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Encyclopedia > Zooarchaeology

Zooarchaeology (or Archaeozoology) is the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. The remains consist primarily of the hard parts of the body such as bones, teeth, and shells. Such remains may represent the food refuse of ancient populations as well as animals used for transportation, farm labor, clothing, decoration, or pets. Zooarchaeology is the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. ... Animalia redirects here. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... Various seashells The hard, rigid outer covering of certain animals is called a shell. ...


The study of these remains helps archaeologists understand past human subsistence strategies and economic interactions, and completes our picture of the kind of environments humans have inhabited.

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Anthropolology (from the Greek word , man or person+knowledge) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... The anthropologist Eric Wolf once characterized anthropology as the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the social sciences. ... Applied anthropology refers to the application of method and theory in anthropology to the analysis and solution of practical problems. ... Physical anthropology, sometimes called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cultural anthropology, also called social anthropology or socio-cultural anthropology, is one of four commonly recognized fields of anthropology, the holistic study of humanity. ... Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The following is a list of scientists and scholars of anthropology: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z John Adair Manuel Laranjeira Rodrigues de Areia Michael Asch...

Naming the discipline

The multi-disciplinary nature of this field is reflected in the disagreements over its name. One of the first clear references to this area of study was by Lubbock (1865) who used the term zoologico-archaeologist. The modern derivatives, such as zooarchaeology, zooarcheologie, or zooarchaeologia are probably the most commonly used terms in the Americas and reflect the anthropological perspective prevalent in their research. In Eurasia and Africa the term archaeozoology is more commonly seen, and this emphasises the biological nature of the animal remains. Other terms that are occasionally used are osteoarchaeology, bioarchaeology and ethnozoology. While these disputes may seem trivial, they reflect differences in the approach and perception of the same material (Reitz and Wing, 1999: 2-6). Anthropolology (from the Greek word , man or person+knowledge) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term bioarchaeology was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology, or the study of animal bones from archaeological sites. ...


Zooarchaeology and related fields

As can be seen from the discussion about the name that should be given to this discipline, zooarchaeology overlaps significantly with other areas of study. These include:

Anthropolology (from the Greek word , man or person+knowledge) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases. ... Zoology (rarely spelled zoölogy) is the biological discipline which involves the study of non-human animals. ...

Zooarchaeological analysis

Primary analysis of individual assemblages

A typical report based upon a faunal assemblage will include the following information:

In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Minimum Number of Individuals was defined by T.E. White in 1953. ... NISP Counts each bone and fragment as a unit. ... ABMAP, also known as the Animal Bone Metrical Archive Project, consists of a collection of metric data on the main domestic animals recorded at the University of Southampton, together with the data from some other sources, in particular the Museum of London Archaeology Services (MoLAS). ... Taphonomy is the study of the fate of the remains of organisms after they die. ... Paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases. ...

Wider areas of study

Such analyses provide the basis by which further interpretations can be made. Topics that have been addressed by zooarchaeologists include:

In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ... It has been suggested that Refractory disease be merged into this article or section. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: A material culture comprises physical objects from the past, the study of which is the basis of the discipline. ... The following is a list of subsistence techniques: Hunting and Gathering, also known as Foraging freeganism involves gathering of discarded food in the context of an urban environment gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields Cultivation Horticulture - plant cultivation, based on the... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...

References

  • Reitz, E.J and Wing, E.S. 1999. Zooarchaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Zooarchaeology - definition of Zooarchaeology in Encyclopedia (95 words)
Zooarchaeology is the study of animal remains from archaeological sites.
Such remains represent the food refuse of ancient populations as well as the use of animals transportation, decoration, or pets.
Zooarchaeology helps complete our picture of the way of life of ancient people and the kind of environments they inhabited.
Zooarchaeology Laboratory (365 words)
The zooarchaeology laboratory is the center for training undergraduate and graduate students in the major methods and techniques used in archaeological faunal analysis.
Research and training is designed to prepare students in the analysis of animal remains associated with archaeological sites, and from these analyses infer behavioral patterns of the inhabitants, understand their adaptations to the environments in which they lived, and reconstruct past environments.
Zooarchaeology of an early Colonial farmstead in Monmouth County, New Jersey by Institute grad student Rob Lore to compare two discrete temporal periods of occupation to document the transition from a self-sufficient farmstead to a more market-based participation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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