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Encyclopedia > Zoroaster
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Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


Portal
Primary topics

Zoroastrianism / Mazdaism
Ahura Mazda
Zarathustra (Zoroaster)
aša (asha) / arta Image File history File links Faravahar. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... In Vedic Sanskrit, Rta literally means the course of things. ...

Angels and demons

Overview of the Angels
Amesha Spentas · Yazatas
Ahuras · Daevas
Angra Mainyu Zoroastrian angelology is branch of Zoroastrian doctrine that deals with the hierarchical system of divinities introduced by the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... The Daeva are a fictional clan of vampires in the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem, published by White Wolf Game Studio . ... Angra Mainyu is the Avestan language name of the hypostasis of the destructive spirit. The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. ...

Scripture and worship

Avesta · Gathas
Vendidad
The Ahuna Vairya Invocation
Fire Temples
See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi, as mentioned in the Yasna, Yashts and Vendidad The Avesta is a collection of the sacred texts of the Mazdaist (Zoroastrian) religion. ... Ahuna Vairya is the Avestan language name of the most sacred of the Gathic hymns of the Avesta, the revered texts of Zoroastrianism. ... A Zoroastrian Fire Temple is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ...

Accounts and legends

Dēnkard · Bundahišn
Book of Arda Viraf
Book of Jamasp
Story of Sanjan
The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... Category: ... The Book of Arda Viraf is a Zoroastrian religious text which describes the dream-journey of a devout Zoroastrian through the next world. ... The Jamasp Nameh (var: Jāmāsp Nāmag, Jāmāsp Nāmeh, Story of Jamasp) is a Middle Persian book of revelations. ... The Qissa-i Sanjan (or Kisse-i Sanjan, the Story of Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. ...

History and culture

Zurvanism
Calendar · Festivals
Marriage
Eschatology
Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... Zoroastrianism has numerous festivals and holy days, all of which are bound to the Zoroastrian calendar. ... In the Zoroastrian faith marriage is encouraged, an institution greatly favoured by the religious texts[1]. As of such, a Zoroastrian Wedding is a cause for celebration. ... Zoroastrianism eschatology is the oldest eschatology in recorded history. ...

Adherents

Zoroastrians in Iran
Parsis · Iranis
• • •
Persecution of Zoroastrians Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... This article is about the Parsi community. ... Irani is a term used to denote Indian Zoroastrians whose ancestors emigrated from Iran within the last two centuries, as opposed to the longer residing Parsis. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ...

See also

Index of Related Articles

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Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: زرتشت Zartošt; Kurdish: Zerduşt), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. The hymns attributed to him, the Gathas, are at the liturgical core of Zoroastrianism. He is also regarded as a prophet in Islam [citation needed] and Bahá'í Faith [citation needed]. Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ...

Contents

The person

Name

Avestan Zarathustra

Avestan Zaraθuštra is generally accepted to derive from an Old Iranian *zarat-uštra-, which is in turn "perhaps"[1] a zero-grade form of *zarant-uštra-. This is supported by reconstructions from later Iranian languages – in particular from Middle Persian Zartosht, which is the form the name has in the 9th-12th century Zoroastrian texts. Yasna 28. ... In linguistics, the term ablaut designates a system of vowel gradation (i. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ...


The interpretation of the -θ- in Avestan zaraθuštra was for a time itself subject to heated debate because the -θ- is an irregular development: As a rule, *zarat- (a first element that ends in a dental consonant) should have Avestan zarat- or zaraϑ- as a development from it. Why this is not so for zaraθuštra has not yet been determined. Notwithstanding the phonetic irregularity, that Avestan zaraθuštra "with its -θ- was linguistically an actual form, [is] shown by later attestations reflecting the same basis."[1] All present-day Iranian language variants of his name derive from the Middle Iranian variants of Zarθošt, which in turn all reflect Avestan's fricative -θ-. Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Middle Iranian may refer to any of a group of Iranian languages spoken between the 4th century BC and the 9th century AD: Western: Parthian Middle Persian Eastern: Bactrian Sogdian Khwarezmian Saka Old Ossetic (Scytho-Sarmatian) Pahlavi Category: ...


The second half of the name – i.e. -uštra- is universally accepted to mean 'camel'.[1][a] The first half of the name does not otherwise appear in Avestan, which makes it necessary to seek a meaning in the etymology of the name. Subject then to whether Zaraθuštra derives from *zarat-uštra- or from *zarant-uštra-, several interpretations have been proposed:[b]


Following *zarat-uštra- are

  • "moving camels" or "driving camels," and related to Avestan zarš- "to drag."[2]
  • "desiring camels" or "longing for camels" and related to Vedic har- "to like" and perhaps (though ambiguous) also to Avestan zara-.[3]

Following *zarant-uštra- are Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ...

  • "with old/aging camels," related to Vedic járant- and similar to Ossetic zœrond.[4]
  • "with yellow camels" with a parallel to Younger Avestan zairi-.[5]
  • "with angry camels," from Avestan *zarant- "angry, furious."[3]

"Several more etymologies have been proposed, some quite fanciful, but none is scientifically based."[1]


Greek Zoroaster

Greek Zōroástrēs appears[4] to have arisen from an association of ástra "stars" with the leading zōrós meaning "undiluted." This is the oldest attested Greek form of the name, attested in the mid-fifth century BCE Lydiaka of Xanthus (frag. 32) and in (Pseudo-)Plato's Alcibiades Maior (122a1). This old form appears subsequently as Latin Zoroastres and - as a secondary development - Greek Zōroástris. BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Xanthus of Lydia (also spelled Xanthos) was a native Lydian historian and logographer who, during the mid-fifth century BC, wrote works on the history of Lydia known as Lydiaka. ...


Greek Zōroástrēs has motivated attempts to reconstruct an intermediate Old Western Iranian variant of Avestan Zaraθuštra from which the European forms could then derive. The proposals include *zara-uštra- or *zarah-uštra-, which – or so it is theorized – first produced Greek *zara-óstr(ēs), then – by metathesis – *zaro-ástr(ēs) and finally – provoked by the association with "stars" – the attested Zōroástrēs. Neither *zara-uštra- or *zarah-uštra- have a great following among the linguistic community since neither adequately explain the Old Iranian forms. Besides, *zarah-uštra- is a "phonologically improbably form in any Old Iranian language."[6]


Date

Until the late 1800s, Zoroaster was generally dated to about the 6th century BCE, which coincided with both the "Traditional date" (see details below) and historiographic accounts (Ammianus Marcellinus xxiii.6.32, 4th c. CE). However, already at the time (late 19th century), the issue was far from settled, with James Darmesteter pleading for a later date (c. 100 BCE) and others pleading for dates as early as 6000 BCE.[e] Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... James Darmesteter (March 28, 1849 - October 10, 1894), French author and antiquarian, was born of Jewish parents at Chateau Salins, in Alsace. ...


The "Traditional date" originates in the period immediately following Alexander's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BCE. The Seleucid kings who gained power following Alexander's death instituted an "Age of Alexander" as the new calendrical epoch. This did not appeal to the Zoroastrian priesthood who then attempted to establish an "Age of Zoroaster." To do so, they needed to establish when Zoroaster had lived, which they accomplished by counting back the length of successive generations[7] until they concluded that Zoroaster must have lived "258 years before Alexander." This estimate then re-appeared in the 9th-12th century texts of Zoroastrian tradition,[c] which in turn gave the date doctrinal legitimacy. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ...


In the 20th century, this date (which may be any number of different years subject to when "Alexander" happened[d]) remained acceptable to a number of reputable scholars, among them Hasan Taqizadeh, a recognized authority on the various Iranian calendars and hence became the date cited by Henning and others. Sayyed Hasan Teqizadeh - سيدحسن تقي زاده Sayyed Hasan[1] Taqizadeh[2] (سيدحسن تقي زاده) (September, 1878, Tabriz, Iran — January, 1970, Tehran, Iran)[3] was an influential politician and diplomat[4] during the Qajar dynasty under the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah, as well as the Pahlavi dynasty under the reign of Reza Shah[5] and Mohammad...


However, already in the late 19th century scholars such as Bartholomea and Christensen noted problems with the "Traditional date", namely in the linguistic difficulties that it presented. Since the Old Avestan language of Gathas (that are attributed to the prophet himself) is still very close to the Sanskrit of the Rigveda, it seemed plausible that the Gathas and Rigveda could not be more than a few centuries apart. Since the Rigvedic compositions could be fairly accurately dated to about the 13th/14th century BCE, and because the Old Avestan was less (but only slightly less) archaic than that of the Rigveda, it followed that the oldest surviving portions of the Avesta date to around 1000 BCE (+/- one century). Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ...


This 9th/10th century BCE date is now almost universally accepted among Iranists, who in recent decades have also found that the social customs described in the Gāthās roughly coincides with what is known of other pre-historical peoples of that period. Supported by this historical evidence, the "Traditional date" can be conclusively ruled out, and the discreditation can to some extent supported by the texts themselves: The Gathas describe a society of bipartite (priests and herdsmen/farmers) nomadic pastoralists with tribal structures organized at most as small kingdoms. This contrasts sharply with the view of Zoroaster having lived in an empire, at which time society is attested to have had a tripartite structure (nobility/soldiers, priests, and farmers). Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ...


Although a slightly earlier date (a century or two) has been proposed on the grounds that the texts do not reflect the migration onto the Iranian Plateau, it is just as possible that Zoroaster lived in a one of the rural societies that remained where they were. Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts...


Place

Zoroaster; portrayed here in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. This image emerged in the 18th century, the result of an Indian Parsi Zoroastrian artist's imagination under European influence. It quickly became a popular icon, and is now regarded by many Indian Zoroastrians as being historically based.
Zoroaster; portrayed here in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. This image emerged in the 18th century, the result of an Indian Parsi Zoroastrian artist's imagination under European influence. It quickly became a popular icon, and is now regarded by many Indian Zoroastrians as being historically based.

Yasna 9 & 17 cite the Ditya River in Airyanem Vaējah (Middle Persian Ērān Wēj) as Zoroaster's home and the scene of his first appearance. Nowhere in the Avesta (both Old and Younger portions) is there a mention of the Achaemenids or of any West Iranian tribes such as the Medes, Persians, or even Parthians. Zartosht / Zoroaster. ... Zartosht / Zoroaster. ... The Airyanem Vaejah or Airyana Waejah (Aryan Expanse) was the legendary home of the Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people, as described in writings in the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Mede nobility. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf...


However, in Yasna 59.18, the zaraθuštrotema, or supreme head of the Zoroastrian priesthood, is said to reside in 'Ragha'. In later Zoroastrian tradition, this Avestan Ragha - along with a slew of other places - appear as locations in Western Iran. While Medea does not figure at all in the Avesta (the westernmost location noted in scripture is Arachosia), the Būndahišn, or "Primordial Creation," (20.32 and 24.15) puts Ragha in Medea (medieval Rai). However, in Avestan, Ragha is simply a toponym meaning "plain, hillside."[8] The same text identifies Ērān Wēj with medieval Aran (in historical Caucasian Albania, present-day Azerbaijan). Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... Category: ... Mede nobility. ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Arran (ar-Ran) is a historic geographic and sometimes political term used in the Azerbaijan Republic to signify the territory which lays within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers,[1] including the highland and... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ...


In the 10th century, the Muslim writer al-Shahrastani (who originated from Shahristān, present-day Turkmenistan) proposed (again) that Zoroaster's father was from Atropatene (also in Medea) and his mother was from Rai. Coming from a reputed scholar of religions, this was a serious blow for the various regions who all claimed that Zoroaster originated from their homelands, some of which then decided that Zoroaster must then have then been buried in their regions or composed his Gathas there or preached there.[9][10] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Taj al–Din Abu‘l–Fath Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al–Karim al–Shahrastani (1086 - 1153 CE), an Islamic scholar, was born in the town of Shahristan (Turkmenistan). ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ...


By the late 20th century the consensus has settled on an origin in Eastern Iran and/or Central Asia (to include present-day Afghanistan): Gnoli proposed Sistan (though in a much wider scope than the present-day province) as the homeland of Zoroastrianism; Frye voted for Bactria and Chorasmia;[11] Khlopin suggests the Tedzen Delta in present-day Turkmenistan.[12] Sarianidi considered the BMAC region as "the native land of the Zoroastrians and, probably, of Zoroaster himself."[13] Boyce includes the steppes of the former Soviet republics.[14] The medieval "from Media" hypothesis is no longer taken seriously, and Zaehner has even suggested that this was a Magi-mediated issue to garner legitimacy, but this has been likewise rejected by Gershevitch and others. Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores of the northern Caspian Sea. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ...


The 2005 Encyclopedia Iranica article on the history of Zoroastrianism summarizes the issue with "while there is general agreement that he did not live in western Iran, attempts to locate him in specific regions of eastern Iran, including Central Asia, remain tentative."[15]


Life

Information about the life of Zoroaster derives primarily from the Avesta, that is, from Zoroastrian scripture of which the Gathas - the texts attributed to Zoroaster himself - are a part. These are complemented by legends from the traditional Zoroastrian texts of the 9th-12th century. See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


The Gathas contain allusions to personal events, such as Zoroaster’s triumph over obstacles imposed by competing priests and the ruling class. They also indicate he had difficulty spreading his teachings, and was even treated with ill-will in his mother's hometown. They also describe familial events such as the marriage of his daughter, at which Zoroaster presided.


In the texts of the Younger Avesta (composed many centuries after the Gathas), Zoroaster is depicted wrestling with the daevas and is tempted by Angra Mainyu to renounce his faith (Yasht 17.19; Vendidad 19). See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Daeva are a fictional clan of vampires in the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem, published by White Wolf Game Studio . ... Angra Mainyu is the Avestan language name of the hypostasis of the destructive spirit. The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. ...


The Spenta Nask, the 13th section of the Avesta, is said to have a description of the prophet's life. However, this text has been lost over the centuries, and it survives only as a summary in the seventh book of the 9th century Dēnkard. Other 9th-12th century stories of Zoroaster, as in the Shāhnāma, are also assumed to be based on earlier texts, but must be considered to be primarily a collection of legends. The historical Zoroaster, however, eludes categorization as a legendary character. See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ...


Collectively, scripture and tradition provide many rote details of his life, such as a record of his family members: His father was Pourushaspa Spitāma, son of Haechadaspa Spitāma, and his mother was Dughdova. He and his wife Hvōvi had three daughters, Freni, Pourucista, and Triti; and three sons, Isat Vastar, Uruvat-Nara, and Hvare Ciθra. Zoroaster’s great-grandfather Haēchataspa was the ancestor of the whole family Spitāma, for which reason Zoroaster usually bears the surname Spitāma. His wife and children, and a cousin named Maidhyoimangha, were his first converts after his illumination from Ahura Mazda at age 30. Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ...


According to Yasnas 5 & 105, Zoroaster prayed for the conversion of King Vištaspa, who appears in the Gathas as a historical personage. In legends, Vištaspa is said to have had two brothers as courtiers, Frašaōštra and Jamaspa, and to whom Zoroaster was closely related: his wife, Hvōvi, was the daughter of Frashaōštra, while Jamaspa was the husband of his daughter Pourucista. The actual role of intermediary was played by the pious queen Hutaōsa. Apart from this connection, the new prophet relied especially upon his own kindred (hvaētuš). Hystaspes (the Greek form of the Persian Vishtaspa) can refer to two individuals: A semi-legendary king (kava), praised by Zoroaster as his protector and a true believer, son of Aurvataspa (Lohrasp). ...


Zoroaster’s death is not mentioned in the Avesta. In Shahnama 5.92,[16] he is said to have been murdered at the altar by the Turanians in the storming of Balkh. Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...


Philosophy

In his revelation, the poet sees the universe as the cosmic struggle between aša "truth" and druj "lie". The cardinal concept of aša - which is highly nuanced and only vaguely translatable - is at the foundation of all other Zoroastrian doctrine, including that of Ahura Mazda (who is aša), creation (that is aša), existence (that is aša) and Free Will, which is arguably Zoroaster's greatest contribution to religious philosophy. In Vedic Sanskrit, Rta literally means the course of things. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ...


The purpose of humankind, like that of all other creation, is to sustain aša. For humankind, this occurs through active participation in life and the exercise of good thoughts, words and deeds.


Iconography

Detail of The School of Athens by Raphael, 1509, showing Zoroaster (left, with star-studded globe).
Detail of The School of Athens by Raphael, 1509, showing Zoroaster (left, with star-studded globe).

Although a few recent depictions of Zoroaster present the prophet performing some deed of legend, in general the portrayals are independent of these. These latter images show the prophet in white vestments, easily identifyable as those also worn by present-day Zoroastrian priests. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1205, 145 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The School of Athens ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1205, 145 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The School of Athens ... The School of Athens or in Italian is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ...


He often is seen holding a baresman (Avestan, MP barsom), which is generally considered to be another symbol of priesthood, or with a book in hand, which may be interpreted to be the Avesta. Alternatively, he appears with a mace, the varza - usually stylized as a steel rod crowned by a bull's head - that priests carry in their installation ceremony. In other depictions he appears with a raised hand and reproachfully lifted finger, as if to make a point. A barsom is a ritual implement used by Zoroastrian priests to solemnize certain sacred ceremonies. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


Zoroaster is rarely depicted as looking directly at the viewer, instead he appears to be looking slightly upwards as if beseeching God. Zoroaster is almost always depicted with a beard, usually brown. His complexion is pale, and this and other factors recall 19th century Jesus portraits.[17] This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


A common variant of the Zoroaster images derives from a Sassanid-era rock-face carving. In this depiction at Taq-e Bostan, a figure is seen to preside over the coronation of Ardashir I or II. The figure is standing on a lotus, with a baresman in hand and with a gloriole around his head. Until the 1920s, this figure was commonly supposed to be a depiction of Zoroaster, but in recent years is more commonly interpreted to be a depiction of Mithra. Frontal view of the two arches. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Ardashir II was king of Persia from 379-383. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ...


Among the most famous of the European depictions of Zoroaster is that of the figure in Raphael's 1509 The School of Athens. In it, Zoroaster and Ptolemy are having a discussion in the lower right corner. The prophet is holding a star-studded globe. This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... The School of Athens or in Italian is one of the most famous paintings by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...


Western perceptions

In classical antiquity

The name Zoroaster was famous in classical antiquity, and a number of different Zoroasters - all described as having occult powers - appear in historiographic accounts. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


In Pliny's Natural History, Zoroaster is said to have laughed on the day of his birth. He lived in the wilderness and enjoyed exploring it from a young age. Plutarch compares him with Lycurgus and Numa Pompilius (Numa, 4). Plutarch, drawing partly on Theopompus, speaks of Zoroaster in Isis and Osiris: In this work, the prophet is empowered by trust in his God and the protection of his allies. He faces outward opposition and unbelief, and inward doubt. Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... In Ancient Greece and/or Greek mythology, the name Lycurgus/Lykurgus can refer to: An alternate name for Lycomedes. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... Theopompus, a Greek historian and rhetorician, was born at Chios about 380 BC. In early youth he seems to have spent some time at Athens, along with his father, who had been exiled on account of his Laconian sympathies. ...


In the post-classical era

Zoroaster was known as a sage, magician, and miracle-worker in post-Classical Western culture. Though almost nothing was known of his ideas until the late 18th century, by that time his name was already associated with lost ancient wisdom. Zoroaster appears as "Sarastro" in Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte, which has been noted for its Masonic elements, where he represents moral order (cf. Asha) in opposition to the "Queen of the Night." (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... In Vedic Sanskrit, Rta literally means the course of things. ...


Enlightenment writers such as Voltaire promoted research into Zoroastrianism in the belief that it was a form of rational Deism, preferable to Christianity. With the translation of the Avesta by Abraham Anquetil-Duperron, Western scholarship of Zoroastrianism began. The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Abraham-Hyacinthe Anquetil Du Perron (December 7, 1731 - January 17, French orientalist, brother of Louis-Pierre Anquetil, the historian, was born in Paris. ...


Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche fictionalized the historical figure in his seminal work Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra) (1885). Nietzsche presents[citation needed] Zoroaster as a returning visionary who repudiates the designation of good and evil and thus marks the observation of the death of God. Nietzsche asserted[citation needed] that he chose Zoroaster as a vehicle for his ideas because the historical prophet had been the first to proclaim the opposition between "good" and "evil." Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... “Also sprach Zarathustra” redirects here. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Richard Strauss's Opus 30, inspired by Nietzsche's book, is also called Also sprach Zarathustra. Its opening theme, which corresponds to the book's prologue, was used to score the opening sequence of Stanley Kubrick's movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Also sprach Zarathustra, op. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...


Zoroaster was mentioned by the 19th century poet William Butler Yeats. His wife and he were said to have claimed to have contacted Zoraster through "automatic writing."[18][page # needed] For the article about the album by Ataxia, see Automatic Writing (album). ...


The 2005 edition of the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy places Zoroaster first in a chronology of philosophers.[19][page # needed]


Zoroaster is ranked #93 on Michael H. Hart’s list of the most influential figures in history.[20] Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ...


In 1997, the British gothic rock band Tammuz released a song named 'Zarathustra' on their album Yezidi. The track features an Avestan language verse from the Gathas. The name 'Zarathustra' appears in passing in Bryan Ferry's 'Mother of Pearl', a Roxy Music song from the band's 1973 Stranded album. Gothic rock (sometimes called goth rock or simply goth) is a genre of rock music that originated during the late 1970s. ... Bryan Ferry (born 26 September 1945 in Washington) is an English singer, musician, songwriter and occasional actor famed for his suave visual and vocal style, who came to public prominence in the 1970s as lead vocalist and principal songwriter with Roxy Music. ... Roxy Music are an English art rock group founded in the early 1970s by art school graduate Bryan Ferry (vocals and keyboards). ...


The protagonist and narrator of Gore Vidal's 1981 novel Creation is described to be the grandson of Zoroaster, with whom the narrator has several philosophical discussions and whose death he is a witness of. Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced and , ) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays, and the scion of a prominent political family. ... Creation is an epic historical fiction novel by Gore Vidal which was published in 1981. ...


In other religious systems

In Manichaeism

Manichaeism considered Zoroaster to be a figure (as Hermes, Plato, Buddha and Jesus also) in a line of prophets, which Mani (210–277) proclaimed he was the final successor of.[citation needed] Zoroaster's ethical dualism is - to an extent - incorporated in Mani's doctrine, which viewed the world as being locked in an epic battle between opposing forces of good and evil. Manicheanism also incorporated other elements of Zoroastrian tradition, but these are unrelated to Zoroaster's own teachings. Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Media:Example. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Mani (in Persian: مانی, Syriac: ) was born of Iranian (Parthian) parentage in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ...


In the Bahá'í Faith

Zoroaster appears in the Bahá'í Faith as a "Manifestation of God," one of a line of prophets who have progressively revealed the Word of God to a gradually maturing humanity. Zoroaster thus shares an exalted station with Abraham, Moses, Buddha, Krishna, Jesus, Muhammad, the Báb, and the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh.[21] Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, saw Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of a post-Sassanid Zoroastrian prophecy that saw a return of Sassanid emperor Bahram:[22] Shoghi Effendi also stated that Zoroaster lived roughly 1,000 years before Jesus.[z] This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar) who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Media:Example. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Shrine of the Báb in Haifa, Israel. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ... Bahram or Vahram (Persian: ‎ ​), meaning smiting of resistance or victorious, may refer to: Bahrām, the Zoroastrian divinity that is the hypostasis of victory. ...


See also

The following figures are believed to have founded major beliefs or to have been the first codifiers or best known proponents of older known religion or traditions. ...

Notes

a:^  Originally proposed by Burnouf[23]
b:^  For refutation of these and other proposals, see Humbach, 1991.[24]
c:^  The Bundahishn computes "200 and some years" (GBd xxxvi.9) or "284 years" (IBd xxxiv.9). That '258 years' was the generally accepted figure is however noted by al-Biruni and al-Masudi, with the latter specifically stating (in 943/944 CE) that "the Magians count a period of two hundred and fifty-eight years between their prophet and Alexander."[25][26]
d:^  "258 years before Alexander," is only superficially precise, and thus debated.[26] What in Zoroaster's life happened 258 before Alexander? His birth? His enlightenment? His conversion of Vistaspa? His death? Similarly, before Alexander's what? His accession to the Macedonian throne? His invasion? His death? The beginning of the "Era of Alexander" (which began 10 years after his death)?

It is generally assumed that this "traditional date" is an adoption of some date from an alien sources - either from the Greeks or from the Babylonians - which the priesthood then reinterpreted. The Greeks are generally discounted as a source because Zoroastrian chronology knows nothing of the Achaemenid kings before Artaxerxes I,[27] but this missing information would have been available from the Greeks. In contrast, the late 5th century BCE is when close relations with Babylon began to develop. For the Babylonians, two dates stand out in their calendar: the fall of the Babylonian Empire (in 539 BCE) and the reinstatement of a (half) Babylonian one (in 311 BCE, coinciding with the beginning of the "Era of Alexander"). The difference is 228 years. If the priests then took this difference, reinterpreted it to have some significance for themselves, and then added the age at which Zoroaster is traditionally thought to have received his revelation (30), they would have arrived at the sum of 258.[28] Category: ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Al-Masudi or Abu-Alhasan Ali bin al-Husain. ... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ...

e:^  The "extravagant,"[29] "fantastic"[29] and "extraordinary"[30] 6000 BCE date (or thereabouts) appears in several classical sources: Pliny the Elder (1st c.), Plutarch (1st c.), a Scholion to the (Pseudo-)Platonic Alcibiades Major, Diogenes Laertius (3rd c.), Lactantius (3rd c.) and Syncellus (8th c.). The date is typically described as "5,000 years before the Trojan war" or "6,000 years before Plato" (or "before Xerxes"). "Their chief claim to any consideration"[30] is that these sources cite the authority of (variously) Hermippus (5th c. BCE), Xanthus of Lydia (5th c. BCE), Eudoxus of Cnidus (5th/4th c. BCE), Aristotle (4th c. BCE) and Hermodorus (4th c. BCE, a student of Plato's). In general, the 6000 BCE date is assumed to be based on a Greek misunderstanding of the (Zoroastrian) "great-year" cycles, which foresees recurring 12,000-year periods of three 3,000-year segments each.

Other classical sources - again on the authority of Xanthus of Lydia - consider "600 years before Xerxes" (i.e. before his invasion of Greece), i.e. 1080 BCE, which would then coincide with the linguistic dating of the Gathas. Similarly, the 10th c. Suda, which cites no one but provides a date of "500 years before Plato" for one of its two Zoroasters. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... A scholium, plural scholia (Greek: comment, lecture), is a grammatical, critical, or explanatory comment, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which is inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author as a gloss. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... George Syncellus (died after 810) was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic. ... Hermippus, the one-eyed, Athenian writer of the Old Comedy, flourished during the Peloponnesian War. ... Xanthus of Lydia (also spelled Xanthos) was a native Lydian historian and logographer who, during the mid-fifth century BC, wrote works on the history of Lydia known as Lydiaka. ... Another article concerns Eudoxus of Cyzicus. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ...

z:^  From a letter of the Universal House of Justice, Department of the Secretariat, May 13, 1979 to Mrs. Gayle Woolson published in
Hornby, Helen, ed. (1983), Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File, New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, ISBN 8185091463, <http://bahai-library.com/?file=hornby_lights_guidance>. p. 501.

References

  1. ^ a b c d Schmitt 2003.
  2. ^ Bailey 1953, pp. 40-42.
  3. ^ a b Mayrhofer 1977, pp. 43-53.
  4. ^ a b Schlerath 1977, pp. 133-135.
  5. ^ Markwart 1930, pp. 7ff.
  6. ^ Gershevitch 1964, p. 38.
  7. ^ Shahbazi 1977, pp. 25-26.
  8. ^ Gershevitch 1964, pp. 36-37.
  9. ^ cf. Boyce 1975, pp. 2-26.
  10. ^ cf. Gronke 1993, p. 59-60.
  11. ^ Frye 1992, p. 8.
  12. ^ Khlopin 1992, pp. 107-110.
  13. ^ Sarianidi 1987, p. 54.
  14. ^ Boyce 1975, p. 1.
  15. ^ Malandra 2005
  16. ^ Williams Jackson 1899, p. 130-131.
  17. ^ Stausberg 2002, p. I.58
  18. ^ Watkins 2006, p. ??.
  19. ^ Blackburn 2005, p. ??.
  20. ^ Hart 2000, p. x,464.
  21. ^ Taherzadeh 1976, p. 3.
  22. ^ Buck 1998.
  23. ^ Burnouf 1833, p. 13.
  24. ^ Humbach 1991, p. I.18.
  25. ^ Williams Jackson 1899, p. 162.
  26. ^ a b Shahbazi 1977, p. 26.
  27. ^ Shahbazi 1977, p. 32.
  28. ^ Shahbazi 1977, p. 33.
  29. ^ a b Williams Jackson 1896, p. 2.
  30. ^ a b Williams Jackson 1896, p. 3.

Bibliography

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  • Beck, Roger (2005). "Zoroaster, as perceived by the Greeks". Encyclopaedia Iranica. New York: iranica.com. 
  • Blackburn, Simon, ed. (2005), The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed.), London: OUP
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