto charged that the army had fabricated the evidence and accused the Justice Maulvi Mushtaq Ali of taking orders from Zia.[17] The Lahore High Court sentenced Bhutto to death on March 18, 1978; he was also to pay Rs. 25,000 in fines or face six months rigorous imprisonment. (It is not clear whether the two sentences were to be concurrent or consecutive: clearly the fine could be collected posthumously, but there are obvious difficulties in imprisoning a dead man.) Image File history File links N_Bhutto. ... Image File history File links N_Bhutto. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmed Raza Kasuri is a former Pakistani politician and lawyer who is infamously known for his involvement in the murder case that led to the excution of Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. ... Federal Security Force was a paramilitary force created by Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. ... Maulvi Mushtaq Ali was a Pakistani jurist who served as chief justice of the high court of Lahore. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


While General Zia published a white paper accusing Bhutto of rigging the 1977 elections, the Supreme Court of Pakistan agreed to hear Bhutto's appeal. Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq adjourned the court until the end of July 1978, supposedly because 5 of the 9 appeals court judges were willing to overrule the Lahore verdict. One of the pro-Bhutto judges was due to retire in July. Chief Justice S. Anwarul Haq presided over the trial, despite being close to Zia, even serving as Acting President when Zia was out of the country. Bhutto's lawyers managed to secure for Bhutto the right to conduct his own defense before the Supreme Court. On December 18, 1978, Bhutto made his appearance in public before a packed courtroom in Rawalpindi and addressed the court for four days continuously. On February 6, 1979 the Supreme Court, in an ethnic split,[18] upheld the verdict by a narrow 4-3 vote. Bhutto appealed to the court to review its decision, but the plea was rejected on March 24. A white paper is an authoritative report. ... The Supreme Court (Urdu: عدالت عظمیٰ ) is the apex court in Pakistans judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. ... Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan,S. Anwarul Haq Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan S.Anwarul Haq is the infamous judge who gave legitimacy to General Zia ul-Haq’s martial law and upheld the decision of Lahore High Court which sentenced Zulfikar... Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan,S. Anwarul Haq Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan S.Anwarul Haq is the infamous judge who gave legitimacy to General Zia ul-Haq’s martial law and upheld the decision of Lahore High Court which sentenced Zulfikar... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


International pressure had mounted on General Zia to commute Bhutto's death sentence. Despite personal appeals from various heads of state, Zia refused to commute the sentence. Bhutto was executed by hanging in the early hours of the morning of April 4. Immediately after his hanging, there were violent protests in Pakistan, many of whom felt that Zia would meet the same fate.[19] His remains were taken to Larkana, where he was buried in a public ceremony near his family home. is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Criticism and legacy

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto remains a controversial figure in Pakistan. While he was hailed for being a nationalist, Bhutto was roundly criticised for opportunism and intimidating his political opponents. He oversaw Pakistan's nuclear programme, held peace talks with neighbour India and was more of an Internationalist with a secular image.[7] His socialist policies are blamed for slowing down Pakistan's economic progress owing to unproductivity and high costs. Bhutto is also criticised for human rights abuses perpetrated by the army in Balochistan.[7] Many in Pakistan's military, notably the current president Gen. Pervez Musharaf and former martial law administrator of Balochistan General Rahimuddin Khan condemn Bhutto for having caused the crisis that led to the creation of Bangladesh. In spite of all the criticism -- and subsequent media trials -- Bhutto still remains the most popular leader of the country.[20] [7] Bhutto's action against the insurgency in Balochistan is blamed for causing widespread civil dissent and calls for secession. [21] The word nuclear means of or belonging to the nucleus of something. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto ruler (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive power) of [[the office of President of Pakistan (becoming Head of State) on June 20, 2001. ... Martial Law Administrator is a head of the military governments normally overtaking the elected govenments with different purposes. ... Full General Rahimuddin Khan (Urdu: رحیم الدین خان) (born 21 July 1926) was the Governor of Balochistan, the largest province of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, for an unprecedented seven years (1978-1984), while simultaneously holding the military posts of Armoured Corps Commander as well as Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan, the latter...


Works

  • Peace-Keeping by the United Nations, Pakistan Publishing House, Karachi, 1967
  • Political Situation in Pakistan, Veshasher Prakashan, New Delhi, 1968
  • The Myth of Independence, Oxford University Press, Karachi and Lahore, 1969
  • The Great Tragedy, Pakistan People's Party, Karachi, 1971
  • Politics of the People (speeches, statements and articles), 1948-1971
  • The Third World: New Directions., Quartet Books, London, 1977
  • My Pakistan,. Biswin Sadi Publications, New Delhi, 1979
  • If I am Assassinated, Vikas, New Delhi, 1979
  • My Execution, Musawaat Weekly International, London, 1980
  • New Directions, Narmara Publishers, London, 1980

See also

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Preceded by
Feroz Khan Noon
Prime Minister of Pakistan Succeeded by
No Prime Minister during
Martial Law, then
Muhammad Khan Junejo
Preceded by
Yahya Khan
President of Pakistan Succeeded by
Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
Preceded by
Muhammad Ali Bogra
Foreign Minister of Pakistan Succeeded by
Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada
Preceded by
Abdul Jabbar Khan
Speaker of National Assembly
Pakistan
Succeeded by
Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
Preceded by
-
Chairperson Pakistan Peoples Party Succeeded by
Benazir Bhutto

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Movement for Restoration of Democracy (MRD) (Urdu: اتحاد برائے بحالی جمہوریت ) formed in February 1981 was a multi-party political alliance in Pakistan. ... Ghinwa Bhutto (Sindhi: غنوا ڀٽو) is the Chairperson of Pakistan Peoples Party Shaheed Bhutto (PPP-SB). ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... Murtaza Bhutto Murtaza Bhutto (September 18, 1954 - September 20, 1996) was a Pakistani politician. ... The Hyderabad tribunal (1975-1979) or Hyderabad conspiracy case is the name of a former judicial tribunal used in Pakistan to prosecute opposition politicians of the National Awami Party on the charges of treason and acting against the ideology of Pakistan. ... There have been several documents known as the Constitution of Pakistan. ... Asghar Khan (b. ... Maulana Mufti Mahmud Maulana Mufti Mahmud (Urdu: مولانا مفتى محمود) was born in January 1919 in Paniala, District Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Malik Feroz Khan Noon;Prime Minister Sir Feroz Khan Noon was a politician from Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Muhammad Khan Junejo, Prime Minister of Pakistan Muhammad Khan Junejo (Urdu: محمد خان جونیجو ) (born August 18, 1932 died 1992) was former Pakistani Prime Minister. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Urdu: فضل الہی چودھری) (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978. ... Mohammad Ali Bogra Muhammad Ali Bogra (1909 - 1963) was a Pakistani statesman of Bengali origin, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1953 until 1955. ... The Foreign Minister of Pakistan heads the Foreign Office of Pakistan. ... Image:Jinnah-pirzada-gandhi. ... Sahibzada Farooq Ali was the 6th Speaker of National Assembly of Pakistan. ... These are the names of Speakers and Presidents of the National Assembly of Pakistan. ... Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Urdu: فضل الہی چودھری) (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978. ... The Chairperson Pakistan Peoples Party is the political leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party, a Pakistani political party. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... Syed Iskander Ali Mirza or Iskander Mirza (Urdu: اسکندر مرزا) (November 13, 1899 – November 12, 1969) was the first President of Pakistan and held that position from 1956 until 1958. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Urdu: فضل الہی چودھری) (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978. ... General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Urdu: ) (b. ... Ghulam Ishaq Khan (abbreviated as GIK) (Urdu: غلام اسحاق خان) (January 20, 1915 - October 27, 2006) was President of Pakistan from August 17, 1988 until July 18, 1993. ... Wasim Sajjad (b. ... Sardar Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari (Urdu: سردار فاروق احمد خان لغاری) (b. ... Wasim Sajjad (b. ... Muhammad Rafiq Tarar (b. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born August 11, 1943) serves as President of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_President_of_Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Khawaja Nazimuddin Khawaja Nazimuddin (Urdu: خواجہ ناظم الدین) (Bengali: খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন)(July 19, 1894 - 1964) was the second Governor-General of Pakistan, and later the second Prime Minister of Pakistan as well. ... Mohammad Ali Bogra Muhammad Ali Bogra (1909 - 1963) was a Pakistani statesman of Bengali origin, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1953 until 1955. ... Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Chaudhry Muhammad Ali (July 15, 1905 _ December 2, 1980) was a Pakistani statesman who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1955 to 1956. ... Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (September 8, 1892 - December 5, 1963) was a politician from Bengal in undivided India, and later in East Pakistan, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1956 until 1957. ... Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar He was Prime Minister of Pakistan for approximately 2 months from October 17,1957 to December 16,1957 After merely a year, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy resigned from his Premiership in October 1957. ... Malik Feroz Khan Noon;Prime Minister Sir Feroz Khan Noon was a politician from Pakistan. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... Nurul Amin (Bengali: নূরুল আমীন, Urdu: نورالامین , 15 July, 1893 - 2 October, 1974) was a prominent Bengali leader of the Pakistans Muslim League, and served as Chief Minister of East Pakistan and both Prime Minister and Vice President of Pakistan. ... General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Urdu: ) (b. ... Muhammad Khan Junejo, Prime Minister of Pakistan Muhammad Khan Junejo (Urdu: محمد خان جونیجو ) (born August 18, 1932 died 1992) was former Pakistani Prime Minister. ... General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Urdu: ) (b. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi was born on the 14 August 1931 in the Province of Sind. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani politician. ... Mir Balakh Sher Mazari;Care Taker Prime Minister In 1993 a protracted power struggle between Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan played out as Pakistans two leading politicians maneuvered each other out of power. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani politician. ... Moeen Qureshi; Care Taker Prime Minister Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi, usually referred to as Moeen Qureshi, (born 1930) is a Pakistani economist and political figure. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... Miraj Khalid (1916 - 2003) was Interim prime minister of Pakistan in 1996 and 1997. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani politician. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born August 11, 1943) serves as President of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... Zafarullah Khan Jamali Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Urdu: میر ظفراللہ خان جمالی) (born January 1, 1944) is a former Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain (Urdu: چودھری شجاعت حسین) (born 1946) is a politician from Pakistan who was the Prime Minister of that country from June 30, 2004 until August 28, 2004. ... Shaukat Aziz (Urdu:: شوکت عزیز) (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) is the current Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Pakistan. ...

References

  1. ^ Story of Pakistan. "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928-71)" (PHP). Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica 2006. "Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali" (PHP). Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  3. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 291-93. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  4. ^ a b US Country Studies. "Ayub Khan" (PHP). Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  5. ^ a b c d e US Country Studies. "Yahya Khan and Bangladesh" (PHP). Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  6. ^ Blood, Archer, Transcript of Selective Genocide Telex, Department of State, United States
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k US Country Studies. "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" (PHP). Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  8. ^ Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin, 346. 
  9. ^ Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin, 346. 
  10. ^ Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin, 347. 
  11. ^ Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" (PHP). Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  12. ^ In the summer of 1976, General Zia, who had superseded seven senior lieutenant-generals, told Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: "Sir I am so grateful to you for appointing me Chief of Army Staff. Not only myself, but may future generations will be eternally grateful to you for singling me out for such a great honor, and this is a favour which I can never forget." The Herald, July 1992
  13. ^ a b Story of Pakistan. "Ouster of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" (PHP). Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  14. ^ Militarism and the State Pakistan: Military Intervention by Eqbal Ahmed (Le Monde Diplomatique, October 1977)
  15. ^ Mazari, Sherbaz(2000) A Journey into disillusionment
  16. ^ Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin, 438. 
  17. ^ Zulifikar Ali Bhutto’s last interview[ http://www.khalidhasan.net/fridaytimes/2006-06-02.htm]
  18. ^ The majority in favour of execution were ethnic Punjabis. An Analysis of Contemporary Pakistani Politics: Bhutto versus the Military Sameel Ahmed Qureshi Asian Survey, Vol. 19, No. 9 (Sep., 1979), pp. 910-921
  19. ^ Bhutto's Sudden, Shabby End
  20. ^ Taheri, Amir. "In the Line of Fire: A Memoir" (PHP), 2006-10-18. Retrieved on 2006-11-07. 
  21. ^ Frank, Katherine (2002). Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. USA: Houghton Mifflin, 438. 

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External links

Persondata
NAME Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pakistani politician
DATE OF BIRTH January 5, 1928
PLACE OF BIRTH Larkana
DATE OF DEATH April 4, 1979
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali - MSN Encarta (1396 words)
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928-1979), president and prime minister of Pakistan from 1971 to 1977.
Bhutto attended the University of Southern California in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1949 and received a bachelor of arts degree from the University of California at Berkeley in 1950.
Bhutto insisted that the allegations were false, but the high court in Lahore, packed with Zia's supporters, convicted Bhutto and imposed the death sentence.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Summary (3824 words)
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born on January 5, 1928, in Larkana, a small town in the province of Sind.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the son of Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto an influential Sindhi landlord and the Dewan (minister) of Junagadh state.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto served as President from 1971 to 1973 and as Prime Minister, from 1973 to 1977.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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