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Encyclopedia > Zombie

A zombie is a reanimated corpse. Stories of zombies originated in the Afro-Caribbean spiritual belief system of Vodou, which told of the dead being raised as workers by a powerful sorcerer. Zombies became a popular device in modern horror fiction, largely because of the success of George A. Romero's 1968 film, Night of the Living Dead. Look up zombie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Afro-Caribbean may refer to: the British Afro-Caribbean community other members of the African diaspora in or from the Carribean This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article is about the West African religion. ... A group of actors portraying zombies in a film Zombies are regularly encountered in horror- and fantasy-themed fiction and entertainment. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... George Andrew Romero (born February 4, 1940) is an American director, writer, editor and actor. ... This article is about the 1968 film directed by George A. Romero. ...


There are several possible etymologies of the word zombie. One possible origin is jumbie, the West Indian term for "ghost".[1] Another is nzambi, the Kongo word meaning "spirit of a dead person."[1] According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the etymology is from the Louisiana Creole or Haitian Creole zonbi, of Bantu origin.[2] A zonbi is a person who is believed to have died and been brought back to life without speech or free will.[3] It is akin to the Kimbundu nzúmbe ghost. These words are approximately from 1871.[2] Etymologies redirects here. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Kingdom of Congo (now usually rendered as Kingdom of Kongo to maintain distinction from the present-day Congo nations) Capital Mbanza-Kongo, Angola; re-named São Salvador in the late 16th century; re-named back to Mbanza-Kongo in 1975 Religion Christianity with some traditional practices Government Monarchy... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language It is spoken in Haiti by about 8. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (light brown) vs. ... Look up speech, speaking, utter, gab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Kimbundu is one of the most spoken pre-colonial languages in central africa. ...

Contents

Voodoo

See also: History of Haiti
A Haitian zombie at twilight in a field of sugar cane.
A Haitian zombie at twilight in a field of sugar cane.

According to the tenets of Voodoo, a dead person can be revived by a bokor or Voodoo sorcerer. Zombies remain under the control of the bokor since they have no will of their own. "Zombi" is also another name of the Voodoo snake god Damballah Wedo, of Niger-Congo origin; it is akin to the Kongo word nzambi, which means "god". There also exists within the voudon tradition the zombi astral which is a human soul that is captured by a bokor and used to enhance the bokor's power. The recorded history of Haiti began in December 5th 1492 when the European navigator Christopher Columbus happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean Sea. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1243, 511 KB) Title : Zombie Description : a Zombie, at twilight, in a field of cane sugar of haïti illustator : JNL File links The following pages link to this file: Zombie ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1243, 511 KB) Title : Zombie Description : a Zombie, at twilight, in a field of cane sugar of haïti illustator : JNL File links The following pages link to this file: Zombie ... Voodoo is a religious tradition originating in West Africa, which became prominent in the New World due to the importation of African slaves. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Veve of Damballa In Vodun, Damballa is one of the most important of all the loa. ... Map showing the distribution of Niger-Congo languages The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ... Kongo or Kikongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Bakongo people living in the tropical forests of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Angola. ...


In 1937, while researching folklore in Haiti, Zora Neale Hurston encountered the case of Felicia Felix-Mentor, who had died and been buried in 1907 at the age of 29. Hurston pursued rumors that the affected persons were given powerful drugs, but she was unable to locate individuals willing to offer much information. She wrote: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ...

What is more, if science ever gets to the bottom of Voodoo in Haiti and Africa, it will be found that some important medical secrets, still unknown to medical science, give it its power, rather than gestures of ceremony.[4]

Several decades later, Wade Davis, a Canadian ethnobotanist, presented a pharmacological case for zombies in two books, The Serpent and the Rainbow (1985) and Passage of Darkness: The Ethnobiology of the Haitian Zombie (1988). Davis traveled to Haiti in 1982 and, as a result of his investigations, claimed that a living person can be turned into a zombie by two special powders being entered into the blood stream (usually via a wound). The first, coup de poudre (French: 'powder strike'), induced a 'death-like' state because of tetrodotoxin (TTX), its key ingredient. Tetrodotoxin is the same lethal toxin found in the Japanese delicacy fugu, or pufferfish. At near-lethal doses (LD50= 5-8µg/kg)[5], it can leave a person in a state of near-death for several days. The second powder, composed of dissociatives like datura, put the person in a zombie-like state where they seem to have no will of their own. Davis also popularized the story of Clairvius Narcisse, who was claimed to have succumbed to this practice. There is wide belief among the Haitian people of the existence of the "zombie drug". The Voodoon religion being somewhat secretive in its practices and codes, it can be very difficult for a foreign scientist to validate or invalidate such claims. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Edmund Wade Davis (born December 14, 1953) is a noted anthropologist and ethnobotanist whose work has usually focused on the observation and analysis of the customs, beliefs, and social relations of indigenous cultures in North and South America, particularly the traditional uses and beliefs associated with plants with psychoactive properties. ... An ethnobotanist is an ethnologist who studies relationships between people from various cultures and their plants. ... The Serpent and the Rainbow is a 1988 American horror film, directed by Wes Craven and starring Bill Pullman. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Tetrodotoxin (anhydrotetrodotoxin 4-epitetrodotoxin, tetrodonic acid, TTX) is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote, which blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the pores of the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes. ... Fuku redirects here. ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus For species see Genera articles. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically, but not necessarily, or limited to the physical senses. ... Species See text below Datura is a genus of 12-15 species of vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. ... Clairvius Narcisse was reported to be zombie. ...


Others have discussed the contribution of the victim's own belief system, possibly leading to compliance with the attacker's will, causing psychogenic ("quasi-hysterical") amnesia, catatonia, or other psychological disorders, which are later misinterpreted as a return from the dead. Scottish psychiatrist R. D. Laing further highlighted the link between social and cultural expectations and compulsion, in the context of schizophrenia and other mental illness, suggesting that schizogenesis may account for some of the psychological aspects of zombification. Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of the human mind, brain, and behavior. ... For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... This is a page about catatonic state. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... R.D.Laing; photo credit Robert E. Haraldsen Ronald David Laing (October 7, 1927–August 23, 1989), was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness and particularly the experience of psychosis. ...


Folklore

In the Middle Ages, it was commonly believed that the souls of the dead could return to earth and haunt the living. The belief in revenants (someone who has returned from the dead) is well documented by contemporary European writers of the time, such as William of Newburgh and Walter Map. According to the Encyclopedia of Things that Never Were[6], particularly in France during the Middle Ages, the revenant rises from the dead usually to avenge some crime committed against the entity, most likely a murder. The revenant usually took on the form of an emaciated corpse or skeletal human figure, and wandered around graveyards at night. The "draugr" of medieval Norse mythology were also believed to be the corpses of warriors returned from the dead to attack the living. The zombie appears in several other cultures worldwide, including China, Japan, the Pacific, India, and the Native Americans. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In the Middle Ages, the idea that souls of dead return to earth and haunt the living was commonly believed. ... William of Newburgh (1136?-1198?), also known as Nubrigensis, was a 12th century English historian, and monk, from Yorkshire. ... Walter Map (fl. ... A draugr (original Old Norse plural draugar, as used here, not draugrs), draug or draugen (Norwegian meaning the draug) is a corporeal undead from Norse mythology. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


The Epic of Gilgamesh of ancient Sumer includes a mention of zombies. Ishtar, in the fury of vengeance says: The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ...

Father give me the Bull of Heaven,
So he can kill Gilgamesh in his dwelling.
If you do not give me the Bull of Heaven,
I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld,
I will smash the doorposts, and leave the doors flat down,
and will let the dead go up to eat the living!
And the dead will outnumber the living![7] For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... The Bull of Heaven is the constellation we call Taurus. ...

Popular culture

A group of actors portraying zombies.
A group of actors portraying zombies.

Modern zombies, as portrayed in books, films, games, and haunted attractions, are quite different from both voodoo zombies and those of folklore. Modern zombies are typically depicted in popular culture as mindless, unfeeling monsters with a hunger for human flesh, a prototype established in the seminal 1968 film Night of the Living Dead. Typically, these creatures can sustain damage far beyond that of a normal, living human and can pass whatever syndrome that causes their condition onto others. A group of actors portraying zombies in a film Zombies are regularly encountered in horror- and fantasy-themed fiction and entertainment. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1365x2048, 478 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Zombie User:Toxic Ninja Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1365x2048, 478 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Zombie User:Toxic Ninja Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the 1968 film directed by George A. Romero. ...


Usually, zombies are not thralls to masters, as in White Zombie or the spirit-cult myths. Rather, modern zombies come in mobs and waves, seeking either flesh to eat or people to kill or infect. Typically, they show signs of physical decomposition such as rotting flesh, discolored eyes, and open wounds, and move with a slow, shambling gait. They are generally incapable of communication, showing no signs of personality or rationality. White Zombie is an American horror film, first released on August 4, 1932. ...


Modern zombies are closely tied to the idea of a zombie apocalypse, the collapse of civilization caused by a vast plague of undead. The ideas are now so strongly linked that zombies are rarely depicted within any other context. // For other uses, see Zombie apocalypse (disambiguation). ...


There are still significant differences among the depictions of zombies by various media; for one comparison see the contrasts between zombies by Night of the Living Dead authors George A. Romero and John A. Russo as they evolved in the two separate film series that followed. Living Dead is a blanket term for various films and series that all originated with the seminal 1968 zombie movie Night of the Living Dead created by George A. Romero and John A. Russo. ... George Andrew Romero (born February 4, 1940) is an American director, writer, editor and actor. ... John A. Russo (sometimes credited as Jack Russo or John Russo) is an American screenwriter and film director most commonly associated with the 1968 horror classic Night of the Living Dead. ...


Philosophy

Main article: Philosophical zombie

In philosophy of mind, zombies are hypothetical persons who lack full consciousness but have the biology or behavior of a normal human being; they are often used in thought experiments which make arguments against the identity of the mind and the brain. The term was coined by philosopher of mind David Chalmers. They are referred to as philosophical zombies or "p-zombies". [8] In philosophy, a philosophical zombie or p-zombie is a hypothetical person that, despite a strong likeness to normal human beings, lacks conscious experience or (in other words) has no qualia at all. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For the oil company owner, see David B. Chalmers. ... In philosophy, a philosophical zombie or p-zombie is a hypothetical person that, despite a strong likeness to normal human beings, lacks conscious experience or (in other words) has no qualia at all. ...


Social activism

Main article: Zombie walk
A participant in a Zombie Walk event in Calgary, Canada.
A participant in a Zombie Walk event in Calgary, Canada.

Some zombie fans continue the George A. Romero tradition of using zombies as a social commentary. Organized zombie walks, which are primarily promoted through word of mouth, are regularly staged in some countries. Usually they are arranged as a sort of surrealist performance art but they are occasionally put on as part of a unique political protest.[9] A participant in a zombie walk in Calgary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zombie_mob_participant. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zombie_mob_participant. ... A participant in a zombie walk in Calgary. ... This article is about the Canadian city. ... A participant in a zombie walk in Calgary. ...


The world's largest zombie walk was held on October 29, 2006 in Monroeville Mall in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the setting of Romero's original Dawn of the Dead film. The walk consisted of 894 attendees who all were instructed to bring canned food for a local food drive. [10] Monroeville Mall is a two-level, enclosed shopping mall in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, east of Pittsburgh. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... For the remake, see Dawn of the Dead (2004 film) For the song by Schoolyard Heroes, see The Funeral Sciences Dawn of the Dead (also known as George A. Romeros Dawn of the Dead, and Zombi internationally) is a 1978 American independent horror film, written and directed by George...


Other organizations such as Zombie Squad use the genre as a way to promote disaster preparedness and to encourage horror fans to become involved in their community, through volunteering or hosting zombie themed charity fundraisers. The official logo of the Zombie Squad organization. ...


References

Find more about zombie on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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Learning resources
  1. ^ a b Howstuffworks "How Zombies Work"
  2. ^ a b zombie - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  3. ^ Definition of zombie - Merriam-Webster's Student Dictionary
  4. ^ Gallaher, Tim (1997). Zora Neale Hurston, American Author
  5. ^ See tetrodotoxin
  6. ^ Michael Page and Robert Ingpen : Encyclopedia of Things That Never Were: Creatures, Places, and People, 1987. ISBN 0-14-010008-3
  7. ^ Kovacs, Maureen Gallery, transl. with intro. (1985,1989). The Epic of Gilgamesh. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. ISBN 0-8047-1711-7.  Glossary, Appendices, Appendix (Chapter XII=Tablet XII). A line-by-line translation (Chapters I-XI).}}
  8. ^ Chalmers, David. 1995. "Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness", Journal of Consciousness Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 200-219
  9. ^ Shopping Spree of the Dead!. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  10. ^ Donaldson, Bob, and Roberts, Larry. A walk with zombies, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 30, 2006.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Tetrodotoxin (anhydrotetrodotoxin 4-epitetrodotoxin, tetrodonic acid, TTX) is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote, which blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the pores of the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes. ... Michael Harry Page (born June 17, 1941) was an English cricketer. ... Timeline Born Geelong 1936 Educated at Geelong College 1957 Diploma of Graphic Art at RMIT 1958 Appointed as an artist at CSIRO to visually interpret and communicate the results of scientific research. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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