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Encyclopedia > Zouave
A French zouave from 1888 wearing white summer trousers instead of the usual red.
A French zouave from 1888 wearing white summer trousers instead of the usual red.

Zouave was the name given to certain infantry regiments in the French army, as well as to units in other armies which imitated the dress or drill of the French zouaves. Download high resolution version (513x760, 73 KB)Un zouave. ... Download high resolution version (513x760, 73 KB)Un zouave. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

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French Zouaves

The Zouaves of the French Army were first raised in Algeria in 1831 with one and later two battalions, initially recruited solely from the Zouaoua (or Zwāwa), a tribe of Berbers finding homes in the mountains of the Jurjura range (see Kabyles). The existence of the new corps was formally recognised by a Royal decree dated 7 March 1833. In 1838 a third battalion was raised, and the regiment thus formed was commanded by Major de Lamoriciere. Shortly afterwards the formation of the Tirailleurs algeriens, the Turcos, as the corps for Muslim troops, changed the enlistment for the Zouave battalions, and they became a purely French body. Three regiments had been formed by 1852, and a fourth, the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard, in 1854. The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière (5 September 1806 - 11 September 1865) was a French general. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Zouaves saw extensive service during the French conquest of Algeria, initially at the Mouzaia Pass action (March 1836), then at Mitidja (September 1836) and the siege of Constantine (1837). Recruited through voluntary enlistment or transfer from other regiments of men with at least two years service, the Zouves quickly achieved the status of an elite amongst the French Army of Africa. Position of Constantine in Algeria. ...


Second Empire

The Crimean War was the first service which the regiments saw outside Algeria. They subsequently served in the Franco-Austrian War of 1859, the Mexican Intervention (1864-66) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870). The distinctive dress and dash of the Zouaves made them well known outside France and they were frequently portrayed in the illustrated publications of the period. The 2nd Zouaves (popularly known as "the Jackals of Oran") had their eagle decorated with the Legion d' Honeur following the Battle of Magenta in 1859. Each of the three line regiments of Zouaves was allocated to a different province of Algeria, where their depots and peace-time garrisons were located. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and Kingdom of Sardinia against Austria-Hungary in 1859. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Combatants French Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon III Ferencz Gyulaj Strength 59,100 91 guns 125,000 [2] Casualties 657 dead 3,858 wounded 1,368 dead 4,538 wounded 4,500 captured Map of the Second Italian War of Independence The Battle of Magenta was fought...


Third Republic

French Zouaves in the First World War
French Zouaves in the First World War

After 1871 the Zouaves lost their status as an elite corps of long service volunteers and became a force mainly composed of conscripts from the French settlers in Algeria and Tunisia, undertaking their compulsory military service. Shortfalls in numbers were made up by transfers from metropolitan infantry regiments in southern France. Shortly before 1914 additional battalions of Zouaves were raised in the Paris area, to create a bond between the metropolitan and North African elements of the French Army. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 574 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1147 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 574 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1147 pixel, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


The four Zouave regiments of the French Army wore their traditional colorful dress during the early months of the First World War. The development of the machine gun, rapid fire artillery and improved small arms obliged them to adopt a plain khaki uniform from 1915 on. Between the wars the "oriental dress" of red fez ("chechia"), blue sash, braided blue jackets with waistcoats and voluminous red trousers was still seen as off-duty dress for re-enlisted NCOs and other long service regulars in the Zouave regiments. White trousers of the same style had earlier been worn as an item of hot weather dress. The four regiments were distinguished by the colours (red, blue, white and yellow) of the "tombeaus" or false pockets on the front of their open fronted jackets Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... A Fez The Fez (also known as the Checheya or Tarboosh) is a red felt hat in the shape of a truncated cone; a black tassel hangs from the crown. ...


The Zouaves played a major role in the 1914-18 War with their numbers being expanded to nine regiments de marche. These units retained much of their traditional panache, especially in the attack. during World War I. They were however less conspicuous in World War II, seeing service mainly during the opening stages of the War (1940) and in the course of the liberation of France (1944).


Post 1945

As predominantly conscript units the Zouaves did not serve in Indo-China between 1945 and 1954. They were however employed extensively during the Algerian War, before being finally disbanded in 1962 following Algerian independence. This was inevitable since their recruitment base was the European population of Algeria, which dispersed with the ending of French rule.


The traditions of the Zouave regiments are maintained at the present time by the French Army's Commando Training School, which occasionally parades colour parties and other detachments in Zouave dress. While other branches of the old Armée d'Afrique have either survived or been reestablished as representative units in recent years (notably the Foreign Legion, Chasseurs d' Afrique, Tirailleurs and Spahis) the French Army does not appear to have any plans to recreate one of its most distinctive and best known corps. A foreign legion is a military force originally established by a monarch, consisting of foreigners who are not normally subjects of the king. ... The Chasseurs dAfrique (literally Hunters of Africa although African Light Horse would be an alternative translation) were a light cavalry corps in the French Armée dAfrique (Army of Africa). ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... Holzschnitt nach Melchior Lorch, 1646. ...


See Army of Africa (France) The Army of Africa (French: ) was an unofficial but commonly used term for those portions of the French Army recruited from or normally stationed in French North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) from 1830 until the end of the Algerian War in 1962. ...


Papal Zouaves

Pontifical Zouave of Major O'Reilley's Papal Brigade, and a veteran of the battles against Garibaldi

The Papal Zouaves were formed in defence of the Papal States by Lamoricière in 1860. The Zuavi Pontifici were mainly young men, unmarried and Roman Catholic, who volunteered to assist Pope Pius IX in his struggle against the Italian Risorgimento. They formed quite an international regiment, coming from Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Bavaria, and even Canada. After the occupation of Rome by Victor Emmanuel in 1870, the Papal Zouaves served the government of National Defence in France during the Franco-Prussian War, and were disbanded after the entrance of Prussian troops into Paris. They wore a similar style of uniform to that of the French Zouaves but in grey with red trim. A grey and red kepi was worn, but numerous photos exist of members wearing fezzes. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... This article is about the capital of France. ... French Kepis. ...


Zouaves of Death

François Rochebrune.
François Rochebrune.

In 1863, during the Lithuanian and Polish uprising against the Russian Empire, a French ex-officer who had served previously in one of the French zouave regiments, François Rochebrune, organized the Zouaves of Death. Members of this Polish unit swore "to conquer or to die" and not to surrender. They wore a black uniform with white cross and red fez. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... A Fez The Fez (also known as the Checheya or Tarboosh) is a red felt hat in the shape of a truncated cone; a black tassel hangs from the crown. ...


The Zouaves of Death first saw active service at the Battle of Miechów on February 17, 1863. Lt.Tytus O'Brien de Lacy escaped with 400 zouaves to Galicia in March 1863. For other uses, see Galicia. ...


Commanding officers of the regiment were: Colonel François Rochebrune; Lieutenant Count Wojciech Komorowski; Lieutenant Tytus O'Brien de Lacy; Lieutenant Antoni Wojcicki; and Lieutenant Tenente Bella.

Zouaves of Death (żuawi śmierci). Drawing (published 1909) by K. Sariusz-Wolski, from a photograph. From left: Count Wojciech Komorowski, Col. Rochebrune, Lt. Tenente Bella
Zouaves of Death (żuawi śmierci). Drawing (published 1909) by K. Sariusz-Wolski, from a photograph. From left: Count Wojciech Komorowski, Col. Rochebrune, Lt. Tenente Bella


Chronology of the Zouaves of Death: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x773, 167 KB) The Death Zouaves (żuawi śmierci) unit, organized by Francois Rochebrune, of the Polish January Uprising of 1863. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x773, 167 KB) The Death Zouaves (żuawi śmierci) unit, organized by Francois Rochebrune, of the Polish January Uprising of 1863. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

  • clashed with Russian dragoons at the Battle of Chrobrz on March 17 1863;
  • captured six cannons at the Battle of Grochowiska on March 18,1863;
  • following the Battle of Grochowiska 400 zouaves escaped to Galicia.
  • twenty-one remaining zouaves were killed in the Battle of Igołomia on May 5 1863.

See January Uprising Look up dragoon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up cannon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ...


Zouaves of the United States of America and of the Confederate States

Goslin Zouave, 95th Regt, Pv by Xanthus Smith, 1861

Numerous Zouave regiments were organized from soldiers of the United States of America who adopted the name and the North African-inspired uniforms during the United States Civil War. The Union army had Zouave regiments throughout the conflict, while the Confederates fielded only a handful of Zouave units. Arguably the most famous Union Zouave regiments were from New York: the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Duryee's Zouaves" (after its first colonel, Abram Duryee), and the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Fire Zouaves". The 11th New York was initially led by Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth, until his death in 1861. The regiment was badly mauled during the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861 as it acted as the rear guard for the retreating Army of the Potomac. The 5th New York was considered one of the elite units of the Army of the Potomac and was only one of two volunteer regiments brigaded with the regular division commanded by George Sykes. At the Second Battle of Bull Run, the 5th New York, along with another Zouave regiment, the 10th New York "National Zouaves", held off the flanking attack of James Longstreet's Corps for ten crucial minutes before it was overrun. The 5th New York thus suffered the highest percentage of casualties in the shortest amount of time of any unit in the Civil War (of 525 men, approximately 120 were killed and 330 were wounded in less than 10 minutes). From 1863 onward, Zouave uniforms were often used to reward Union army regiments for exceptional battlefield performance. Zouaves gradually vanished from the U.S. military in the 1870s and 1880s, as the militia system slowly transformed into the National Guard, however some Zouaves saw service in the Spanish-American War. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 360 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (771 × 1283 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title of Work: Goslin Zouave, 95th Regt, Pv By Xanthus Smith, 1861 http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 360 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (771 × 1283 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title of Work: Goslin Zouave, 95th Regt, Pv By Xanthus Smith, 1861 http://www. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... The charge of the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry unit at Big Bethel, in a sketch by Thomas Nast. ... Abram Duryée Abram Duryée (April 29, 1815 – September 27, 1890) was a Union Army general during the American Civil War, the commander of one of the most famous Zouave regiments, the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry. ... Elmer Ephriam Ellsworth (E.E. Ellsworth) (1837-1861) was known as the first conspicuous casualty of the Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... George Sykes George Sykes (October 9, 1822 – February 8, 1880) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing For other uses, see Bull Run... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ...


The Zouave uniform was sometimes quite elaborate, to the extent of being unwieldy. Some Zouave regiments wore a fez with a colored tassel (usually yellow, blue, green, or red) and turban, a tight fitting short jacket (some without buttons), a wide ten-foot long sash, baggy pantaloons or "chasseur" trousers, white leggings, and a short leather cuff for the calf, called jambieres. The sash was especially difficult to put on, often requiring the help of another Zouave. The Zouave uniform was better suited for warm climates and rough terrain. The loose pantaloons allowed for greater freedom of movement than trousers, while the short jacket was much cooler than the long wool blouse worn by most armies of the time. One of the reasons for the smaller number of Zouave units in the U.S. and Europe was the expense of the specialized uniform over that of mass-produced uniforms of a single color and cut. A Fez The Fez (also known as the Checheya or Tarboosh) is a red felt hat in the shape of a truncated cone; a black tassel hangs from the crown. ...


Zouave Influence

Features of the zouave dress were widely copied by the colonial units of various European armies during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These included African regiments raised by Portugal, Britain, Spain, and Italy, as well as West Indian troops in the British service. Amongst the French North African forces the Spahis (Algerian cavalry with French officers) and the Turcos (Algerian infantry) were both dressed in the same style as the Zouaves but with different colours. Holzschnitt nach Melchior Lorch, 1646. ...


Between 1880 and 1893 the Turkish Imperial Guard included two Zouave regiments. The Abdul Hamid II Collection in the US Library of Congress has a number of photographs of these soldiers. They wore a uniform similar to that of the French Zouaves but with green turbans and less widely cut red breeches. Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia still have zouave-style dress uniforms for their ceremonial guard units, and American Civil War reenactments often feature zouave units. Union reenactors recreate the Battle of Saltville in Saltville, Virginia on Aug. ...


Zouave in current popular culture

  • The French expression "Faire le zouave" can be translated roughly as "to play the giddy goat". It is a long established term, dating back to the nineteenth century, and appears to reflect the popular image of the French zouaves as devil-may-care risk takers.
  • In imitation of the abusive verbal style favoured by the cartoon character Capitaine Haddock in The Adventures of Tintin, "zouave" is occasionally used as a modern insult in both French (France) and French-Canadian cultures.
  • A zouave appears on packs of Zig-Zag rolling papers.

Captain Haddock (Capitaine Haddock) Captain Archibald Haddock (Capitaine Archibald Haddock) is a character in the comic book series The Adventures of Tintin. ... The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... Zig-Zag is a popular brand of rolling papers that originated in France (#1 seller in USA as per industry publications). ... Buster Keaton (born Joseph Frank Keaton, October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966) was an American silent film comic actor and filmmaker. ... The Playhouse is a 1921 film written and directed by Buster Keaton. ...

See also

Zouave Database Online 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry - Collis' Zouaves d'Afrique

The charge of the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry unit at Big Bethel, in a sketch by Thomas Nast. ... The 8th Missouri Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union army during the American Civil War. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ...

References

  • Smith, Robin. American Civil War Zouaves. London: Osprey Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-85532-571-3
  • Jean-Louis Larcade. Zouaves & Tirailleurs Vols 1 and 2 Editions des Argonautes ISBN 2-9515171-0-6

Bibliography

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Zouave - LoveToKnow 1911 (238 words)
The corps was first raised in Algeria in 1831 with one and later two battalions, and recruited solely from the Zouaves, a tribe of Berbers, dwelling in the mountains of the Jurjura range (see Kabyles).
In 1838 a third battalion was raised, and the regiment thus formed was commanded by Lamoriciere.
After the occupation of Rome by Victor Emmanuel in 1870, the Papal Zouaves served the government of National Defence in France during the Franco-Prussian war, and were disbanded after the entrance of the German troops into Paris.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Zouave (392 words)
Zouave was the name given to certain infantry regiments in the French army, as well as to units in other armies which imitated the dress or drill of the French zouaves.
Zouave-a screw steamer built in 1861 at Albany, N.Y.-was purchased by the Navy on 20 December 1861 at New York City and soon therafter was delivered to the Navy at Hampton Roads, Va., for duty in the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron.
At this point, Zouave was in between the fire of Virginia, that of her escorts Patrick Henry and Jamestown, and the "friendly" Union guns based ashore at Newport News and Fort Monroe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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