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Encyclopedia > Zone of alienation

Coordinates: 51.300° N 30.005° E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Entrance to the Zone of Alienation
Entrance to the Zone of Alienation
Abandoned living blocks in the Zone
Abandoned living blocks in the Zone

The Zone of Alienation, which is variously referred to as The Chernobyl Zone, The 30 Kilometer Zone, The Zone of Exclusion, The Fourth Zone, or just The Zone (Ukrainian official designation: Зона відчуження Чорнобильської АЕС, zona vidchuzhennya Chornobyl's'koyi AES, colloquially: Чорнобильська зона, Chornobyl's'ka zona оr Четверта зона, Chetverta zona) is the 30 km/19 mi exclusion zone around the site of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster. Geographically, it includes northernmost parts of Kyivs'ka oblast' and Zhytomyrs'ka oblast' of Ukraine, and adjoins the country's border with Belarus. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pripyat, an abandoned city near Chernobyl (photo taken by me) could be deleted - moved to Commons File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pripyat, an abandoned city near Chernobyl (photo taken by me) could be deleted - moved to Commons File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Look up zone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl disaster, reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply Chernobyl, was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only... Kyivs’ka oblast’ (Київська область in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) in northern Ukraine. ... Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’ (Житомирська область in Ukrainian) is an oblast ( province) of northern Ukraine. ...

Contents

Purpose and status

The Zone was established soon after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, in order to evacuate the local population and to prevent people from entering the heavily contaminated territory. The area adjoining the site of the disaster was divided into 4 concentric zones, amongst them the fourth (actually the nearest, within a radius of 30 km/19 mi) being the most dangerous. Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl disaster, reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply Chernobyl, was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only... Emergency evacuation is the movement of persons from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... Concentric objects share the same center, axis or origin with one inside the other. ... This article is about an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol. ...


It should be noted that the territory of the zone is polluted unevenly. Spots of hyperintensive pollution were created not only by wind-spreading of radioactive dust at the time of the accident, but also by numerous burial grounds for various material and equipment. Zone authorities pay much attention to protecting such spots from tourists, scrap hunters and wildfires, but admit that some dangerous burial sites remain unmapped and known only by recollections of the liquidators. Soviet medal awarded to liquidators. ...


Any residential, civil or business activities in the zone are legally prohibited and punishable. The only officially recognized exception is the functioning of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and scientific installations related to the studies of nuclear safety. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, viewed from the roof of a building in Pripyat, Ukraine. ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ...


The zone is partly excluded from the regular civil rule. It is controlled by the Administration of the Alienation Zone within Ukraine's Ministry of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe. The territory of the zone is policed by special units of the MVS and (along the border line) the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine. why can u change this im serious. ... The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) or MVS) is the national police authority of Ukraine. ... State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ; abbr. ...


Everyone employed within the zone is allowed there for certain shifts (ranging from a day to one month). The duration of shifts is strictly counted regarding the person's pension and healthcare issues. The personnel of the above-mentioned nuclear installations constantly reside in Slavutych (a specially-built remote city in Chernihivs'ka oblast'), others in different cities and towns of Ukraine. Second shift redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... Slavutych, named after the Old Slavic name of the near-by Dnieper River, is a town on the left bank of the river in the Chernihiv oblast of Ukraine. ... Chernihivs’ka oblast’ (Чернігівська область, Chernihivs’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ...


Access to the zone for brief visits is, however, possible; day-tours are available to the public from Kiev. Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


History

Historically and geographically, the zone is a heartland of the Polesia region—the birthplace of East Slavs. This predominantly rural woodland area was once home to 120,000 people, living in 90 communities (including rapid-developing cities of Chernobyl and Pripyat), but is now mostly uninhabited. Polesie (Polish spelling; Polissya, Полісся in Ukrainian, Polesye, Полесье in Russian, Palyessye or Palesse, Пале́сьсе in Belarusian, formerly also Polesia in Latin) is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South-Western part of the Eastern-European Lowland, within the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Poland. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ... Pripyat Abandoned village near Pripyat View of Chernobyl from Pripyat The Ukrainian city of Prypyat (При́пять) (in Russian, Pripyat (При́пять), located (51°22′60″ N 30°6′0″ E) in the north of Ukraine near the Belarus border, is an abandoned city. ...


When the authorities allowed brief touring visits to the zone, some evacuated residents of the Pripyat and Chernobyl established remembrance tradition, which includes annual visiting of the former homes or schools, and Internet sites describing the past and present life of their childhood places.[1]


Nature and infrastructure

Flora and fauna

The flora and fauna of the zone have been dramatically affected by the radioactive contamination that followed the accident. The cloud of heavily polluted dust left the Red Forest (Rudyi Lis)—a stand of highly-irradiated pine wood near the plant, which was subsequently bulldozed. Cases of mutant deformity in animals of the zone were reported but none were scientifically documented except partial albinism in swallows. In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... The major plume of radiation released by the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident was carried directly over what is now called the Red Forest. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... This article is about biological mutants. ... Albino redirects here. ... For other uses, see Swallow (disambiguation). ...


There have been reports that wildlife had flourished due to significant reduction of human impact.[1] However, one study indicates that the radiation has had an adverse effect on birds in the area.[2] The zone is considered by some as a classic example of an involuntary park. Populations of traditional Polesian animals (like wolves, wild boar and Roe Deer), red deer, moose, and beaver have multiplied enormously and begun expanding outside the zone. The area also houses flocks of European wisent and Przewalski's Horses released there after the disaster. Even extremely rare lynx have appeared, and there are reports of tracks from brown bear, an animal not seen in the area for several centuries. Special game warden units are organized to protect and control them. Involuntary park is a term coined by science fiction author and environmentalist Bruce Sterling to describe previously inhabited areas that for environmental or political reasons have, in Sterlings words, lost their value for technological instrumentalism and been allowed to return to an overgrown, feral state. ... Polesie (Polish spelling; Polissya, Полісся in Ukrainian, Polesye, Полесье in Russian, Palyessye or Palesse, Пале́сьсе in Belarusian, formerly also Polesia in Latin) is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South-Western part of the Eastern-European Lowland, within the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Poland. ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... This article is about the species of deer. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) A wisent (Å»ubr) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus przewalskii (Poliakov, 1881) Range map Przewalskis Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii or Equus caballus przewalskii, classification is debated), pronounced in English as //, also known as the Asian Wild Horse or Mongolian Wild Horse, or Takhi, is the closest living wild relative of the domestic Horse. ... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ... Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... In the United States, game wardens are state or local officials responsible for enforcing environmental protection laws pertaining to the hunting, fishing, and trapping of wild animals. ...


The rivers and lakes of the zone pose a significant threat of spreading polluted silt during spring floods. They are systematically secured by dikes. For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ...


Infrastructure

The industrial, transport, and residential infrastructure has been largely crumbling since the 1986 evacuation. There are at least 800 known "burial grounds" (Ukrainian singular: mohyl'nyk) for the contaminated vehicles with hundreds of abandoned military vehicles and helicopters. River ships and barges lie in the abandoned ports.

The railway lines at Slavutych station, which take employees to the zone of alienation.
The railway lines at Slavutych station, which take employees to the zone of alienation.

However, the infrastructure immediately utilized by the existing nuclear-related installations is maintained and developed, such as the railway link to the outside world from the Yaniv station close to the power plant. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 916 KB) The railway lines at Slavutych station, which take commuters to jobs within the Zone of alienation around the Chernobyl disaster. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 916 KB) The railway lines at Slavutych station, which take commuters to jobs within the Zone of alienation around the Chernobyl disaster. ... Slavutych, named after the Old Slavic name of the near-by Dnieper River, is a town on the left bank of the river in the Chernihiv oblast of Ukraine. ...


"Chernobyl-2"

The “Chernobyl-2”, a.k.a. “Duga-3”, is a former Soviet military installation relatively close by to the power plant, consisting of gigantic transmitter and receiver belonging to the Steel Yard Over-the-horizon radar system.[3] The secrecy around this unit once provoked a rumour that it was the real cause of the disaster. According to Ukrainian TV, the base is now defunct and handed over to the Ministry of Emergencies. The rusting iron superstructures of the station are considered for dismantling over the fears of their accidental collapse which would cause a microearthquake damaging the radioactive storages in the area. This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... The Russian Woodpecker was a notorious Soviet signal that could be heard on the shortwave radio bands worldwide between July 1976 and December 1989. ... Over-The-Horizon radar (OTHR) is a design concept for radar system to overcome the problem that radio waves (a form of light) travel in a straight line, making over the horizon detection difficult. ... A microearthquake is a very low intensity earthquake which is usually three or less on the Richter scale. ...


Looting and poaching problem

The poaching of game, illegal logging, and metal salvage are the current problems of the zone. Despite certain police control, the unemployed from outside often infiltrate the perimeter and remove polluted materials, from electronics to even toilet seats, especially in Pripyat, where residents of about 30 high-rise apartment buildings had to leave all of their belongings behind. In spite of this extensive looting, some buildings remain untouched. In 2007, Ukrainian government adopted more severe criminal and administrative penalties for illegal activities in the alienation zone[4], as well as reinforced units assigned to these tasks. For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Flush toilet A toilet seat is the seat and lid of a toilet. ... Pripyat Abandoned village near Pripyat View of Chernobyl from Pripyat The Ukrainian city of Prypyat (При́пять) (in Russian, Pripyat (При́пять), located (51°22′60″ N 30°6′0″ E) in the north of Ukraine near the Belarus border, is an abandoned city. ...


The people

Dozens of people (mostly the elderly) refused to be evacuated from the zone or illegally returned there later. After recurrent attempts at expulsion, the authorities became reconciled to their presence and even allowed limited supporting services for them. The population also includes some vagabonds and other marginalized persons from the outside world. These people (known as "samosely", translated as "self-settlers") declare their strong commitment to the surrounding nature and rural lifestyle. Samosely usually deny or are resigned to any significant damage to their health resulting from the high levels of radiation in the environment. A vagabond is a (generally impoverished) itinerant person. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ...


Development and recovery projects

The oldest and most recognized vision of the zone’s future is a research and industrial ground for developing nuclear technologies, including technology of nuclear wastes disposal. Permanent waste facilities are already being constructed in the zone, although these projects suffer from environmental and business concerns. Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ...


There are growing calls for wider economic and social revival of the territories around the disaster zone. For instance, special technologies are suggested for agriculture and energy projects that would avoid the danger of proliferating polluted material.


The most vocal advocate of such revival is President Viktor Yuschenko who expresses his deep concerns with the exclusion of polluted territories from the society and economy of Ukraine. In November 2007, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the resolution calling for "recovery and sustainable development" of the areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Commenting on the issue, UN Development Programme officials mentioned the plans to achieve “self-reliance” of the local population, “agriculture revival” and development of eco-tourism.[5] Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian: Віктор Андрійович Ющенко) (born 23 February 1954) is the president of Ukraine. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... Ecotourism essentially means ecological tourism, where ecological has both environmental and social connotations. ...


However, it is not clear whether such plans of UN and Yuschenko deal with the zone of alienation proper, or only with the other three zones around the disaster site where contamination is less intense and restrictions on the population looser (such as the district of Narodychi in Zhytomyrska Oblast). Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’ (Житомирська область in Ukrainian; Żytomierzczyna in Polish) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ...


Cultural precedents and references

  • Stalker is a 1979 film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky, based on a 1972 novel by Boris and Arkady Strugatsky entitled Roadside Picnic. Both describe a mysterious and forbidden "zone", depopulated of human life by an unexplained disaster, and Tarkovsky's film in particular has come to symbolize the alienation zone in the minds of many commentators. Contrary to popular belief, the power plant depicted in one of the last shots is not Chernobyl; the entire movie was in fact shot in Estonia.[6][7]
  • A science fiction novella titled The Dragon of Pripyat, by Karl Schroeder, is set in Pripyat after the disaster.
  • Most of the Martin Cruz Smith's crime thriller book Wolves Eat Dogs, is set in and around the Zone of Alienation and goes into detail the events that led up to and were caused by the Chernobyl disaster.
  • A science fiction video game named S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl, released in 2007 by Ukrainian developer GSC Game World, is set in the zone of alienation. Authentic photos and video footage from the zone were rendered into the graphics used in the game.[8]
  • In addition to S.T.A.L.K.E.R., the game Cold War is also based in the zone of alienation. It suggests that the reaction was caused by the Soviet Government trying to create a new Marxist government.
  • There is a mission in Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare game that takes place within the abandoned city of Pripyat located in the zone of alienation succeeding the Chernobyl disaster, Chernobyl itself is visible in the preceding mission and is the site of an arms deal. This is also where the player gets to see one of the famous landmarks, the Pripyat Ferris Wheel, where the player must stay alive while heavily outnumbered.
  • In the American film Godzilla Matthew Broderick's character, an NRC scientist, is studying the effects on wildlife due to the radiation leaked by the reactors at the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone before going to Panama to observe the wreckage of the recovered Japanese fishing ship.
  • Sound artist Jacob Kirkegaard recorded a series of pieces entitled 4 Rooms, based on the acoustic resonance of a church in the village of Krasno, and an auditorium, swimming pool and gymnasium in Pripyat.
  • The hospital section of Half Life 2: Episode 1 was based on photos of a hospital in Prypiat[9]

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Grinko, Solonitsyn, and Kaidanovsky in Stalker Stalker (Russian: Сталкер) was a 1979 film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. ... “Tarkovsky” redirects here. ... Boris and Arkady Strugatsky The two brothers Arkady (Арка́дий, August 28, 1925 – October 12, 1991) and Boris (Бори́с, born April 14, 1933) Strugatsky (Струга́цкий; alternate spelling: Strugatski) are Russian science fiction authors who collaborated on their fiction. ... Roadside Picnic (Russian: Пикник на обочине, IPA:) is a science fiction short novel written in 1971 by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, published in 1972 and since deemed a classic. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Karl Schroeder (born September 4, 1962) is a Canadian author. ... Martin Cruz Smith (né Martin William Smith, later changed his middle name to Cruz after his grandmothers surname) was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, USA in 1942. ... Wolves eat Dogs is a crime novel by Martin Cruz Smith, set in the Russia and Ukraine in the year 1996. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl is an unreleased FPS computer game. ... GSC Game World is a Kiev-based computer game developer. ... Cold War is a computer game developed by Czech developer Mindware Studios and published by DreamCatcher Games (Linux Game Publishing for Linux). ... Godzilla is an American science fiction film directed by Roland Emmerich and starred Matthew Broderick, Jean Reno, Maria Pitillo, Hank Azaria, Michael Lerner and Kevin Dunn. ... Matthew Broderick (born March 21, 1962) is a Tony Award-winning American film and stage actor who is perhaps best known for his roles as the title character in Ferris Buellers Day Off and Simba in Disneys The Lion King. ...

See also

  • List of Chernobyl-related articles

This is a list of Chernobyl-related articles: Bellesrad Chernobyl Chernobyl2020 Chernobyl compared to other radioactivity releases Chernobyl disaster Chernobyl disaster effects Chernobyl Heart Chernobyl in the popular consciousness Chernobyl nuclear power plant Chernobyl Shelter Fund Commission de recherche et dinformation indépendantes sur la radioactivité Liquidator (Chernobyl) List...

References

  1. ^ Wildlife defies Chernobyl radiation, by Stefen Mulvey, BBC News
  2. ^ Chernobyl 'not a wildlife haven' , by Mark Kinver, BBC News
  3. ^ Photogallery of the Chernobyl-2 radar installation at Pripyat.com
  4. ^ Chernobyl Souvenir Hunters May Become Convicts
  5. ^ UN plots Chernobyl zone recovery BBC news, Nov 21, 2007
  6. ^ Geopeitus.ee :: Tarkovski
  7. ^ [ Nostalghia.com | The Topics :: Sharun - In Stalker Tarkovsky foretold Chernobyl ]
  8. ^ S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl
  9. ^ Half Life 2: Episode 1 Commentary

External links

News and publications

Several newspapers go by the name of Guardian: The Guardian, a British newspaper founded in 1821 as the Manchester Guardian, which took its current title in 1959. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...

Other web-resources

Elena (Lena) Filatova (Russian: Елена Филатова) (born 1974) is a Ukrainian motorcyclist who gained Internet fame in 2004 under the nickname KiddOfSpeed after her web site was mentioned at Slashdot and other online news sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Zone of alienation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (839 words)
The zone was established soon after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, in order to evacuate the local population and to prevent people from entering heavily contaminated territory.
It is controlled by the Administration of the Alienation Zone within Ukraine's Ministry of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from Consequences of Chornobyl' Catastrophe.
Historically and geographically, the zone is a heartland of the Polesia region—the birthplace of East Slavs.
Zone of alienation - definition of Zone of alienation in Encyclopedia (180 words)
The Zone of Alienation (or simply The Zone) is what Russians call the 30km exclusion zone around the site of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.
The Russian usage of the term "The Zone" bears a number of associations with a Soviet science fiction novel Picnic by the Roadside by the Strugatsky brothers more than a decade before the accident.
The novel describes a zone ("The Zone") devastated by an accidental stop of indifferent aliens which became a target of scavengers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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