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Giraffes in Sydney's Taronga Zoo in 2002.
Giraffes in Sydney's Taronga Zoo in 2002.

A zoological garden, zoological park, menagerie, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. Look up zoo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x908, 354 KB)Giraffes in the Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x908, 354 KB)Giraffes in the Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia. ... Giraffes in front of Sydneys skyline. ...


The term zoological garden refers to zoology, the study of animals, a term deriving from the Greek zωο (Zōo – "animal") and λóγος (lógos – "study"). The abbreviation "zoo" was first used of the London Zoological Gardens, which opened for scientific study in 1828 and to the public in 1847.[1] Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... The giant London Zoo aviary London Zoo was the worlds first scientific zoo. ...


The number of major animal collections open to the public around the world now exceeds 1,000, around 80 percent of them in cities.[2]

Contents

History

Further information: Menagerie
The Versailles menagerie during the reign of Louis XIV in the 17th century
The Versailles menagerie during the reign of Louis XIV in the 17th century

The predecessor of the zoological garden is the menagerie, which has a long history from the ancient world to modern times. Menagerie is the term for a historical form of keeping wild and exotic animals in human captivity and therefore a predecessor of the modern zoological garden. ... Image File history File links Versailles_M2. ... Image File history File links Versailles_M2. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Menagerie is the term for a historical form of keeping wild and exotic animals in human captivity and therefore a predecessor of the modern zoological garden. ...


China and the Middle East

The Encyclopaedia Britannica writes that, in the second century BCE, the Chinese Empress Tanki had a "house of deer" built, and King Wen of Zhou kept a 1,500-acre zoo called Ling-Yu, or the Garden of Intelligence. Other well-known collectors of animals included King Solomon of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah, Kings Semirami and Ashurbanipal of Assyria, and King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylonia.[2] For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... King Wen of Zhou (chinese: 周文王, pinyin: zhou1 wen2 wang2) (1099-1050 BC) was the founder of the later 周朝 Zhou Dynasty. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian Aššur-bāni-apli, (b. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebechandrezzar II Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar () (c 630-562 B.C.E), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


Greece and Rome

By the fourth century BCE, zoos existed in most of the Greek city states; Alexander the Great is known to have sent animals back to Greece that he found on his military expeditions. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


The Roman emperors kept private collections of animals for study or for use in the arena,[2] the latter faring notoriously poorly. The 19th-century historian W.E.H. Lecky wrote of the Roman games, first held in 366 BCE: William Edward Hartpole Lecky, OM (26 March 1838–22 October 1903) was an Irish historian and publicist. ... Ludi Romani was a religious festival in ancient Rome to the honour of Jupiter, whose temple was dedicated on 13 September 509 BC. It was held annually since 366 BC, normally from 12 to 14 September, but extended to 5 to 19 September, and eventually started at 4 September in...

At one time, a bear and a bull, chained together, rolled in fierce combat across the sand ... Four hundred bears were killed in a single day under Caligula ... Under Nero, four hundred tigers fought with bulls and elephants. In a single day, at the dedication of the Colosseum by Titus, five thousand animals perished. Under Trajan ... lions, tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotami, giraffes, bulls, stags, even crocodiles and serpents were employed to give novelty to the spectacle ...[3] This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ...

Medieval England

Henry I of England is known to have kept a collection of animals at his palace in Woodstock, reportedly including lions, leopards, and camels.[4] Henry I (c. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ...


The most prominent collection in medieval England was the Tower Menagerie in the Tower of London, created as early as 1204 by King John I. Henry III received a wedding gift in 1235 of three leopards from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, and in 1264, the animals were moved to the Bulwark, which was renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance of the Tower. It was opened to the public during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century.[5] During the 18th century, the price of admission was three half-pence or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions.[4] The animals were moved to the London Zoo when it opened. For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... John of England depicted in Cassells History of England (1902) John (French: Jean) (December 24, 1166/67–October 18/19, 1216) reigned as King of England from 1199 to 1216. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


Modern era

Further information: List of zoos
A painting of the London Zoo in 1835.
A painting of the London Zoo in 1835.

The oldest existing zoo, the Vienna Zoo in Austria, evolved from the Imperial Menagerie at the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, an aristocratic menagerie founded in 1752 by the Habsburg monarchy, which was opened to the public in 1765. In 1775, a zoo was founded in Madrid, and in 1795, the zoo inside the Jardin des Plantes in Paris was founded by Jacques-Henri Bernardin, with animals from the royal menagerie at Versailles, primarily for scientific research and education. The following is a partial list of zoological gardens (zoos): // Egypt Giza Zoo Alexandria Zoo Qariyet El Assad (Lions Village) South Africa National Zoo, Pretoria Johannesburg Zoo[1] East London Tanzania Saa Nane Museum and Zoo, Mwanza Afghanistan Kabul Zoo, Kabul Bangladesh Dhaka Zoo, Mirpur, Dhaka China Beijing Zoo Chengdu... The giant ZSL London Zoo aviary ZSL London Zoo is the worlds oldest scientific zoo. ... Giant Panda in Vienna’s zoo Tiergarten Schönbrunn. ... Schönbrunn Palace (Schloss Schönbrunn) in Vienna is one of the most important cultural monuments in Austria and since the 1860s has also been one of the major tourist attractions in Vienna. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Jardin des Plantes is the main botanical garden in France. ... Jacques-Henri Bernardin Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (January 19, 1737 - January 21, 1814) was a French writer and botanist. ...


The Zoological Society of London, founded in 1826 by Stamford Raffles, adopted the idea of the Paris zoo when they established the London Zoo in Regent's Park in 1828, which opened to paying visitors in 1847.[2] The Zoological Society of London (sometimes known by the abbreviation ZSL) is a learned society founded in April 1826 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors and other eminent naturalists. ... Thomas Stamford Raffles. ... The giant ZSL London Zoo aviary ZSL London Zoo is the worlds oldest scientific zoo. ... This article is about Regents Park in London. ...


The first zoological garden in Australia was Melbourne Zoo in 1860. In the same year, Central Park Zoo, the first public zoo in the United States, opened in New York, although in 1859, the Philadelphia Zoological Society had made an effort to establish a zoo, but delayed opening it until 1874 because of the American Civil War. The Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens, commonly known as the Melbourne Zoo, contains more than 350 animal species from Australia and around the world. ... The Central Park Zoo is located in Central Park in New York City and run by the Wildlife Conservation Society. ... The Philadelphia Zoo, located in Fairmount Park on the west bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia, was the first zoo in the United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


When ecology emerged as a matter of public interest in the 1970s, a few zoos began to consider making conservation their central role, with Gerald Durrell of the Jersey Zoo, George Rabb of Brookfield Zoo, and William Conway of the Bronx Zoo (Wildlife Conservation Society) leading the discussion. From then on, zoo professionals became increasingly aware of the need to engage themselves in conservation programmes and the American Zoo Association soon asserted that conservation had become its highest priority.[6] For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Gerald Durrell – founder of the Jersey Zoo and pioneer of captive breeding The Gerald Durrell Memorial VHS cover, with a self portrait Gerald (Gerry) Malcolm Durrell OBE (January 7, 1925 – January 30, 1995) was a naturalist, zookeeper, conservationist, author, and television presenter. ... Jersey Zoological Park or Jersey Zoo is a 25-acre (100,000 m²) zoological park established in 1959 on the island of Jersey in the English Channel by naturalist and author Gerald Durrell (1925-1995). ... The Brookfield Zoo is a zoo located in the Chicago suburb of Brookfield, Illinois. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ... The Wildlife Conservation Society, (WCS), endeavours to save wildlife and wild lands though careful use of science, conservation around the world, education and through a system of urban wildlife parks. ... The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (formerly the American Zoo and Aquarium Association), or AZA is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of zoos and aquariums in the areas of conservation, education, science, and recreation. ...


Because they wanted to stress conservation issues, many large zoos stopped the practice of having animals perform tricks for visitors. The Detroit Zoo, for example, stopped its elephant show in 1969, and its chimpanzee show in 1983, acknowledging that the trainers had probably abused the animals to get them to perform.[7] The Detroit Zoo is located in Royal Oak and Huntington Woods, Michigan, USA. The Detroit Zoological Society, a non-profit organization, operates both the Detroit Zoo and the Belle Isle Nature Zoo, located in the city of Detroit. ...


Human exhibits

Further information: Human zoosScientific racism, and Social Darwinism
Ota Benga, a human exhibit, in 1906.
Ota Benga, a human exhibit, in 1906.
The African Pigmy, "Ota Benga."

Age, 23 years. Height, 4 feet 11 inches.
Weight, 103 pounds.
Brought from the Kasai River, Congo Free State, South Central Africa, by Dr. Samuel P. Verner.
Exhibited each afternoon during September.
a sign outside the primate house at the Bronx Zoo, September 1906.[8] // Human zoos (also called ethnological expositions or negro villages) were common until at least the 1930s. ... Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Ota Benga in 1904, showing his sharpened teeth. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ...

Human beings were sometimes displayed in cages along with non-human animals, supposedly to illustrate the differences between people of European and non-European origin. During the 19th century, zoos with human exhibits existed in Hamburg, Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Milan, New York, and Warsaw, with 200,000 to 300,000 visitors reportedly attending each exhibition.


In September 1906, William Hornaday, director of the Bronx Zoo in New York — with the agreement of Madison Grant, head of the New York Zoological Society — had Ota Benga, a Congolese pygmy, displayed in a cage with the chimpanzees, then with an orangutan named Dohong, and a parrot. The exhibit was intended as an example of the "missing link" between the orangutan and white man. It triggered protests from the city's clergymen, but the public reportedly flocked to see it.[9][8] The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... This article is about the zoo, for the tv series see The Bronx Zoo (TV). ... Ota Benga in 1904, showing his sharpened teeth. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the primate. ...


Human beings were displayed in cages during the 1931 Paris Colonial Exposition, and as late as 1958 in a "Congolese village" display at Expo '58 in Brussels.[10] The Paris Colonial Expostion was a six-month event held in Paris, France, that attempted to display the diverse cultures and immense resources of Frances colonial possessions. ... The Atomium. ...


Appearance and type

Further information: Immersion exhibit
The macaque enclosure at the Zigong People's Park Zoo, Sichuan, China.
Monkey islands at the São Paulo Zoo
Monkey islands at the São Paulo Zoo

Many zoos in Europe and North America keep animals in enclosures that attempt to replicate their natural habitats, for the benefit of the animals and the visitors. Image File history File links Macaque-enclosure-Zigong. ... Image File history File links Macaque-enclosure-Zigong. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1792x1184, 548 KB) Summary Monkeys Islands at the São Paulo Zoo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1792x1184, 548 KB) Summary Monkeys Islands at the São Paulo Zoo. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ...


They may have special buildings for nocturnal animals, with dim white or red lighting used during the day, so the animals will be active when visitors are there, and brighter lights at night to help them sleep. Special climate conditions are created for animals living in radical environments, such as penguins. A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ...


Special enclosures for birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and other aquatic life forms have also been developed. Some zoos have walk-through exhibits where visitors enter enclosures of non-aggressive species, such as lemurs, marmosets, birds, lizards, and turtles. Visitors are asked to keep to paths and avoid showing or eating foods that the animals might snatch. Superfamilies and Families Cheirogaleoidea Cheirogaleidae Lemuroidea Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae Lemurs make up the infraorder Lemuriformes and are members of a class of primates known as prosimians. ... Type species Simia jacchus Linnaeus, 1758 Species 18 species, see text Marmosets are New World monkeys in the genus Callithrix, which contains 18 species. ...


Petting zoos

Main article: Petting zoo

A petting zoo, also called children's farms or children's zoos, features a combination of domestic animals and wild species that are docile enough to touch and feed. To ensure the animals' health, the food is supplied by the zoo, either from vending machines or a kiosk nearby. A petting zoo (often called, and/or part of, a childrens zoo) features a combination of domestic animals and some wild species that are docile enough to touch and feed. ... This is a list of animals that have been domesticated by humans. ...


Open-range zoos

Main article: Safari park
Giraffes being fed by visitors in the West Midlands Safari Park
Giraffes being fed by visitors in the West Midlands Safari Park

Some zoos keep fewer animals in larger, outdoor enclosures, confining them with moats and fences, rather than in cages. Safari parks, also known as zoo parks and lion farms, allow visitors to drive through them and come in close contact with the animals.[2] A safari park is a zoo-like commercial tourist attraction where visitors can drive in their own vehicles and observe the wildlife, rather than viewing animals in cages or small enclosures. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 466 pixelsFull resolution (2656 × 1548 pixel, file size: 578 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): West Midland Safari Park User:Robek... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 466 pixelsFull resolution (2656 × 1548 pixel, file size: 578 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): West Midland Safari Park User:Robek... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... The West Midland Safari Park is a safari park located between Kidderminster and Bewdley in Worcestershire, England. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... A safari park is a zoo-like commercial tourist attraction where visitors can drive in their own vehicles and observe the wildlife, rather than viewing animals in cages or small enclosures. ...


The first of this kind of zoo was Whipsnade Park in Bedfordshire, England, opened by the Zoological Society of London in 1931, and covering 600 acres (2.4 km²). Since the early 1970s, a 1,800-acre (7 km²) park in the San Pasqual Valley near San Diego has featured the San Diego Wild Animal Park, run by the Zoological Society of San Diego. One of two state-supported zoo parks in North Carolina is the 535-acre North Carolina Zoo in Asheboro. The 500-acre Werribee Open Range Zoo in Melbourne, Australia, displays animals living in a savannah. Whipsnade Wild Animal Park is a zoo located at Whipsnade, near Dunstable in Bedfordshire, England. ... The San Diego Wild Animal Park is a zoo in the San Pasqual Valley area of San Diego, California. ... Elephants in the 37 acre (150,000 m²) African plains exhibit exemplify the zoos natural habitat philosophy North Carolina Zoological Park (aka North Carolina Zoo) is located in Asheboro, the geographic center of the state, which is about 75 miles (120 km) west of Raleigh. ... The Werribee Open Range Zoo is a zoo in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, focusing on displaying Australian and African animals. ... Savannah redirects here. ...


Public aquaria

One of the rarest species in a public aquarium is the Amazon River Dolphin in Duisburg Zoo.
One of the rarest species in a public aquarium is the Amazon River Dolphin in Duisburg Zoo.

The first public aquarium was opened in London Zoo in 1853. This was followed by the opening of public aquaria in Europe (for example, Paris 1859, Hamburg 1864, Berlin 1869, Brighton 1872) and the United States (Boston 1859, Washington 1873, San Francisco Woodward's Garden 1873, New York Battery Park 1896). In 2005 the non-profit Georgia Aquarium with more than 8 million US gallons (30,000 m³; 30,000,000 litres) of marine and fresh water, and more than 100,000 animals of 500 different species opened in Atlanta, Georgia. The aquarium's specimens include whale sharks and beluga whales. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 1696 KB) Phylum : Chordata - Class : Mammalia - Order : Cetacea - Family : Iniidae - Species : Inia geoffrensis (boto) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boto Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 1696 KB) Phylum : Chordata - Class : Mammalia - Order : Cetacea - Family : Iniidae - Species : Inia geoffrensis (boto) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boto Metadata This file contains additional... Binomial name Blainville, 1817 Boto range The Boto, Boutu, Amazon River Dolphin or Pink River Dolphin[1] (Inia geoffrensis) is a freshwater river dolphin endemic to the Amazon River and Orinoco River systems. ... The Duisburg Zoo (founded on May 12, 1934 is one of the largest zoological gardens in Germany. ... A 335,000 U.S. gallon (1. ... The Georgia Aquarium, located in Atlanta, Georgia at Pemberton Place, is billed as the worlds largest aquarium with more than 8 million US gallons (30,000 m³; 30,000,000 liters) of marine and fresh water, 1. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Binomial name Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828 The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a large, distinctively marked member of the subclass Elasmobranchii of the class Chondrichthyes. ... This article refers to the whale, beluga. ...


Animal theme parks

An animal theme park is a combination of an amusement park and a zoo, mainly for entertaining and commercial purposes. Marine mammal parks such as Sea World and Marineland are more elaborate dolphinariums keeping whales, and containing additional entertainment attractions. Another kind of animal theme park contains more entertainment and amusement elements than the classical zoo, such as a stage shows, roller coasters, and mythical creatures. Some examples are Busch Gardens Africa in Tampa, Florida and Disney's Animal Kingdom in Orlando, Florida. Theme park redirects here. ... Marineland of Florida, USA — dolphin show, 1964. ... For the unrelated theme park with a similar name in Australia, see Sea World. ... Marineland can refer to multiple places: Marineland of the Pacific, an oceanarium in California Marineland of Florida, an oceanarium in Florida Marineland, Florida, an incorporated town in Florida This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Dolphinarium is a great aquarium for dolphins. ... This article is about the animal. ... Busch Gardens Africa (also known as Busch Gardens Tampa Bay) is a 335-acre 19th century African-themed park located in Tampa, Florida. ... Tampa redirects here. ... A closeup view of the Tree of Life Animal Kingdom entrance Disneys Animal Kingdom is a theme park at Walt Disney World Resort in Florida. ... Orlando redirects here. ...


Roadside zoos

Roadside zoos are found throughout North America, particularly in remote locations. They are small, unregulated, for-profit zoos, often intended to attract visitors to some other facility, such as a gas station. The animals may be trained to perform tricks, and visitors are able to get closer to them than in larger zoos.


Sources and care of animals

Further information: Captivity (animal) and Environmental enrichment

In a modern zoo, around five animals are bred in captivity for every 20 animals on display, the rest captured in the wild and bought through dealers.[11] Animal husbandry Animals that live under human care are in captivity. ... An Asian elephant in a zoo manipulating a suspended ball provided as environmental enrichment. ...


When they arrive at the zoo, the animals are placed in quarantine, and slowly acclimatized to enclosals that, in a modern zoo, seek to mimic their natural environment. Penguins, for example, have to be kept in refrigerated rooms. Information on how to care for such animals is published in the International Zoo Yearbook.[11]


Conservation and research

The position of most modern zoos in Australasia, Europe, and North America, particularly those with scientific societies, is that they display wild animals primarily for the conservation of endangered species, as well as for research purposes and education, and secondarily for the entertainment of visitors,[12][13] an argument disputed by critics. Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ...


The Zoological Society of London states in its charter that its aim is "the advancement of Zoology and Animal Physiology and the introduction of new and curious subjects of the Animal Kingdom." It maintains two research institutes, the Nuffield Institute of Comparative Medicine and the Wellcome Institute of Comparative Physiology. In the U.S., the Penrose Research Laboratory of the Philadelphia Zoo focuses on the study of comparative pathology.[2] A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ...


The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums produced its first conservation strategy in 1993, and in November 2004, it adopted a new strategy that sets out the aims and mission of zoological gardens of the twenty-first century.[14]


The breeding of endangered species is coordinated by cooperative breeding programmes containing international studbooks and coordinators, who evaluate the roles of individual animals and institutions from a global or regional perspective, and there are regional programmes all over the world for the conservation of endangered species.[15] The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


The animal rights organization, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), argues against the position of the zoos that their main purpose is to undertake research and aid in conservation, alleging that most zoo research is geared toward finding new ways to breed and maintain animals in captivity.[16] Andrew Linzey, director of the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, argues that zoos make a "minuscule contribution to conservation."[17] Animal liberation redirects here. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ...


Surplus animals

Because for every animal caught in the wild, several more are killed in the process, the breeding of animals within zoos is encouraged.[11]

This chimpanzee was born in the Saint Louis Zoo and passed to five other facilities before landing in a Texas roadside zoo 37 years later.[18]

Eric Baratay and Elisabeth Hardouin-Fugier of the Université Jean-Moulin, Lyon, say that the overall "stock turnover" of animals is one-fifth to one-fourth over the course of a year — with three-quarters of apes dying in captivity within the first twenty months. They say that the high mortality rate is the reason for the "massive scale of importations."[19][20] Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... The Saint Louis Zoological Park is a zoo in Saint Louis, Missouri. ...


The downside to breeding the animals in captivity is that thousands of them are placed on "surplus lists" each year, and sold to circuses, animal merchants, auctions, pet owners, and game farms. The San Jose Mercury News conducted a two-year study that suggested of the 19,361 mammals who left accredited zoos in the U.S. between 1992 and 1998, 7,420 (38 percent) went to dealers, auctions, hunting ranches, unaccredited zoos and individuals, and game farms.[21]


Zoos have advertised surplus animals in the Animal Finders' Guide, a newsletter in which the owners of hunting ranches post notices of sales and auctions.[22] Matthew Scully writes that many hunters prefer killing animals from zoos because they make better-looking trophies; the mane of a zoo lion will tend to be cleaner than that of a wild one.[22] In one case, a zoo owner named William Hampton was found to have been buying animals and systematically slaughtering them in order to sell their skins, heads, and pelts as trophies.[23] Matthew Scully served until August 2004 as special assistant to the president and deputy director of presidential speechwriting. ...


Animals who breed frequently, such as deer, tiger, and lions may be killed for their meat; Nuremberg zoo's deputy director, Helmut Mägdefrau, has said, "If we cannot find good homes for the animals, we kill them and use them as feed."[24] Other animals may be sold to smaller zoos with poor conditions. PETA cites the example of Edith, a chimpanzee found in a concrete pit in a roadside zoo called the Amarillo Wildlife Refuge in Texas. She had been born in the Saint Louis Zoo, but had been sold just after her third birthday, and for the next 37 years was passed around five other facilities before landing in the roadside zoo.[25] The Saint Louis Zoological Park is a zoo in Saint Louis, Missouri. ...


It was alleged in March 2008 that hundreds of the Berlin Zoo's 23,000 animals are missing, amid allegations that they have been slaughtered, and that some tigers and leopards were sent to China to make drugs for traditional Chinese medicine. Claudia Hämmerling, a Green Party politician, said she had evidence that four Asian black bears and a hippopotamus were taken from Berlin to go to a new home, but were transported instead to Wortel in Belgium, which The Guardian reports has no zoo, but does have a slaughterhouse. The zoo's director, Bernhard Blaszkiewitz, replied that the allegations were "untruths, half-truths and lies."[24] The Zoologischer Garten Berlin (zoological garden Berlin) is one of the biggest zoos in Germany and the one with the largest number of species of the world. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... For the Batman villain, see Abattoir (comics). ...


Condition of the animals

A sick macaque in the Zigong People's Park Zoo, Sichuan, China. [1]
A sick macaque in the Zigong People's Park Zoo, Sichuan, China. [1]
Sea lions at the Melbourne Zoo
Sea lions at the Melbourne Zoo
The bear cages, one square meter in size, in Dalian zoo, Port Arthur, Liaoning Province, China, in 1997.

The condition of the animals varies widely, and is an issue that has come under heavy scrutiny, especially in zoos in countries with little or no regulations. The majority of the large non-profit and scientifically oriented institutions are working to improve their animal enclosures, although constraints like size and expense make it difficult to create ideal captive environments for some species, such as dolphins and whales.[26][27] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 48 KB) Description: A sick macque photographed in 2001 in the Zigong Peoples Park Zoo, Sichuan, by the Asian Animal Protection Network. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 48 KB) Description: A sick macque photographed in 2001 in the Zigong Peoples Park Zoo, Sichuan, by the Asian Animal Protection Network. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Download high resolution version (1024x739, 226 KB)Seals at the Melbourne Zoo Taken by User:Fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Zoo Pinniped Melbourne Zoo Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1024x739, 226 KB)Seals at the Melbourne Zoo Taken by User:Fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Zoo Pinniped Melbourne Zoo Categories: GFDL images ... The Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens, commonly known as the Melbourne Zoo, contains more than 350 animal species from Australia and around the world. ...


Critics say that, traditionally, capturing animals for exhibition generally meant killing the parents and capturing the youth, and today includes exhausting animals by chasing them with a car, using a car to separate young animals from their mothers, and shining searchlights into the eyes of nocturnal animals. They also argue that animals who live in zoos are treated as voyeuristic objects rather than living creatures, and are often driven to insanity in the transition from being free and wild to incarcerated and dependent on humans for survival.[28]


A four-decade Oxford University study found that polar bears, lions, tigers, and cheetahs show the most evidence of stress in captivity.[29][30] A PETA investigation of zoos in the U.S. found that several bear species were engaging in neurotic, stereotypical behavior, including pacing, walking in circles, and swaying or rolling their heads.[31] The Badaltearing Safari Park in China keeps a pair of moon bears in cages so small that they are unable to turn around. The Daily Mail reported in January 2008 that one of them appears to have gone insane and spends its time shaking its head and banging into the sides of the cage.[32] The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Animals kept in small, unadorned enclosures are likely to develop stereotypical behaviors. ...


Regulation of zoos

United States

In the United States, any public animal exhibit must be licensed and inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Drug Enforcement Agency, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and others. USDA redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ...


Depending on the animals they exhibit, the activities of zoos are regulated by laws including the Endangered Species Act, the Animal Welfare Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 and others.[33] The Endangered Species Act (, et seq. ... The Animal Welfare Act is a law passed by government to protect the welfare of animals. ... Under United States Code Title 16, Chapter 7, Subchapter II, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 is the United States legislation implementing the convention between the U.S. and Great Britain (for Canada). ...


Additionally, zoos in North America may choose to pursue accreditation by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). To achieve accreditation, a zoo must pass an application and inspection process and meet or exceed the AZA's standards for animal health and welfare, fundraising, zoo staffing, and involvement in global conservation efforts. Inspection is performed by three experts (typically one veterinarian, one expert in animal care, and one expert in zoo management and operations) and then reviewed by a panel of twelve experts before accreditation is awarded. This accreditation process is repeated once every five years. The AZA estimates that there are approximately 2,400 animal exhibits operating under USDA license as of February 2007; fewer than 10% are accredited.[34] The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (formerly the American Zoo and Aquarium Association), or AZA is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of zoos and aquariums in the areas of conservation, education, science, and recreation. ...


Europe

In April 1999, the European Union introduced a directive to strengthen the conservation role of zoos, making it a statutory requirement that they participate in conservation and education, and requiring all member states to set up systems for their licensing and inspection.[35]


Zoos are regulated in the UK by the Zoo Licensing Act of 1981, which came into force in 1984. A zoo is defined as any "establishment where wild animals are kept for exhibition ... to which members of the public have access, with or without charge for admission, seven or more days in any period of twelve consecutive months," excluding circuses and pet shops. The Act requires that all zoos be inspected and licensed, and that animals kept in enclosures are provided with a suitable environment in which they can express most normal behavior.[35]


Concerns

Live killing

In the Badaltearing Safari Park in China, zoo visitors can throw live goats into the lions' enclosure and watch them being eaten, or can purchase live chickens tied to bamboo rods for the equivalent of £2 to dangle into lion pens. Visitors can drive through the lion's compound on buses with specially designed chutes leading into the enclosure into which they can push live chickens. In the Xiongsen Bear and Tiger Mountain Village near Guilin in south-east China, live cows are fed to tigers to amuse visitors.[32] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


In Qingdao zoo, near Beijing, visitors engage in "tortoise baiting," where tortoises are kept inside small rooms with elastic bands round their necks, so that they are unable to retract their heads. Visitors then throw coins at them. According to tradition, a wish made after hitting one of them on the head will be fulfilled.[32]


See also

Look up Zoo in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Conservation status
Risk of extinction
Extinction

Extinct
Extinct in the Wild
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Diagram of Extinct in the Wild in relation to other IUCN categories. ...

Threatened

Critically Endangered
Endangered
Vulnerable
Threatened
. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ...

Lower risk

Conservation Dependent
Near Threatened
Least Concern
Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) was an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which were dependent on conservation efforts to prevent the taxon becoming threatened with extinction. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ...

See also

World Conservation Union
IUCN Red List
The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ...

The following is a partial list of zoological gardens (zoos): // Egypt Giza Zoo Alexandria Zoo Qariyet El Assad (Lions Village) South Africa National Zoo, Pretoria Johannesburg Zoo[1] East London Tanzania Saa Nane Museum and Zoo, Mwanza Afghanistan Kabul Zoo, Kabul Bangladesh Dhaka Zoo, Mirpur, Dhaka China Beijing Zoo Chengdu... A Wildlife refuge is a geographic territory within which wildlife is protected. ... A Transboundary Protected Area is a protected area that spans across boundaries of multiple countries, where the political border sections that are enclosed within its area are abolished. ... A protected area with rich deposits of fossils is called a fossil park. ... This article is about national parks. ... This article is on national forests in the United States. ... The International Network of Geoparks (INoG) is a UNESCO Geoparks programme established in 1998. ... This is a partial list of zoo and aquaria associations: World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) Asociación Mesoamericana y del Caribe de Zoológico i Acuarios (AMACZOOA) American Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA) African Association of Zoos and... Animal husbandry Animals that live under human care are in captivity. ... An Asian elephant in a zoo manipulating a suspended ball provided as environmental enrichment. ... Some conservation ecologists have been concerned about the Amazon rainforest. ... cheese ... Ex-situ conservation means literally, off-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans. ... In-situ conservation means on-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... The list of conservation topics is a link page for the conservation of both the natural environment and the built environment. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Emergency Response Teams, also called Emergency Weapons Teams or Firearms Emergency Response Teams, are teams that respond when zoo animals escape their habitats and threaten zoo visitors and employees. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Modern policies of the zoo associations and zoos around the world have changed to putting extreme importance on keeping and breeding wild sourced pure species and subspecies of animals and birds in their registered endangered species breeding programs which will have a chance to be reintroduced and survive in the...

Notes

  1. ^ "ZSL's history", Zoological Society of London.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Zoo," Encyclopaedia Britannia, 2008.
  3. ^ Lecky, W.E.H. History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne. Vol. 1, Longmans, 1869, pp. 280-282.
  4. ^ a b Blunt, Wilfred. The Ark in the Park: The Zoo in the Nineteenth Century. Hamish Hamilton, 1976, pp. 15-17.
  5. ^ "Big cats prowled London's tower", BBC News, October 24, 2005.
  6. ^ See Kisling, Vernon N. (ed.): Zoo and Aquarium History, Boca Raton 2001. ISBN 0-8493-2100-X; Hoage, R. J. Deiss and William A. (ed.): New Worlds, New Animals, Washington 1996. ISBN 0-8018-5110-6; Hanson, Elizabeth. Animal Attractions, Princeton 2002. ISBN 0-691-05992-6; and Hancocks, David. A Different Nature, Berkeley 2001. ISBN 0-520-21879-5
  7. ^ Donahue, Jesse and Trump, Erik. Political Animals: Public Art in American Zoos and Aquariums. Lexington Books, 2007, p. 79.
  8. ^ a b "Man and Monkey Show Disapproved by Clergy", The New York Times, September 10, 1906.
  9. ^ Bradford, Phillips Verner and Blume, Harvey. Ota Benga: The Pygmy in the Zoo. St. Martins Press, 1992.
  10. ^ Blanchard, Pascal; Bancel, Nicolas; and Lemaire, Sandrine. "From human zoos to colonial apotheoses: the era of exhibiting the Other", Africultures.
  11. ^ a b c "Zoo: Procurement and care of animals," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008.
  12. ^ Tudge, Colin. Last Animals in the Zoo: How Mass Extinction Can Be Stopped, London 1991. ISBN 1-55963-157-0
  13. ^ "Manifesto for Zoos", John Regan Associates, 2004.
  14. ^ "World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Strategy", World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
  15. ^ In Africa, conservation is handled by the African Preservation Program APP (African Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquaria; in the U.S. and Canada by Species Survival Plans (American Zoo and Aquarium Association), and the Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums); in Australasia, by the Australasian Species Management Program (Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria); in Europe, by the European Endangered Species Program (European Association of Zoos and Aquaria); and in Japan, South Asia, and South East Asia, by the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the South Asian Zoo Association for Regional Cooperation, and the South East Asian Zoo Association.
  16. ^ Booth, William. "Naked Ape New Zoo Attraction; Surprise Results From People-Watching Study," The Washington Post, March 14, 1991.
  17. ^ Geoghegan, Tom. "What are zoos for?", BBC News, January 8, 2008.
  18. ^ "Amarillo Wildlife Refuge", PETA.
  19. ^ Jensen, Derrick and Tweedy-Holmes Karen. Thought to Exist in the Wild: Awakening from the Nightmare of Zoos. No Voice Unheard, 2007, p. 21.
  20. ^ Baratay, Eric and Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth. Zoo: A History of the Zoological Gardens of the West. Reaktion, London. 2002.
  21. ^ Goldston, Linda. "Animals once admired at country's major zoos are sold or given away to dealers," San Jose Mercury News, February 11, 1999, cited in Scully, Matthew. Dominion. St. Martin's Griffin, 2004 (paperback), p. 64.
  22. ^ a b Scully, Matthew. Dominion. St. Martin's Griffin, 2004 (paperback), p. 64.
  23. ^ Jensen, pp. 49-50.
  24. ^ a b Connolly, Kate. "Berlin zoo accused of profiting from slaughter", The Guardian, March 28, 2008.
  25. ^ "Amarillo Wildlife Refuge", PETA. See also "Hard life, hard times", PETA.
  26. ^ Norton, Bryan G.; Hutchins, Michael; Stevens, Elizabeth F.; Maple, Terry L. (ed.): Ethics on the Ark. Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife Conservation. Washington, D.C., 1995. ISBN 1-56098-515-1
  27. ^ Malmud, Randy. Reading Zoos. Representations of Animals and Captivity. New York, 1998. ISBN 0-8147-5602-6
  28. ^ Jensen, p. 48.
  29. ^ Derr, Mark. “Big Beasts, Tight Space and a Call for Change in Journal Report,” The New York Times, October 2, 2003.
  30. ^ Clubb, Ros & Mason, Ros. "Captivity Effects on Wide-Ranging Carnivores," Nature, October 2, 2003, cited in "Zoos: Pitiful Prisons", PETA.
  31. ^ "Zoos: Pitiful Prisons", PETA.
  32. ^ a b c Penman, Danny. "Animals torn to pieces by lions in front of baying crowds: the spectator sport China DOESN'T want you to see", The Daily Mail, January 1, 2008.
  33. ^ Grech, Kali S. "Overview of the Laws Affecting Zoos", Michigan State University College of Law, Animal Legal & Historical Center, 2004.
  34. ^ AZA Accreditation Introduction
  35. ^ a b "The Zoo Licensing Act 1981", Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs.

Further reading

  • Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) North American Association of Zoos and Aquariums
  • Zoos Worldwide Zoos, aquariums, animal sanctuaries and wildlife parks
  • World Association of Zoos and Aquariums
  • Zoological Gardens keeping Asian Elephants
  • AIZA
  • Loyd, Beth "Chinese Zoo Puts On a Show, but Mistreats Animals", ABC News video of animals being forced to perform in Beijing, February 8, 2008.

A 335,000 U.S. gallon (1. ... An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. ... Menagerie is the term for a historical form of keeping wild and exotic animals in human captivity and therefore a predecessor of the modern zoological garden. ... The Oceanarium in Lisbon, Portugal opened in 1998. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A safari park is a zoo-like commercial tourist attraction where visitors can drive in their own vehicles and observe the wildlife, rather than viewing animals in cages or small enclosures. ... A serpentarium is a reptile zoo or reptile park. ... The following is a partial list of zoological gardens (zoos): // Egypt Giza Zoo Alexandria Zoo Qariyet El Assad (Lions Village) South Africa National Zoo, Pretoria Johannesburg Zoo[1] East London Tanzania Saa Nane Museum and Zoo, Mwanza Afghanistan Kabul Zoo, Kabul Bangladesh Dhaka Zoo, Mirpur, Dhaka China Beijing Zoo Chengdu... This is a list of aquaria (Public aquariums): // Two Oceans Aquarium - Cape Town UShaka Marine World - Durban Shanghai Ocean Aquarium(Shànghai Haiyáng Shuizú Guan) - Shanghai Qingdao Underwater World - Shandong Ocean Park - Nam Long Shan, Hong Kong Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium - Okinawa, the worlds second largest aquarium Osaka Aquarium... A petting zoo (often called, and/or part of, a childrens zoo) features a combination of domestic animals and some wild species that are docile enough to touch and feed. ... This is a partial list of zoo and aquaria associations: World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) Asociación Mesoamericana y del Caribe de Zoológico i Acuarios (AMACZOOA) American Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA) African Association of Zoos and... Animal husbandry Animals that live under human care are in captivity. ... An Asian elephant in a zoo manipulating a suspended ball provided as environmental enrichment. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... In-situ conservation means on-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. ... Ex-situ conservation means literally, off-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans. ... Modern policies of the zoo associations and zoos around the world have changed to putting extreme importance on keeping and breeding wild sourced pure species and subspecies of animals and birds in their registered endangered species breeding programs which will have a chance to be reintroduced and survive in the... cheese ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ...


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