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Encyclopedia > Zoosexuality and the law

Zoosexuality and the law looks at the laws governing human-animal sexual interaction (also sometimes known as bestiality or zoophilia) around the world. Leda and the Swan, a 16th century copy after a lost painting by Michelangelo. ...


Because it is easy to determine when there is a law against, but (for reasons discussed) often less easy to reliably identify when it is legally acceptable, this article focuses upon laws against zoosexual activity and does not attempt to address where it may be legal. Only in a few confirmed cases, where it is clearly permitted, will these be stated.

Contents

Background to the legal framework

Zoosexuality

Main article: Zoosexuality

Zoosexuality is the spectrum of human-animal sexual interaction. Other than for breeding or veterinary purposes, in many countries humans are frowned upon if they interact with a non-human animal in this manner, and yet clinical research strongly suggests that for at least some such people, this is a type of emotional and lifestyle bond that they are drawn to, or a sexual orientation, and that often there is no force or coercion involved. Other research suggests that in such 'relationships' often the animal gains or is at the least not harmed. According to some researchers, in such relationships "one seems forced to conclude, the animal derives a considerable psychical[1] and/or emotional pleasure from sexual contact with a being of a higher nervous, emotional, and intellectual organization," described further in the article zoosexuality. Against this, there are regular reports in the press of what may be termed animal rape, torture, or sexual abuse, often of an extreme nature, described further in the article zoosadism. Look up Zoosexuality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Zoosexuality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In most modern usages of the word spectrum, there is a unifying theme of between extremes at either end. ... Sexual orientation describes the direction of an individuals sexuality, often in relation to their own sex or gender. ... Look up Zoosexuality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ernest Bornemann (1990, cited by Rosenbauer 1997) coined the term zoosadism for those who derive pleasure from inflicting pain on an animal, sometimes with a sexual component. ...


Historically, sex with animals has been seen negatively in the West, generally either as a religious offense against God, or as a suspect or abusive act unsuited to the civilized world. Both of these are generally held societal views which persist to the present time.


A pivotal researcher in the field, Hani Miletski describes[2] how: "Throughout the literature review, it is very obvious that authors perceive sexual relations with animals in very different ways. Definitions of various behaviors and attitudes are often conflicting, leaving the reader confused. Terms such as 'sodomy,' 'zoorasty,' 'zoosexuality,' as well as 'bestiality' and 'zoophilia' are often used, each having a different meaning depending on the author." Vern Bullough, a renowned professor emeritus who reviewed her work, states:[3] "It seems clear from Miletski's summary of the existing literature that very little is actually known about bestiality and there is not anything approaching a consensus as to why animal-human sexual contacts occur... many of the existing reports and studies should be classified more as pseudo-science than serious research." Hani Miletski (1962 - ) is a sexologist, and sex therapist living in Bethesda maryland USA. She specializes as a trainer and supervisor in the field, addiction, and also works within the criminal justice system. ... Vern L. Bullough is an American historian and sexologist. ...


Historical and cultural context

Historically, the societal view on zoosexuality has been dominated by Western views on morality, which can often be traced back to religious influences and more specifically to the Judeo-Christian-Islamic traditions under which it was viewed as an abomination and breach of God's will. During the Middle Ages this led to people being burned for zoosexual activity, viewed on a par with homosexuality under the term "sodomy", as as one of the most horrific acts possible from a religious point of view. This article covers the historical and cultural aspects of zoophilia and zoosexuality (also known as bestiality), from prehistory onwards. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ...


In other cultures, it was at times accepted, or tolerated, and at other times taboo or punished, and this varied very widely. A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) against words, objects, actions, discussions, or people that are considered undesirable by a group, culture, or society. ...


In more recent centuries the subject was studied as a medical aberration, some form of throwback or degeneracy within medicine, and finally within the 20th century, came to be recognized as a sexual orientation in many cases. Throwback may refer to: Atavism A retro style Throwback Entertainment, a video game publisher Category: ... Sexual orientation describes the direction of an individuals sexuality, often in relation to their own sex or gender. ...


Clinical and scientific context

In discussing arguments for and against zoosexual activity, the "British Journal of Sexual Medicine" commented over 30 years ago, "We are all supposed to condemn bestiality, though only rarely are sound medical or psychological factors advanced." (Jan/Feb 1974, p.43)


People's views appear to depend significantly upon the nature of their interest and nature of exposure to the subject. People who have been exposed to zoosadism, who are unsympathetic to alternate lifestyles in general, or who know little about zoosexuality, often regard it as an extreme form of animal abuse and/or indicative of serious psychosexual issues.[4] Mental health professionals and personal acquaintances of zoophiles who see their relationships over time tend to be less critical, and sometimes supportive.[4] Ethologists who study and understand animal behaviour and body language, have documented animal sexual advances to human beings and other species, and tend to be matter-of-fact about animal sexuality and animal approaches to humans; their research into animal behavior, emotion and sexuality is generally supportive of some of the claims by zoophiles regarding animal cognition, behaviour, and sexual/relational/emotional issues. Ernest Bornemann (1990, cited by Rosenbauer 1997) coined the term zoosadism for those who derive pleasure from inflicting pain on an animal, sometimes with a sexual component. ... The following is a partial list of lifestyles that can be found in the 21st century. ... Cruelty to animals refers to treatment which causes unacceptable suffering to animals. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior considered as a branch of zoology. ... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour (particularly of social animals such as primates and canids), and is a branch of zoology. ... Emotion in animals considers the question, do animals feel, in the sense we understand it? Different answers have been suggested throughout human history, by animal lovers, scientists, and others who interact with animals, but the core question has proven hard to answer since we can neither obtain spoken answers, nor... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ...


Attitudes outside science are discussed in greater length in the article on zoophilia. Leda and the Swan, a 16th century copy after a lost painting by Michelangelo. ...


Legal context

Laws on zoosexuality tend to be shaped by three main factors:

  • Animal welfare concerns
  • Personal moral views of shapers of opinion
  • Cultural beliefs about the act

Issues confusing the matter are that such research as is available is not widely known, and that cases which come to public light may not be representative of the whole spectrum of this behavior.


Posner (1996) states, "there is some evidence that bestiality was particularly reviled because of fear that it would produce monsters... At early common law, there was no offense of cruelty to animals... The focus of [cruelty to animals] statutes is different from that of the traditional sodomy statute; anticruelty statutes are concerned with both the treatment of the animal and with the offense to community standards, while anti-bestiality provisions embodied in the sodomy statutes are aimed only at offenses to community standards." [5] This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Cruelty to animals refers to treatment or standards of care that causes unwarranted or unnecessary suffering or harm to animals. ... A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ...


Animal welfare bodies usually, but not always, view zoosexuality or zoophilia as a matter of animal abuse, or at the least, of concern. A notable exception is the Swedish Animal Welfare Agency, which in 2005 addressed concerns over a surge in horse-ripping incidents by reviewing the matter and concluded that although animal cruelty legislation needed updating, a ban on zoosexual activity was not justified by research. Horse-ripping, or horse slashing, is a phenomenon involving serious injuries in horses, often involving mutilation of their genitalia. ...


Why is it difficult to list zoosexuality laws?

There are two main reasons why it is hard to be certain whether zoosexual acts are legal in a country or area. The terminology used in law may be vague, so it is not clear what is covered, and whilst it is usually clear if a specific law prohibits zoosexual activity, it is not always so clear (for several reasons) whether the absence of an obvious law means the opposite.


Vagueness of terms

Some countries list laws very clearly, such as the UK, which specifically prohibits penetration of a human being by the penis of an animal, and penetration of an animal by a human's penis.[6]


By contrast many countries are quite vague about the exact scope of law. Terms such as "sex with animals", "sexual contact",[7] "sodomy", "crime against nature",[8] or "bestiality"[9] are significantly lacking in legal precision, and as with many laws, what may seem very straightforward from a distance is very vague close-up in a courtroom. This also makes them indeterminate and leaves it unclear what exact activities such terms might encompass.[10]


Difficulty in establishing legality

It is difficult to state with certainty which countries beyond these accept zoosexual actions in law. This is for many reasons, the main ones of which are:

1) Assumption of cruelty

Even if zoosexuality is not explicitly prohibited, there are often many other laws which can be used to effectively prosecute cases. For example, most countries have animal cruelty laws, and a prosecutor will argue that all zoosexual activity is animal abuse.[11]

2) Creative law use

Some countries have a range of historic but vague laws on their statute books (for example sodomy laws, "crime against nature" laws, or other laws based upon the historical religious beliefs of the culture), and will prosecute under that.[12] Even when these type of laws do not exist, it is often the case that a prosecution will be found on some ground or other, however contrived.[13] Three examples: A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  • In one case, prosecutors unable to find a basis for prosecution charged the individual with "sex with a minor". (It is unclear whether they considered the breeding of horses and operation of stud farms to be "living off the proceeds of prostitution of minors")
  • In the case of Kenneth Pinyan, reports suggest that despite seizing and examining carefully a large number of such videos from the property, no evidence of abuse was found. Not only was there no abuse found, but the state had no law against zoosexual activity at the time. None the less, as one news source comments:
"It was only after Pinyan died, when law enforcement looked for one way to punish his associates, that the legality of bestiality in Washington State became an issue ... The prosecutor's office wanted to charge [his friend] with animal abuse, but the police found no evidence of abused animals on the many videotapes they collected from his home. As there was no law against humanely [having sex with] one horse, the prosecutors could only charge [him] with trespassing."[14]
  • In a 2005 Florida case, media reports state: "Florida has no law prohibiting sex with animals, so [the defendant] is charged with ... disorderly conduct, specifically a 'breach of the peace by engaging in sexual activity with a dog'..." [15]
3) Non-codified cultural prohibitions

Often there are traditions or unwritten cultural beliefs, such as tribal law or custom, which although not codified as legislation, carry an equal weight to any other law. These are sometimes called customary law, and are one of the main four legal systems in the world. Kenneth Pinyan (June 22, 1960 - July 2, 2005) was a Seattle, Washington resident who engaged in sexual activity with full-size stallions, some of which he videotaped and distributed informally under the name Mr Hands. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 162 miles (260 km)  - Length 497 miles (800 km)  - % water 17. ... In law, custom, or customary law consists of established patterns of behaviour that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. ...

4) Social taboos

Finally, whether or not legal, there are often social mores which frown strongly upon it. For example, even in Sweden, where zoophilia has been legal since 1944, Beetz comments[16] on the findings of Ullerstam:

"It has to be noted in this context, that not having laws against a behavior and acceptance of it by society are two completely different matters... no acceptance of the persons engaging in this kind of sexual activity was adopted by the population. [...] Furthermore, Ullerstam referred to alleged evidence that showed, that many remarkable men had sexual experiences with animals and had to live a life in constant fear because of that. Those man had been widely respected, but would have lost everything if their activities would have become known; all their great contributions would have been forgotten due to a 'primitive moral reaction'."

For these reasons, this article only asserts legality where it is both confirmed and openly acknowledged custom and law that zoosexuality is legal, and where in fact it is openly confirmed, acknowledged or able to be practiced.


Overview of legislation

Laws in the West are in flux at the moment. Some countries such as the UK have recently (2002) relaxed their laws, whilst others (several US states) have recently introduced new ones where none previously existed.


A key factor seems to be the motive behind the change: in the UK the motive was a complete review of all sex offences, which concluded that a life sentence was inappropriately harsh. By contrast in Arizona USA, the motive for legislation was a "spate of recent cases" [10], and the Arizona legislator is quoted in that source as stating: Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...

"Arizona appears to be in the minority of states that does not make sex with animals a crime. That doesn't necessarily mean we're wrong. But why shouldn't we be in line with everybody else if the rest of the nation thinks it's a problem?"

Common reasons given for laws

In cultures with a strong background in Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), personal or cultural beliefs about God's Biblical laws or God's plans for human sexuality are a strong influencing factor. Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple), Dharmic (dark yellow), and Taoic (light yellow) religions in each country. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... This article is primarily about religious attitudes to sexual morality. ...


Against this, in some countries (notably the United States), courts have ruled that views on morality are not sufficient justification for law (Lawrence vs. Texas) but in other cases (Muth v. Frank) have ruled adversely to a broader reading of that case. Holding A Texas law prohibiting homosexual sodomy violated the liberty under the Fourteenth Amendment of adults to engage in private intimate conduct. ... Muth v. ...


A second major reason is the strong desire of society to outlaw and punish animal cruelty and animal abuse. Cultural and personal assumption, lack of informed knowledge, and cases of zoosadism have left society as a whole wary or hostile towards any belief that animals may engage in sex with humans on a mutual or non-abusive basis. (The article on zoosexuality considers research in this area in more depth). A factor in this is that prior research, often performed only on known incarcerated violent abuser populations and mis-cited by parties with vested interests, and described by professor emeritus Vern Bullough as "more as pseudo-science than serious research"[17] and author assumption, was used for many decades as proof that zoosexual activity should be classified as a rare but profound sexual pathology. Cruelty to animals refers to treatment which causes unacceptable suffering to animals. ... Cruelty to animals refers to treatment which causes unacceptable suffering to animals. ... Ernest Bornemann (1990, cited by Rosenbauer 1997) coined the term zoosadism for those who derive pleasure from inflicting pain on an animal, sometimes with a sexual component. ... Look up Zoosexuality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leda and the Swan, a 16th century copy after a lost painting by Michelangelo. ... Vern L. Bullough is an American historian and sexologist. ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... The argument from ignorance, also known as argumentum ad ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance [1]) or argument by lack of imagination, is a logical fallacy in which it is claimed that a premise is true only because it has not been proven false, or that a premise is false only because...


Studies suggest that zoosadism, or wanton abuse, torture, violent rape or cruelty to animals, for example pet abuse or animal crushing, is a potentially strong indicator for abuse towards humans. Despite investigation, a similar link has not been shown with sexual activity in general or with zoophiles more specifically. Ernest Bornemann (1990, cited by Rosenbauer 1997) coined the term zoosadism for those who derive pleasure from inflicting pain on an animal, sometimes with a sexual component. ... Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he...


A major social factor in the proposed introduction of laws is the coming to light of specific cases to public attention; this was the case in Washington, Missouri and Arizona USA, and also behind recent attempts in 2004 to change the law in Holland.[18] In such cases it often does not seem to matter whether there was abuse or not,[19] or how rare or commonly such matters arise. Rather it seems to be a case of moral panic, or "not in my back yard." This article deals with the U.S. state. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I shall stand fast[1] Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe National animal: Lion Location of the Netherlands  (dark orange) – in the European Union  (light orange) – at the European continent  (EU + clear) Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official languages Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional... A moral panic is a reaction by a group of people based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behavior or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. ... NIMBY (an initialism for Not In My Back Yard) is an acronym for the phenomenon in which residents oppose a development as inappropriate for their local area, but by implication do not oppose such development in anothers. ...


Overall much of the concern can be summarized as coming from lack of knowledge, combined with repugnance at the concept of human-animal sexuality, presented in a societal context of religious or social abhorrance, and a desire to reduce abuse. The wisdom of repugnance is a phrase describing the notion that an intuitive (or deep-seated) negative response to a thing (e. ...


Laws against zoosexuality

Zoosexuality is permitted in a few countries, such as Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. In other countries, such as Germany and Russia, zoosexuality is legal, but zoosexual pornography is illegal. Pornographic movies Pornography (Porn) (from Greek πόρνη (porne) prostitute and γραφή (grafe) writing), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ...


Elsewhere in the developed world, it is a prudent assumption that it is illegal or at the least against social custom.


There are also commonly laws against forcing another person to engage in zoosexual activity, especially minors (usually considered equivalent to rape), and laws related to exposing others (either non-consensually or minors) to the sight of a sexual act. In some jurisdictions, laws against zoosexual conduct also include provisions for seizure of animals where convicted.


Sexual handling of an animal for the purposes of veterinary practice, or animal husbandry (breeding), is normally exempted where such laws exist. In public discussion for the recently passed Oregon law, however, one animal shelter's spokesperson wanted the husbandry exemption kept out, as he was concerned that someone might use these "accepted farming practices" as a legal loophole to then have (legal) sexual contact with an animal only for personal enjoyment. One of the legislators responded by asking if they were trying to outlaw an act (of sexual contact), or a state of mind. The veterinary and husbandry exemption was left out of Oregon's law in the final, enacted version. Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ...


National laws

Legality
Australia Laws are determined at the state level. Illegal in much of the country, other than Australian Capital Territory and Jervis Bay Territory which do not explicitly outlaw it.[20]
Belgium Legal. However the spreading of zoosexual pornography is not according to a court ruling in 2006 against a man who frequently had sex with dogs in a shelter he had worked for. He was acquitted from the charge of animal abuse and was only found guilty of violating public decency by spreading zoosexual pornographic material he had made at the shelter, which he did mainly via his website under the nickname Freki. The Belgian animal rights organisation Gaia, which filed the complaint, appealed unsuccessfully against the court ruling. [11]
Cambodia Legal. As of 2005 police released a man suspected of zoosexual activity stating that while unusual, falling in love with a dog is not illegal. [12]
Canada Illegal (section 160 [13] forbidding "bestiality". The term is not defined, so it is not quite clear what it might cover)
Denmark Legal. [14] A 2006 bid by the Danish People's Party to outlaw bestiality failed after the a report by the Danish Animal Ethics Council determined that existing laws were sufficient protection against abuse. [citation needed]
Finland Legal. [15]
France Possibly illegal since 2004, law is unclear, no court cases since. Article 521-1 of the code pénal states : The act, be it public or not, of causing maltreatment of a severe or of a sexual nature to an animal(...) is punished by 2 years imprisonment and 30,000 € fine. It is unclear whether sexual intercourse constitutes maltreatment. Corridas and cock fights are still legal however in regions historically affiliated with such practices. From 1791 to 2004 it was legal to harm animals in a sexual manner as long as it was not severe. Before 1791 bestiality was punished by death to the human and animal perpetrators.
Germany Legal. Sex with animals is not specifically outlawed (but trading pornography showing it is, cf. §184a StGB). In West Germany, the law making it a crime (§175b StGB, which also outlawed homosexual acts) was removed in 1969. East Germany before reunification had no law against zoosexual activity; zoosexual pornography, however, was very restricted. Certain barriers are set by the Animal Protection Law (Tierschutzgesetz).
Ghana Illegal. As of 2006 "Unnatural carnal knowledge" is not permitted under the Ghana criminal code. This includes "homosexuality, lesbianism and bestiality" [16]
Mexico Legal. (Carl Franz, "The People's Guide to Mexico", 1988. pg. 398) [17]
Netherlands Legal.
New Zealand Illegal, under a variety of sections contained in the Crimes Act 1961. Section 143, makes "bestiality" an offence, but as in Canada, the meaning of bestiality is derived from case law. There are also associated offences of indecency with an animal (section 144) and compelling an indecent act with an animal (section 142A). It is interesting to note that in the 1989 Crimes Bill considered abolishing bestiality as a criminal offence, and for it to be treated as a mental health issue. In Police v Sheary (1991) 7 CRNZ 107 (HC) Fisher J considered that "[t]he community is generally now more tolerant and understanding of unusual sexual practices that do not harm others."
Norway Legal. It was formerly illegal, but made legal in 1972 together with making homosexuality legal.
Sweden Legal. It was formerly illegal, but made legal in 1944 together with making homosexuality legal. A 2005 report by the Swedish Animal Welfare Agency for the Swedish government expressed strong concerns over the increase in reports of horse-ripping incidents, although noting that "the rise in documented cases did not necessarily mean that there was a de facto increase", and distinguished zoosexual activity from incidents involving physical injury (zoosadism). The Animal Welfare Agency gave as its opinion that current animal cruelty legislation needed updating as it was not sufficiently protecting animals from abuse, but concluded that on balance it was not appropriate to call for a ban. [18]
United Kingdom Illegal. However the Sexual Offences Act 2003 section 69 reduced the sentence to a maximum of 2 years imprisonment for penile penetration of or by an animal.
United States As with Australia, laws are determined at the state level. Many U.S. states[21] explicitly outlaw sex with animals (sometimes under the term of "sodomy" or "unnatural crime against nature"). Others do not.

Many U.S. state laws against "sodomy" (generally in the context of heterosexual sodomy, oral sex, anal sex and all homosexual conduct) were repealed or struck down by the courts in Lawrence v. Texas, which ruled that perceived moral disapproval on its own was an insufficient justification for banning a private act.[22] On the other hand, the 2004 conviction of a man in Florida (State vs. Mitchell) demonstrated that even in states with no specific laws against zoosexual acts, animal cruelty statutes would instead be applied, and Muth v. Frank showed that some courts might be "desperate to avoid the plain consequences" of Lawrence and may make "narrow and strained" efforts to avoid seeing it as relevant to other consensual private acts beyond the realm of homosexuality.[23] Capital Canberra Government Const. ... The Jervis Bay Territory is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Danish Peoples Party (Danish: Dansk Folkeparti) is a nationalist political party in Denmark of declared topstyring (authoritarian, rule from the top, feudal). ... Bull attacking a matador Bullfighting or tauromachy (Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a blood sport that involves, most of the times, professional performers (matadores) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... GDR redirects here. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mental health is a concept that refers to a human individuals emotional and psychological well-being. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Horse-ripping, or horse slashing, is a phenomenon involving serious injuries in horses, often involving mutilation of their genitalia. ... The Sexual Offences Act 2003 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, passed in 2003. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Holding A Texas law prohibiting homosexual sodomy violated the privacy and liberty of adults, under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, to engage in private intimate conduct. ... Muth v. ...


Finally, the 1999 Philip Buble case showed that when a self-confessed zoophile is assaulted and the assault is motivated by his zoophilia (ie hate crime), a jury can convict the assailant and a judge give a stern sentence, despite the controversial nature of the cause. In Maine, USA in 2000, there was a court case in which Frank Buble attacked his son Philip Buble with an iron bar, allegedly because of his sons sexual relationship with the family dog, Lady. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ...

Zambia Illegal. Penal code Cap 87 Section 115 forbids homosexuality and other "Unnatural Offences" including "carnal knowledge of an animal". [19]

Pornography laws

Main articles with legal sections: Obscenity, Pornography, Legal status of internet pornography

Animal pornography is governed in the United States by the same Miller test and obscenity laws as any other form of pornography. In many countries such as Canada, Hungary and the Netherlands, such material is legal, although in some countries where zoosexual acts are legal, zoosexual pornography is not (Belgium, Germany, Russia). The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Pornographic movies Pornography (Porn) (from Greek πόρνη (porne) prostitute and γραφή (grafe) writing), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... Due to the international nature of the Internet, Internet pornography carries with it special issues with regard to the law. ... The Miller test is the United States Supreme Courts test for determining whether speech or expression can be labeled obscene, in which case it is not protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and can be prohibited. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Legality of any given pornographic material has three components: legality of production, legality of sale and transportation, and legality of ownership.


In general, animal pornography is legal to produce anywhere that zoosexual activity and the creation of pornography in general are both legal. Laws concerning sale, transmission and ownership vary more widely.

Sale and
distribution
Ownership Relevant law
/ notes
Belgium Legal Unknown, possibly legal In the same case cited above [20], the man concerned was fined for "violating public decency legislation" as a result of distributing pornography, implying that distribution is illegal, but was not fined for ownership.
Canada Unknown Legal
Germany Illegal Legal §184 StGB [21]
United States As with all pornography, considered obscene if it does not meet the standards of the Miller Test and therefore is not openly sold, mailed, distributed or imported across state boundaries or within states which prohibit it. Under U.S. law, 'distribution' could include transmission across the internet. However may be some doubt.[24] Usually legal (unless prohibited by state law). Interstate transport or import of pornography even for personal use is technically an offence.[25] various

Erotic art, such as animal pornography in cartoons and the like, which does not require the recording of an actual sexual incident, are not usually considered sex with animals by the law, and so their status depends upon more general laws such as legal limits upon obscenity or pornography alone, and the thin line between erotic art and pornography. The contrasting views between cultures are highlighted by the case of Omaha the Cat Dancer, a furry comic book, which was simultaneously the subject of a raid by Toronto police for pornographic depiction of bestiality,[26] and the subject of praise by the New Zealand Office of Film and Literature Classification, which found it suitable for "all ages", for its mature depiction of relationships and sexuality. Obscenity has several connotations. ... The Miller test is the United States Supreme Courts test for determining whether speech or expression can be labeled obscene, in which case it is not protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and can be prohibited. ... Omaha the Cat Dancer vol. ... Furry fandom is a subculture distinguished by its enjoyment of anthropomorphic animal characters. ... See comedian Stand up comedian List of Comedians List of British comedians comics comic book comic strip underground comics alternative comics web comic sprite comics manga graphic novel List of comic characters This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... The Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC) is the government agency in New Zealand that is responsible for classification of all films, videos, publications, and some video games in New Zealand. ...


Religious laws

main articles: Zoophilia and religion, Religious law

In certain religions, sex with animals was part of the legal framework of a theocratic state, and as such the matter also falls under religious law. This is particularly the case for Abrahamic religions such as Judaism, Christianity and Islam, although many other religions and traditions such as Hindu, Buddhism and even Satanism have religious views and rules on the matter which did not form part of a national legislative regime. In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple), Dharmic (dark yellow), and Taoic (light yellow) religions in each country. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology[]. Buddhism is also known as Buddha Dharma or Dhamma, which means the teachings of the Awakened One in Sanskrit and Pali, the languages of ancient Buddhist texts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Historical and other laws

In some countries laws existed against single males living with female animals. For example, an old Peruvian law prohibited single males from keeping a female alpaca in their residence. Binomial name Vicugna pacos (Linnaeus, 1758) The Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated breed of South American camel-like ungulates, derived from the wild vicuña. ...


Impact of laws

Impact of anti-zoosexuality laws has been in four main areas:

  1. A culture of fear, ignorance or witch-hunting, in which the presence of a law becomes evidence that a group are inherently deserving of a law. (A similar effect was noted in respect of the UK's Section 28 law on homosexuality when passed).
  2. The placing of such people outside the law has led to inhibitions on zoosexuals' ability to report animal abuse (due to unwillingness to come to legal attention as a witness or otherwise), or alternatively increases zoosexuals' vulnerability to blackmail (a proportion are reported by vindictive ex-partners and the like, or the threat used to obtain advantage).
  3. Reduced ability to determine what, if any, support, counselling or other assistance may be appropriate, or to provide or seek the same openly. (A notable exception is in Germany where zoosexuality is legal, and a telephone based charitable crisis support service similar to Samaritans is available)
  4. The personal impact of living with such fears - of loss of partners, or criminal charges - and the need to maintain secrecy even from loved ones (due to lack of legal protection), is a stressor to zoosexuals and their relationships.

Connected with this, fear of consequences is reported to prevent zoosexuals from seeking clinical advice, such as raising zoosexuality or losses connected to it, with doctors or therapists.[27] This is similar to the manner in which homosexuals' issues are under reported in countries where homosexuality is punishable. Sir Ian McKellen with Michael Cashman at the 1988 Gay Rights March on Manchester in protest of Section 28. ... Samaritans (formerly The Samaritans) is a British and Irish-based registered charity aimed at providing emotional support to anyone in distress or at risk of suicide. ... // Psychotherapy is a 20th century interpersonal, relational intervention designed to provide an increased sense of well-being and /or reduction of subjective discomforting experience. ...


In one Canadian incident, exemplifying the cost of such laws and the witch-hunt they can incite, the person was reported to authorities on the basis of a web page allegedly seen by a close relative on their computer. In fact no substantive evidence of any activity was offered, nor was any testimony of abuse offered, and the charges were withdrawn within a relatively few weeks. However by that time, the pets in their home had all been seized. One was euthenized (the owner being no longer present to tend to the animal's known medical condition which was time-demanding), whilst another had been forcibly rehoused and was not returned (despite dropping of all charges). The owner, reported to lack means to seek compensation, seems to have received none. PET, see PET. For the comedy TV series, see Pets (tv programme). ... Euthanasia (Greek, good death) is the practice of killing a person or animal, in a painless or minimally painful way, for merciful reasons, usually to end their suffering. ...


Notable cases

There are many cases of zoosexuality and the law, so only the most notable are related here.

  • "Freddie the Dolphin" (1991, UK) - man accused of masturbating a well known tame dolphin at sea. Charged with a "lewd act". Acquitted. Expert witnesses testified male dolphins use their erections not just sexually, but socially as well, and no sexual inference could be drawn. Judge summing up said of the £30,000 trial cost, "this has been the most expensive lesson in dolphin sociology that he has ever heard of". [22]
  • Kenneth Pinyan (2005, USA) - man died following anal penetration by stallion. Police determined that no cruelty took place. None the less, moral panic led to rapid introduction of laws in the state involved and a search for grounds to charge his companion with at least an offence of some kind.[19]
  • Sudan, February 2006 - man caught having sex with a neighbour's goat, is ordered by the council of elders to pay the neighbour a dowry of 5,000 Sudanese dinars ($50) and marry the animal. [23]
  • Cambodia, 2005) - man caught having a "passionate embrace" in bed with dog, by wife, confessed he loved the dog more and they separated. Cambodian police commented: "As police, we could only solve the problem of his wife then wanting a divorce. We cannot solve the problem of his relationship with his dog, because under Cambodian law it is not strictly illegal... It is amazing, but this husband is not crazy. It seems he is a passionate human being who looked at a dog, and the more he looked, the more passionate he became." [24]

Genera See article below. ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... Kenneth Pinyan (June 22, 1960 - July 2, 2005) was a Seattle, Washington resident who engaged in sexual activity with full-size stallions, some of which he videotaped and distributed informally under the name Mr Hands. ... A moral panic is a reaction by a group of people based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behavior or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... The term Elder (or its equivalent in another language) is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to the grooms at the time of their marriage. ...

See also

Look up Zoosexuality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leda and the Swan, a 16th century copy after a lost painting by Michelangelo. ... World laws on homosexuality US laws on homosexuality Same-sex unions in Europe. ... A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Due to the international nature of the Internet, Internet pornography carries with it special issues with regard to the law. ... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ... A sexual norm can refer to a personal or a social norm. ... Human-animal marriage, i. ...

References

  1. ^ The term psychical is used, meaning, "of the psyche". Not to be confused with "physical, meaning, "of the body".
  2. ^ Miltetski, 1999, p.1
  3. ^ Review of Miletski's book, published in Journal of Sex Research, May 2003. (Online version)
  4. ^ a b The finding that attitudes to alternate sexualities correlate strongly with nature of contact and beliefs, is stated in a variety of research into zoophilia and also mirrored in societal attitudes towards homosexuality, which have been more thoroughly researched over a longer time period. Thus Herek, who established the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale in psychology, states "The ATLG and its subscales are consistently correlated with other theoretically-relevant constructs. Higher scores (more negative attitudes) correlate significantly with high religiosity, lack of contact with gay men and lesbians, adherence to traditional sex-role attitudes, belief in a traditional family ideology, and high levels of dogmatism (Herek, 1987a, 1987b, 1988, 1994; Herek & Glunt, 1993; Herek & Capitanio, 1995, 1996)" [1], and that "the strongest predictor of positive attitudes toward homosexuals was that the interviewee knew a gay man or lesbian. The correlation held across each demographic subset represented in the survey--sex, education level, age--bar one: political persuasion. [Conservative men and women]" [2]
  5. ^ Posner, Richard, A Guide to America's Sex Laws, The University of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN 0-226-67564-5. Page 207.
  6. ^ "Sexual Offences Act 2003", Office of Public Sector Information. Section 69.
  7. ^ "Sexual contact" - Arizona
  8. ^ "Crime against nature" - Michigan
  9. ^ "Bestiality" - Canada
  10. ^ Examples of some hypothetical borderline cases:
    • Should lying naked in contact with an animal, as many people do whose pets sleep next to them, be counted as "sexual contact"?
    • For people who finding the sensation of fur to be erotic, does this automatically render any contact with animals (eg scratching their heads) a felony?
    • What should the law make of the many pet owners and breeders who masturbate their animals, not for their own pleasure, but because they view that as the ethical, responsible way for a person who owns an animal to handle animal sexuality, and who would see it as a form of cruelty (similar to refusing to squeeze anal glands) to refuse to acknowledge the discomfort to an animal of unrelieved libido [3]? (And would the morality of the act depend on whether it is 'enjoyed' or not? If so, what about horse breeders?)
    • If a girl finds she gets sexually aroused by the feelings and sensuality of riding a horse bareback (as is often noted to be the case), is she enjoying "sexual contact" with an animal?
    • Is kissing sexual? Does society agree whether allowing a dog to engage in a more than passing kiss with a human is "sexual contact" or a "crime against nature", should the human not find it repugnant?
    These and other examples may serve to indicate not what should or should not be allowed, but rather, that the apparent clarity of an obvious term, is extremely unclear in practice unless very carefully defined.
  11. ^ The argument that "all sexual activity with animals is automatically abuse" was made for example, in 1) the 2004 case of State vs. Mitchell (Florida), 2) the 2004 Pony case in Utrecht, Holland (cited below), and 3) the 2006 Washington state law which asserts as its foundational premise that "animal cruelty in the first degree is committed when a person knowingly engages in sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal." SB-6417 2006
  12. ^ For example a man found to have committed a zoosexual rape of a sheep in Michigan 2006 was not charged with animal cruelty, but with crimes against nature. It is notable that a first offence of animal cruelty, which includes any "unnecessary neglect, torture, or pain", carries only up to a 93 day sentence (MI 750.50 section 2(f) and section 4), whereas a zoosexual act prosecuted as a crime against nature is capable of a 20 year sentence.
  13. ^ From alt.sex.bestiality [4]: "Sometimes prosecutors are imaginative, and will creatively apply irrelevant laws. For instance, statutory rape if the animal is less than 18 years old."
  14. ^ "The Animal In You", The Stranger, February-March 2006. Retrieved on 2006-04-30.
  15. ^ http://www.guidehorse.org/news_guide_dog_abuse.htm
  16. ^ Ullerstam, 1966, p.119, cited by Beetz, 2002, Love Sex and Violence with Animals, section 5.2.13
  17. ^ A contemporary look at sex between humans and animals - Understanding Bestiality & Zoophilia by Hani Miletski. Book review, Journal of Sex Research, May, 2003 by Vern L. Bullough [5]
  18. ^ Washington on the back of the Kenneth Pinyan case, Missouri following the Jerry Springer Show episode 'I married a Horse', Arizona following "A spate of incidents" [6], and Holland following a case in Utrecht: "MPs were outraged at the start of March when a man caught raping a pony in Utrecht could not be punished because he had not broken any law... Veerman will now investigate the possibility of adding sex with animals to the list of acts classified as animal cruelty, news agency ANP reported." [7]
  19. ^ a b Eg Washington where the police looked for abuse but failed to find any evidence: Pinyan was the passive partner in an act of sexual penetration by a stallion videotaped by a friend. This was the only incident of its kind in the state's history, and it could be said the human, who died from internal injuries, was the victim of his own act. Police concluded despite examination of many video tapes that there was no evidence of animal abuse and that the only crime was the relatively minor one of trespass. None the less, almost instantly, legislation was proposed in a form of moral panic, covering every aspect conceivable: the act, the videotaping of the act, the knowing granting of permission for the act, the observing of the act. SB-6417 2006. In a similar manner, no prosecution for cruelty was ultimately found to be viable either, or indeed brought, in the televised case of the self-confessed Missouri zoophile highlighted on 'Jerry Springer', nor in the self-confessed Philip Buble case. Cases such as these have led commentators to observe that the connection between zoosexuality and cruelty seems assumptive at best.
  20. ^ Ref: Halsbury's Laws of Australia #9 page 247662:
    • Criminal offence: New South Wales (Crimes Act 1900 s79, not more than 14 years imprisonment), Northern Territory (Criminal Code s138, not more than 3 years imprisonment), Queensland (Criminal Code s211: "carnal knowledge of an animal", not more than 5 years imprisonment), South Australia (Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 s69, "buggery with an animal", not more than 10 years imprisonment), Tasmania (Criminal Code s122(b), not more than 21 years imprisonment), Victoria (Crimes Act 1958 s59, not more than 5 years imprisonment), Western Australia (Criminal Code s181: "carnal knowledge of an animal", not more than 7 years imprisonment).
    • Other: Australian Capital Territory and Jervis Bay Territory have "no equivalent provisions".
  21. ^ US State Laws where known:
    • Misdemeanor: Arkansas (Ark. Stat. Ann. @5-14-122 (2005): "Bestiality" - Class A Misdemeanor), California (Penal Code Section 286.5 "Crime Against Nature" - misdemeanor), Connecticut (CT Penal Code 952.53a-73a "Sexual assault in the fourth degree" - Class A Misdemeanor), Iowa (2005 Merged Code 717C.1 "Bestiality" Aggravated Misdemeanor - up to 2yrs and $500-$5000 fine), Kansas (K.S.A. @21-3505 "Criminal Sodomy" Class B Nonperson Misdemeanor), Minnesota (Minn. Stat. @609.294, (1993): Either fine of not more than $3,000 or sentence of not more than 1 year), Missouri (Mo Rev. Stat. @566-111 "Unlawful Sex with an Animal" - Class A Misdemeanor (1st offense) thereafter Class D Felony), Nebraska (Neb. Statutes @28-1010 "Indecency with an animal" - Class III misdemeanor - up to 6 months and/or up to $500 fine), New York (NY CLS Penal @130.20 (1994): Class A misdemeanor), North Dakota (N.D. Cent. Code @12.1-20-12 "Deviate Sexual Act" is a Class A Misdemeanor), Oregon (Oregon Laws 2003 @167.333 "Sexual Assault of Animal" a class A misdemeanor), Utah (Bestiality 76-9-301.8: Class B Misdemeanor), Wisconsin (Wis. State. @944.17(2)(c) and (d)(1993) "Sexual Gratification" a class A misdemeanor).
    • Felony: Arizona (Sec.2 Title 13 Ch.14, 13-1411, "bestiality" defined as "sexual contact or oral sexual contact", class 6 felony unless minor involved in which case class 3 felony), Delaware (11 Del. C. @777 (1993): Class D Criminal felony), Georgia (O.C.G.A. @16-6-6 (1994): 1-5 yr. jail sentence), Idaho (Idaho Code @18-6605 (1994): "length of imprisonment in excess of 5 years is in discretion of court."), Illinois (720 ILCS 5/12-35 (2003): Sexual Conduct (or Contact) with an Animal - Class D Felony), Louisiana (RS 14:89 (2003) "Crime Against Nature" up to $2,000 fine and/or 5yrs with or without hard labor), Maine (17-A M.R.S. @ 1031: under Cruelty to Animals - Class D Crime), Maryland (Unnatural/Perverted Sexual Acts Article 27, Section 553: Up to $1,000 fine, max of 10 years prison), Massachusetts (Mass. Ann. Laws ch. 272 @34 (1994) "Crime against Nature" prison term of not more than 20 years), Michigan (MCL @750.185 (1992): Jail sentence not more than 15 years), Mississippi (Miss. Code. Ann, @97-29-59: Sentence of not more than 10 years), Montana (Mont. Code. Ann, @45-5-505 (1994): 10 year sentence and/or $50,000 fine), North Carolina (N.C. Gen. Stat. @14-177 (1994): Class I felony. 3-10 yrs), Oklahoma (Okl. St. @21-886 (1994): "imprisonment not to exceed 10 years"), Rhode Island (R.I. Gen. Laws @11-10-1 (1993): 7-20 years), South Carolina (S.C. Code Ann. @16-15-120 (1993): 5 yrs jail and/or fine of at least $500), South Dakota (SD Codified Laws 22-22-42 (1995): "Bestiality" - Class 6 Felony 1st offense, Class 5 subsequent offenses), Virginia (Va. Code. Ann. @18.2-361 (1994): Class 6 Felony), Washington D.C. (DC Code @22-3502 (1994) ("Sexual Psychopath" chapter): Fine not more than $1000 and/or sentence of not more than 10 yrs), Washington (SB-6417, sexual contact defined as "animal cruelty", also likewise an offence to permit, abet, observe or record. Felony class C seriousness level III, seizure of animals).
    • Other legislation in progress as of 2006: New Jersey.
    • Believed illegal or 'other': Pennsylvania (18 Pa. C. S. @3101, 3123 and 3124 (1994)), Tennessee (Tenn. Code. Ann. @39-13-511 (1994) specifically mentioned under Public Indecency if done in a public place)
  22. ^ Sodomy laws in the U.S. Uniform Code of Military Justice however still stand, with the criteria being "penetration, however slight".
  23. ^ From main article Muth v. Frank - "The grounds for dismissal, that Lawrence had dealt specifically with homosexual sodomy and not other consensual private sexual activity between adults, were considered "narrow and strained" by at least one newspaper, the Boston Globe [8]. As legal scholar Matthew Franck observed, the writer of the opinion, Judge Daniel Manion, must have been "desperate to avoid the plain consequences of the [Supreme] Court's recent precedents on sexual liberty". "
  24. ^ U.S. prohibitions on distribution of sexual or obscene materials are as of 2005 in some doubt, having been ruled unconstitutional in United States v. Extreme Associates (a judgement which was overturned on appeal, December 2005).
  25. ^ United States v. Extreme Associates - protection laws not equated to a zone of personal privacy outside the house, or freedom to transport obscenia.
  26. ^ As noted, "furry", or anthropomorthic cartoon art, is not usually considered "bestiality".
  27. ^ For example this description by one person of difficulty seeking support after the loss of a dog to congenital kidney disease despite being able to confide in his wife: "I thought I was O.K., and then I burst into tears in the kitchen and couldn't stop crying. I didn't have any idea how much I loved [my dog] until she was gone... My work was suffering and my relationship with my wife was suffering... After I found myself idly wondering how I'd commit suicide (just as an intellectual exercise, you understand), I realized that something had to be done.... Eventually my doctor referred me to a free counselling service.... Eventually I told him of my sexual relationship with [my dog]. I have to confess that I was expecting him to denounce me and wheel out a straight-jacket."
    He continues, "But he surprised me by declaring happily that THAT was the reason I was so feeling so damned rotten. I hadn't lost a dog, I had lost a lover! And I couldn't express that pain to my friends because of the social taboo. Even my wife couldn't fully comprehend the extent of the loss I had suffered. So I was being forced to carry the pain of my loss all alone. That man saved my sanity, and possibly my life." [9]

 
 

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