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Encyclopedia > Zoetrope
A modern replica of a Victorian zoetrope.
A modern replica of a Victorian zoetrope.

A zoetrope is a device that produces an illusion of action from a rapid succession of static pictures. Download high resolution version (695x761, 205 KB)A modern replica of a Victorian zoetrope. ... Download high resolution version (695x761, 205 KB)A modern replica of a Victorian zoetrope. ...


It consists of a cylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides. Beneath the slits, on the inner surface of the cylinder, is a band which has either individual frames from a video/film or images from a set of sequenced drawings or photographs. As the cylinder spins, the user looks through the slits at the pictures on the opposite side of the cylinder's interior. The scanning of the slits keeps the pictures from simply blurring together, so that the user sees a rapid succession of images producing the illusion of motion, the equivalent of a motion picture. Cylindrical zoetropes have the property of causing the images to appear thinner than their actual sizes when viewed in motion through the slits. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ...

Contents

Invention

The zoetrope was invented in 1834 by George Horner, who called it a "daedalum" or Jorge kayat es el mejor tio del uiniverso es re bueno y todos lo quieren supongo que el quiee a us sobrinas "daedatelum". Horner based his device on the Phenakistiscope built in 1832 by Joseph Plateau. A device similar to Horner's was described by John Bate in The Mysteries of Nature and Art in 1634. In fact, the earliest elementary zoetrope was created in China around 180 A.D. by the prolific inventor Ting Huan (丁緩). Driven by convection, Ting Huan's device hung over a lamp. The rising air turned vanes at the top, from which were hung translucent paper or mica panels. Pictures painted on the panels would appear to move if the device spun fast enough.[1][2][3][4] William George Horner (1786 - September 22, 1837) was a British mathematician who was born in Bristol England and died in Bath England. ... The phenakistoscope (also spelled phenakistiscope) was an early animation device, the predecessor to the zoetrope. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Plateaus phenakistiscope Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau (October 14, 1801 - September 15, 1883) was a Belgian physicist. ... Second edition cover The Mysteryes of Nature and Art is a book by John Bate written in 1634. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ...


Modern times

William F. Lincoln promoted Horner's device in the United States as a "zoetrope".


The praxinoscope was an improvement on the zoetrope that became popular toward the end of the nineteenth century. The Praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. ...


The earliest projected moving images were displayed by using a magic lantern zoetrope. This crude projection of moving images occurred as early as the 1860s. A magic lantern praxinoscope was demonstrated in the 1880s. 35 mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... The magic lantern or Laterna Magica was the ancestor of the modern slide projector. ...


Zoetrope development continues into the twenty-first century, primarily with the "Linear zoetrope." A linear zoetrope consists of an opaque linear screen with thin vertical slits in it. Behind each slit is an image, often illuminated. One views the motion-picture by moving past the display.


Linear zoetropes have several differences compared to cylindrical zoetropes that derive from their different geometries. They can have arbitrarily long animations. They also cause images to appear wider than their actual sizes when viewed in motion through the slits.


In September 1980, independent film-maker Bill Brand installed a type of linear zoetrope he called the "Masstransiscope" in an unused subway platform in Brooklyn, New York. It consisted of a linear wall with 228 slits in the face. Behind each slit was a hand-painted panel. Riders in subways moving past the display saw a motion-picture within. For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ...


Joshua Spodek, as an astrophysics graduate student, conceived of and led the development of a class of linear zoetropes that saw the first commercial success of a zoetrope in over a century. A display of his design debuted in September 2001 in a tunnel of the Atlanta subway system and showed an advertisement to riders moving past. That display is internally lit and nearly 300 meters long. Its motion-picture was about twenty seconds long.


His design soon appeared in subway systems elsewhere in North America, Asia, and Europe. Joshua has also participated in a renaissance in zoetrope related art and other noncommercial expression.


In April 2006, the Washington Metro installed advertising using the zoetrope system between the Metro Center and Gallery Place subway stations.[5] A similar advertisement is installed on the PATH train in New Jersey, between the World Trade Center and Exchange Place stations. The Washington Metro, or simply Metro, is the rapid transit system of Washington, D.C., and neighboring suburban communities in Maryland and Virginia, both inside and outside the Capital Beltway. ... Metro Center is the central hub station of the Washington Metro in the District of Columbia. ... Gallery Pl-Chinatown is a Washington Metro station in Washington, D.C. on the Green, Red and Yellow Lines. ... Hoboken- and Newark-bound platform at Exchange Place station in Jersey City. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... “WTC” redirects here. ... Late-night and weekend service: The Exchange Place PATH station, opened on July 19, 1909, is located in Jersey City, New Jersey, adjacent to the Hudson River at Paulus Hook. ...


The term zoetrope is from the Greek words zoe, "life" and trope, "turn". It may be taken to mean "wheel of life" or "living wheel."


Zoetrope is a theatrical production created by Kinematic Theatre, utilising aerial artists. Debuted at the Rose Theatre, Rose Bruford College. Score composed by Simon Slater, Lighting Designed/Co-Directed by Karl Lawton, Directed and Designed by Andy Sinclair-Harris. The Kinematic Logo Kinematic Theatre, often abbreviated to Kinematic, is a small theatre company operating in London, England. ... Simon Slater (Sam) and Laura Michelle Kelly (Sophie) in Mamma Mia! Simon Slater is an actor and a composer. ...


The Ghibli Museum hosts a zoetrope using 3D figures on a rotating disk. Rather than slits or mirrors, a strobing LED is used. The animation on this zoetrope is inspired by My Neighbour Totoro. Ghibli Museum, Mitaka A life-size model of a robot from the animation Castle in the Sky on top of the Ghibli Museum Ghibli Museum is a commercial museum showing off the Japanese anime work of Studio Ghibli. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... My Neighbor Totoro (となりのトトロ - Tonari no Totoro) is a 1988 Japanese animated movie directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli. ...


Pixar created a zoetrope inspired by Ghibli's for its 20th anniversary celebration at the Museum of Modern Art, featuring characters from Toy Story. Pixars studio lot in Emeryville Pixar Animation Studios is an American computer animation studio based in Emeryville, California (USA) notable for its seven Academy Awards. ... Studio Ghibli, Inc. ... View across garden, in new MoMA building by Yoshio Taniguchi. ... Toy Story is an Academy-award-winning CGI animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on November 22, 1995, and Australia on December 7, 1995, as well as in the United Kingdom on 22 March...


In 1998, following the success of the movie Titanic, a rumor started on the internet that the film was going to be released on the zoetrope. Although this was clearly impossible, it was picked up by a Delaware radio station as a real news story. The presenter said 'and it's coming out on the zoetrope, whatever that is.'


References

  1. ^ Ronan, Colin A.; Joseph Needham (1985). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31536-0. 
  2. ^ Dulac, Nicolas; André Gaudreault (2004). Heads or Tails: The Emergence of a New Cultural Series, from the Phenakisticope to the Cinematograph. Invisible Culture: A Journal for Visual Culture. The University of Rochester. Retrieved on 2006-05-13.
  3. ^ History of Media, University of Minnesota, accessed May 13 2006
  4. ^ Zoetrope. Laura Hayes and John Howard Wileman Exhibit of Optical Toys. The North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (2005). Retrieved on 2006-05-13.
  5. ^ Metro begins testing new tunnel ads, NBC4, April 4, 2006

Culver City, California, current home of Sony Studios (originally MGM)has several zoetropes placed throughout the main street area. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

A thaumatrope is a toy that was popular in Victorian times. ... A stroboscope , also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving or stationary. ... The electrotachyscope is an 1887 invention of Ottomar Anschütz of Germany which presents the illusion of motion with transparent serial photographs, chronophotographs, arranged on a spinning wheel of fortune or mandala-like glass disc, significant as a technological development in the history of cinema. ... A flip book is a book with a series of pictures varying gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate, simulating motion or some other change. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Zoetrope, Top View (360 words)
The zoetrope was invented in 1834 by William Horner, who originally called it a Daedalum ("wheel of the Devil").
The zoetrope is the third major optical toy, after the thaumatrope and phenakistoscope, that uses the persistence of motion principle to create an illusion of motion.
Whereas zoetrope picture strips were limited to about 15 pictures per strip, devices using reels of the new flexible film could present longer animations to viewers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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