FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Zoroastrian calendar

The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. To this day, Zoroastrians, irrespective of geographic location, adhere to (variations of) this calendar for religious purposes. A calendar is a system for naming periods of time, typically days. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... Zoroastrianism, in Persian: آيين زرتشت , Ain-e Zærtosht (in Kurdish: Zerdeştî ) was once the state religion of Sassanid Persia, and played an important role during the preceding Median, Achaemenid and Parthian eras, while it is considered, by some, to be the oldest monotheistic religion. ...

Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi (guardian spirit), to which the month of Fravardin is dedicated
Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi (guardian spirit), to which the month of Fravardin is dedicated

Contents

Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ... Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


History

Prior to the calendar reform of Sassanid emperor Ardashir I (226-241 CE), the calendar in common use in Persia had a 360-day year, and was based systemically on the Babylonian calendar. Under that system, the Kabiseh (== deficit) that accumulated over time was levelled out by the periodic intercalcation of a thirteenth month, as determined by observation. The tradition of naming the days and months after divinities was based on a similar Egyptian custom, and had been previously instituted by Achaemenid kings (648330 BCE). The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (in Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the third Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Events: Accession of Wei Mingdi as emperor of the Kingdom of Wei of China. ... Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... In the Babylonian calendar a year consisted of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327...


The calendar introduced by Ardashir I had a 365-day year based even more closely on the Egyptian calendar. It still had 12 months of 30 days each, and the months and days of the month that had been named in Achaemenid times remained as they were. However, the 12th month was followed by five additional Gatha or Gah days, after the ancient Avesta hymns of the same name. In addition, all forms of intercalation were discarded. Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


The new system created confusion and was met with resistance, and many Zoroastrian feasts and celebrations had two dates, a tradition that is maintained by some Zoroastrians to this day. Many rites were practiced over many days instead of one day and duplication of observances was continued to make sure no holy days were missed.


The situation got so complicated that another calendar reform was implemented by Ardeshir's grandson Hormizd I (272-273 CE). The new and old holy days were linked together to form continual six-day feasts. Norouz (or Navroz), the first day of spring, was an exception - The first and the sixth day of the month were celebrated as different occasions and the sixth day became more significant as Zoroasters’ birthday rather than as a continuation of the spring festival celebrations. Hormizd I, king of Persia, (272-273) was the son of Shapur I, under whom he was governor of Khorasan, and appears in his wars against Rome (Trebellius Pollio, 2, where Noldeke has corrected the name Odomastes into Oromastes, i. ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Events Under the command of Emperor Aurelian, the Roman Army sacks the city of Palmyra. ... Norouz is celebration of the coming of Spring and the Iranian new year Norouz (Persian: ‎ , also spelled Noe-Rooz, Norouz, Nawroz, Norooz, Noruz, Novruz, Noh Ruz, Nauroz, Nav-roze, Navroz, Naw-Rúz, Nevruz or Nowrouz) is the traditional new year holiday in Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Turkey, Zanzibar...


Since the reforms of Ardashir I also did away with all forms of intercalation, the calendar and seasons had diverged by four months by the time Yazdegerd III (632651 CE) ascended the throne. This resulted in the Gahambars (the seasonal festivals) being celebrated at the wrong times of the year. Yazdegerd III had another reform prepared, but it was not implemented when the Arabs overthrew the dynasty. Image:Yazdegard iii. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ...


Yazdegerdi (Y.Z.) Era

Following Alexander's conquest of Persia in 330 BCE, the Seleucids (312-248 BCE) instituted the Hellenic practice of dating by era, as opposed to dating by the reign of individual kings, and began the era of Alexander (now referred to as the Seleucid era). This practice was not considered acceptable to the Zoroastrian priests, who consequently founded a new era, the era of Zoroaster - which incidentally led to the first serious attempt to establish a historical date for the prophet. The Parthians (150 BCE-224 CE), who succeeded the Seleucids, continued the Seleucid/Hellenic tradition, and it was not until the calendar reform of Ardashir I that dating by regnal year was reinstituted. Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC - 330 BC - 329 BC 328 BC 327... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC Years: 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC _ 312 BC _ 311 BC... (Redirected from 248 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC - 248 BC... Coin of Philip V of Macedon (ruled 221–179 BC). ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... (Redirected from 150 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 155 BC 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC - 150 BC... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... The Common Era (CE), sometimes known as the Christian Era or Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 (the traditional but probably erroneous birthdate of Jesus) to the present. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Regnal year: the year of the reign of a sovereign. ...


The Zoroastrian calendar uses the Y.Z. suffix for its calendar era (year numbering system), indicating the number of years since the coronation in 632 CE of Yezdegerd III, the last monarch of the Sassanian dynasty. A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Image:Yazdegard iii. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (in Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the third Persian Empire (226 - 651). ...


Variations

As a result of the lack of intercalation embodied in the calendar reforms of Ardashir I, the calendar and the seasons were, over time, no long synchronized. In 1006, the roaming New Year's day once again coincided with the day of the vernal equinox, and it was resolved - in both India and Iran - that the Zoroastrian calendar henceforth intercalate an additional month every 120 years as prescribed by the Denkard and the Bundahishn. Events Aelfheah (St. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ...


At some point between 1126 and 1129, the Parsi-Zoroastrians in India remembered to do so, and an embolismic month, named Aspandarmad vahizak (the month of Aspandarmad but with a vahizak suffix), was inserted. That month would also be the last month intercalated - subsequent generations of Parsis neglected to insert a thirteenth month. This article is about (members of) the Parsi Zoroastrian community in and from India. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ...


At the time of the decision to intercalate every 120 years, the calendar was called the Shahenshahi (== imperial) calendar. The Parsis, not aware that they were not intercalating correctly, continued to call their calendar Shahenshahi. This practice has survived to this day, and adherants of other variants of the Zoroastrian calendar denigrate the Shahenshahi as "royalist".


Meanwhile, the Zoroastrians who remained in Iran never once intercalated a thirteenth month. Around 1720, an Irani-Zoroastrian priest named Jamasp Peshotan Velati travelled from Iran to India. Upon his arrival, he discovered that there was a difference of a month between the Parsi calendar and his own calendar. Velati brought this discrepancy to the attention of the priests of Surat, but no consensus as to which calendar was correct was reached. Around 1740, some influential priests argued that since their visitor had been from the ancient 'homeland', his version of the calendar must be correct, and their own must be wrong. On June 6th, 1745, a number of Parsis in and around Surat adjusted their calendars according to the recommendation of their priests. This calendar became known as the Kadimi calendar in both India and Iran, which in due course became contracted to Kadmi or Quadmi. // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Surat (Gujarati:સુરત) is a port city in the Indian state of Gujarat and administrative headquarters of the Surat District. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected...


In 1906, Khurshedji Cama, a Bombay Parsi, founded the "Zarthosti Fasili Sal Mandal", or Zoroastrian Seasonal-Year Society. The Fasili or Fasli calendar, as it became known, had two salient points: 1) It was in harmony with the seasons and New Year's day coincided with vernal equinox. 2) It intercalated a leap day every four years - the leap day, called Avardad-sal-Gah, followed the five existing Gah days at the end of the year. The society also claimed that their calendar was an accurate religious calendar, as opposed to the other two calendars, which they asserted were only political. 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about (members of) the Parsi Zoroastrian community in and from India. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ...


The new calendar received little support from the Indian Zoroastrian community as it was considered to have no foundation in scripture. In Iran, however, the Fasli calendar gained momentum following a campaign in 1930 to persuade the Iranian Zoroastrians to adopt the new calendar of the seasons, which they called the Bastani calendar. In 1925, the Iranian Parliament had introduced a new Iranian calendar, which (independent of the Fasli movement) incorporated both points proposed by the Fasili Society, and since the Iranian national calendar had also retained the Zoroastrian names of the months, it was not a big step to integrate the two. The Bastani calendar was duly accepted by the majority of the Zoroastrians. In Yazd, however, the Zoroastrian community resisted, and to this day follow the Kadmi calendar. The Iranian calendar (also known as Persian calendar or the Jalaali Calendar) is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ...


In 1992, all three calendars happened to have the first day of a month on the same day, and although many Zoroastrians suggested a consolidation of the calendars, no consensus could be reached. Some priests also objected on the grounds that the religious implements would require re-consecration, at not insignificant expense. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Month and day names

The months and the days of the month in the Zoroastrian calendar are - with one exception - dedicated to, and named after, an Amesha Spenta (Bounteous Immortal) or a Yazata (Adorable Spiritual Being). The exception to this is Fravardin (Guardian Spirit) who has the first month and 19th day of each month, named after It. The month Dae (root of Dadvah, Creator) and the first day of the month, Hormuzd (Omniscient Creator) are synonyms for Ahura Mazda. In Zoroastrianism, the yazatas are supernatural beings created by Ahura Mazda to help him fight the evil forces of Ahriman and keep the world in order. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ...


The religious importance of the calendar dedications is very significant. Not only does it establish the heirarchy of the major divinities, it ensures the frequent invocation of their names since the divinities of both day and month are mentioned at every Zoroastrian act of worship.


There is some evidence that suggests that in ancient Persia Dae, and not Fravardin, was the first month of the year. For one, the first day of every month is dedicated to the Creator, but the month that is also dedicated to Him is well into the year. In a 9th century text, Zoroaster's age at the time of his death is stated to have been 77 years and 40 days (Zadspram 23.9 [1]), but this age cannot be verified unless Dae was the first month of the year. It is also worth noting that Pateti - the day of introspection - is on the first day of the month of Fravardin - which, as New Year's day, is a day of celebration.


See also

This article is about (members of) the Parsi Zoroastrian community in and from India. ... The following is a List of Festivals in India: // Hindu Diwali Bhaubeej Dussehra or Daserra Kumar Purnima Chhath Holi Makar Sankranti Pongal Mahashivratri Ugadi Gudi Padwa Ramanavami Baisakhi Onam Raja Shankranti Puri Jaganath Ratha yatra Ganesh Puja Saraswati Puja PrathamAstami Krishna Janmastami Margasira Guruvaara : Laxmi puja Islamic Bakri Id, (Id... The Iranian calendar (also known as Persian calendar or the Jalaali Calendar) is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Zoroastrianism, in Persian: آيين زرتشت , Ain-e Zærtosht (in Kurdish: Zerdeştî ) was once the state religion of Sassanid Persia, and played an important role during the preceding Median, Achaemenid and Parthian eras, while it is considered, by some, to be the oldest monotheistic religion. ...

External references


  Results from FactBites:
 
Zoroastrian calendar (122 words)
The Zoroastrian calendar has a year that is 365 days long, composed of 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional period of 5 days at the end of the year.
The newer Fasli ("seasonal") calendar is a solar calendar that has leap years that are 366 days long, and always starts the year at the vernal equinox.
The leap years in the Fasli calendar occur in the same years as they do in the Gregorian calendar.
CalendarHome.com - Zoroastrian calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia (1461 words)
Prior to the calendar reform of Sassanid emperor Ardashir I (226-241 CE), the calendar in common use in Persia had a 360-day year, and was based systemically on the Babylonian calendar.
The Zoroastrian calendar uses the Y.Z. suffix for its calendar era (year numbering system), indicating the number of years since the coronation in 632 CE of Yezdegerd III, the last monarch of the Sassanian dynasty.
In 1992, all three calendars happened to have the first day of a month on the same day, and although many Zoroastrians suggested a consolidation of the calendars, no consensus could be reached.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m